Reshoots

The shooting schedule for a film is prescribed at 60-70 days. When a UPM figures the length of the shooting schedule, a fairly accurate, educated guess determines that decision. So many factors are considered that any one of them has the potential to shift and consequently affect the others. Making the schedule is the positive attitude everyone adopts throughout the shooting process, and it is rarely compromised. In cases of mechanical failure, accident, or natural disaster, days are lost and...

Accommodation Preferences

HOTEL ROOM LOCATION Ground Level In the Back Near the Front No Preference BED SIZE King Queen Two Beds IF AVAILABLE, I WOULD LIKE THE FOLLOWING IN MY ROOM Refrigerator d Microwave Extra Rollaway d Desk Modem Line The above information is solely for Production Office records and will be kept strictly confidential. A Stephen A. Marinaccio II form

Ad

Back projection A photographic technique whereby live action is filmed in front of a transparent screen onto which background action is projected. Back projection was often used to provide the special effect of motion in vehicles during dialogue scenes, but has become outmoded and replaced by blue-screen processing and traveling mattes. Back projection is also known as rear projection, process photography, or process shot as opposed to matte shot. Example...

Also miniature shot or model

Small-scale models photographed to give the illusion that they are full-scale objects. Example The spacecraft in 2001 A Space Odyssey (1968). A French phrase literally meaning, putting in the scene in physical or spatial terms within the frame. In film theory, it refers to staging action that covers or records an entire scene within the frame of the film, and the arrangement, composition, and content of the visual elements before the camera, usually in a long-shot, including settings, decor,...

Archiving

An art director's principal activity after the last formal day of shooting is archiving, as it provides the basis for the other categories included in this section. This process should have been an ongoing one since your first weeks in the art department, and it concludes with the organizing of final documents and images into both the art department production manual and its digital counterpart in database format. With the continued help of the art coordinator and archivist, this final task can...

Art Department Production Tasks

The first day of principal photography marks the first day of the production or shooting process, normally ranging from 60-70 days, but at times extending to a year. It is a time when the camera stops only at scheduled intervals like national holidays and for few emergencies. Otherwise, the course of the film is driven by the shooting schedule. FELLOW AMERICANS 1996 Warner Bros., a division of Time Warner Entertainment Company, L.P. All Rights Reserved. FELLOW AMERICANS 1996 Warner Bros., a...

Aspect ratio

The numerical relationship of the height and width of the image frame used in film and television. There are several standard aspect ratios used internationally The Academy Aperture is 1.33 1 European standard wide screen is 1.66 1 American standard wide screen is 1.85 1 the 70 mm frame is 2.2 1 and the anamorphic ratio is 2.35 1. The most common aspect ratio found through the 1950s was called Academy Aperture, at a ratio of 1.33 1 the same as 4 3 on a TV screen. Normal 35 mm films are shot at...

B

Figure 3-9 A) CG model of interior newsstand set for The Terminal. B) Set shot of interior set for The Terminal showing elliptical backing and reflective ceiling. Courtesy of Alex McDowell. Photograph by Merrick Morton for the motion picture The Terminal 2004 DreamWorks L.L.C., reprinted with permission by DreamWorks L.L.C. Figure 3-10 A) CG model of the exterior of the terminal set for The Terminal. B) Aerial view of JFK airport showing CG addition (circled) for The Terminal. Courtesy of Alex...

Iyn

Back (rear) projection, 98, 115-116, 307 Backings, 165-166, 263 Barry, Barbara, 237-238 Basecamp, 307 Below-the-line, 307 Berger, Linda, 5-6, 54-55, 58-59, 219-221 Billing, 3, 307 Biltmore Estate, color plate 6-13, 151 Bi-pack contact matte printing, 95-98 Bissell, Jim, 153, 156 Blocked, defined, 307 Blown Away, 106-107 Bluelines, 308 Bluescreen, 98, 99, 100, 308 Bobbinette, 308 Body of Evidence, 141-143, 145 Bolla, Dana, 29 Books, reference, 248-252, 253 Borders and legs, 308 Box rental, 308...

Backings

This is a short list but a comprehensive one. Once you've investigated the Web sites and understand the range of possibilities, this list won't look so small. Pacific Studios catalogues make up for their lack of a Web site. The custom translite service they provide is peerless. Please note that while the following list is current, there is no guarantee as to how long any individual Web site will remain valid. Also note that providing you with this list does not constitute an endorsement of any...

Beginning The Design Process

As locations are being photographed, the designer, storyboard artists, concept illustrators, concept modelers, and physical model makers are rapidly producing sketch ideas and 3D models in order to distill a visual concept. Computer generated imagery, CGI, has accelerated this process of visualization. As newer technology tools become available to creative artists, the design process will become redefined as it has within the past decade. The following pages will demonstrate that both...

Breaking Ground

A lover of cinematic history can easily appreciate the efforts of those early visionaries who contributed to the digital moviemaking tradition now more than 20 years old. Back in the late 70's the Internet was referred to as ARPANET, Microsoft was still a fledgling company, and video games were found in experimental form, offered as Atari VCS and Mattel's Intellivision. In 1981, production designer Dean Mitzner (1941, Nine to Five, Looker, Princess Daisy, The Man with One Red Shoe, Charmed) had...

Buckland Filmography

Wilfred Buckland's filmography lists him as Art Director, Production Designer, Art Department, Second Unit Director or Assistant Director, and Miscellaneous Crew. This list was compiled from The Internet Movie Database, click www.imdb.com and AFI Catalog of Silent Films, click These films are worth watching. Amarilly of Clothes-Line Alley (1918) Conrad in Quest of His Youth (1920) Cruise of the Make-Believes, The (1918) Don't Change Your Husband (1919) Girl of the Golden West, The (1915)

Budget

Gone With the Wind (1939) was considered a blockbuster in its time. Cleopatra (1963), adjusted for current inflation rates, was the most expensive movie ever made at the end of the twentieth century its budget of 44 million is equivalent to 270 million in 1999 dollars. Current blockbuster budgets range from 180 to 280 million. Typical Hollywood studios consider making 18-30 films per year for budgets ranging from 40 to 80 million. Inflated actor salaries and the high cost of marketing are...

Call Sheet

The Call Sheet is a daily reminder of expectations and activities, planned for the shooting crew and remains the responsibility of the 2nd AD (see Appendix D). It includes scenes to be shot that day, the weather forecast, and shooting location, and also lists by department all crew and actors either needed on set or expected to be on stand-by during various times of the day. It is the final, printed, daily version of the more general Shooting Schedule previously distributed, and it demands...

Camera Info

Lens 21 mm Duration 6 sec (140 fr) Notes 1316 1 2 Abbot Kinney Blvd. Venice, CA 90291 (310) 396-9854 Phone (310) 396-9874 Fax 1316 1 2 Abbot Kinney Blvd. Venice, CA 90291 (310) 396-9854 Phone (310) 396-9874 Fax Figure 3-7B Elevator chase Get 'em animatic, created by Pixel Liberation Front 2000. PANIC ROOM 2002 Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. All Rights Reserved Courtesy of Columbia Pictures. Note Technocrane W Millenium XL Underslung. THIRD FLOOR HALLWAY SECTION (End Position

CGI and Digital Filmmaking

If anything can be certain about the future, it is that the influence of technology, especially digital technology, will continue to grow and to profoundly change how we express ourselves, how we communicate with each other and how we perceive, think about and interact with our world. These mediating technologies are only in the first stages of their modern evolution they are still crude, unwieldy, unpersonalized and poorly matched to the human needs of their users. Their fullest development in...

Clarification

In Chapter 1, a distinction was drawn between the production designer and the art director in terms of definition, function, and areas of overlap. Within the world of effects, distinctions must also be made. As you might already imagine, visual effects are vastly different from special effects. The former is created on a computer screen, the latter happens in the physical world. Still, these terms are used interchangeably in error. Like the term art director, special effects has been a term...

Computer Modeling

Architecture has traditionally provided the original source for visualizing the constructed form through the disciplines of model making and drafting to the film industry. It has taken the lead in its use of the most sophisticated software now available to the individual designer. The film industry has quickly adopted its previsualization methods by empowering the art department's ability to explore the structural possibilities of sets before they are built. What was once only achievable in...

Contents

SECTION I Pre-Production Process 1 Some History Wilfred Buckland 6 Digital Competition 12 Typecasting A Fuller Picture 13 Two Paths 17 Design Managers The Lifers 17 Production Designers-in-Embryo 17 Chapter 2 The Responsibilities, The Relationships, and the Setup 21 Hierarchy of Responsibilities 21 First Responsibilities 21 Second Responsibilities 23 Third Responsibilities 24 Fourth Responsibilities 26 The Relationships 27 Art Department 27 Interdepartmental PR 28 Head Accountant and Staff 28...

Contract Services

The Roster, a listing of available art directors in good standing in the Art Directors Guild, Local 800, is maintained by the Contract Services Administrative Trust Fund (CSATF) and is separate and apart from the Guild. To get onto the Roster, one must apply to Contract Services and have worked on a total of no less than 30 days for one or more signatory companies within the one-year period immediately preceding application for Roster placement. Contract Services also arranges health care,...

Cover Sets

Weather conditions can be one of the few things altering or stopping the shooting schedule altogether, and must be avoided at all costs. The art department is directly responsible for keeping the shoot on schedule by providing cover sets. An art director does not accomplish this alone. Assistance from locations, production, and the directorial staff help forecast and communicate changes in weather and scheduling tactics. Ideally, cover sets are established early during pre-production and are...

Cutouts A Variation on Miniatures

Design work on White Sands (1992) filmed in Alamagordo, NM at the National Monument required miniature building and an explosion. The restrictions of this fragile location were 1) No vehicles allowed on the pristine, white gypsum sand, 2) Wind gusts were a regular, unexpected occurrence, 3) A limited timeframe was strictly enforced to complete our work and leave without a trace, or face stiff penalties. Shot An arms-operative fired a shoulder missile at a tank in the near distance to prove the...

Hsa

Beach Boatyard Greens Graham House, i st Floor Beach Boatyard Greens Graham House, i st Floor Florida Highway Ocean w Customs Launch Sailboat at Sea FBI Headquarters (establishing) FBI Helicopter over Potomac FBI Helicopter JW Marriott (establishing) Tie in to 2nd Floor Graham Hse Studio Set. Tie in to INT FBI Offices Locatton(LA). Tie in to INT FBI Helicopter (DC) Tie in to EXT Helipad Location (LA) Tie in to INT Marriott Hotel Rm Studio Set,

Day Out of Days

This chart called a Day Out of Days (see Appendix D) almost always pertains to actor working schedules. It is significant for an art director to use as a guide for special equipment, such as boats, vehicles, planes, or other craft, on pictures that specify their continuous use. This is a particularly good tool for refining hero detailing in conjunction with the Shooting Schedule so that no item is forgotten. My Fellow Americans ONELINE SCHEDULE Shoot Day J37 Wed, May 15. 3 996 Shoot Day J37...

Designing For The Lens

Nothing we do can happen without light it enables the entire operation of the motion picture process. Insufficient light compels the gaffers to make it adequate and operable for the cinematographer. Sufficient light showcases the scenery, the costumes, and actors wearing them. Light is also the critical element driving movie cameras, theater projectors, and computer monitors. The entire movie industry is built around light as a stimulus, the manipulation of light, and light as the delivery...

Designing Indie Films

In some ways Indie movie production is a smaller scale version of its commercial Hollywood counterpart otherwise, it operates as its own animal. Financial constraints force low budget production to be infinitely more creative in format and style, compelling those involved to adopt a more realistic attitude. A smaller, leaner, optimal crew inspires greater creative intimacy and multi-tasking. Creative restrictions force all participants to make decisions out of practicality. Overall, it is an...

Directors Plans

The art department PA reduces, photocopies, collates, and delivers every set scheduled to be shot from its original 24' x 36' blueprinted format (typical) onto an 81 2' x 11', three-hole paper format. A small booklet of plans is distributed to all key people in the production office, shooting crew, and art department who need access to the footprint of every location and onstage studio set. Final distribution of the director's plans packet happens at the final production meeting. For those who...

Ydm

Eddie Brandt's Saturday Matinee, 54 Education, 73, 212-213, 222, 235 Ellipsis, 310 Employment eligibility verification form, 274-276 Equipment art department, 23-24, 33, 35-36 for scouting, 48, 52 See also Computer equipment Escape to Athena, 104-105 Experimental film, 237-238, 310-311 Exposition, 311 Exterior scenery construction, 150-163 budget for, 161 drafting, 150-153 greenscaping, 153-155, 162-163 storyboarding and, 153, 158 timeline for, 157 topographic survey, 152, 154 typical day...

Employers Must Retain Completed Form I Please Do Not Mail Completed Form I To

Immigration and Naturalization Service Please read instructions carefully before completing this form. The instructions must be available during completion of this form. ANTI-DISCRIMINATION NOTICE It is illegal to discriminate against work eligible individuals. Employers CANNOT specify which document(s) they will accept from an employee. The refusal to hire an individual because of a future expiration date may also constitute illegal discrimination. Section 1. Employee Information and...

Endnotes

Linda Berger interview with the author, 8 16 04, N. Hollywood, CA. 2. Mann, William J, 2002. Behind the Screen How Gays and Lesbians Shaped Hollywood, 1910-1969. New York Viking Press, page 32. (ISBN 0142001147). 3. Brownlouw, Kevin, 1968. The Parade's Gone By. Berkeley, Los Angeles University of California Press, page 180. (ISBN 0520030680). 5. Since the Art Directors Guild adopted its new name, it has merged since 2003 with two other IATSE guilds Scenic Artists, and Title and Graphic Artists,...

FAQs

I am constantly asked a handful of questions that might be of help here Do I need a degree to work in the art department No, a degree for art department work is not necessary. Solid training in a reputable film school or university or college film program or art school is preferred the degree is secondary to the school attended and academic training experience. Which are the best education choices With film design in mind, a school choice should complement your personality and needs. A film...

Fifth Scouts

For one reason or another, locations change at the last minute. In terms of scenery, this can pose a problem because much of it is retrofitted for a particular location. Practicality dictates that whatever can be salvaged from scenery already designed and completed is used in the new location new retrofits are discussed as additional budget items and are always approved by the UPM as overages in golden time man-hours in order to get the new scenery done on time. In addition, directorial changes...

Filmmakers Code Of Ethics

When filming in a neighborhood or business district, proper notification is to be provided to each merchant or neighbor who is directly affected by the company (this includes parking, base camps, and meal areas). Attached to the filming notification distributed to the neighborhood, the following should be included c. Kind of production, e.g., feature film, movie of the week, TV pilot, etc. d. Type of activity and duration, i.e., times, dates, and number of days, including prep and strike e....

Filmpocket Listings

My invention, FILM-POCKET LISTINGS, developed over ten years of keeping lists both online and off-line. The listing contains a handful of helpful categories to jumpstart searches. Originally, it filled one page and folded neatly into a back pocket before I bought a PDA. But it's still handy. For the most part, it's abbreviated to be quick without extra infor- mation just a description and a Web site address. Additional data, i.e., phone, address exists on each Web site.

First Responsibilities

An art director's initial relationship to the production designer is as intense and short-lived as most film project relationships. Anyone who has experienced summer camp as a child understands this dynamic. First encounters on a new film project are driven by the personal need to establish a sense of belonging to a special group, your department, and a political need to define one's place in the psychological hierarchy of the film. The bond between the prime art department figureheads the PD...

Fourth Responsibilities

The final reporting relationship discussed here is with the studio, its representative the UPM, and the film project in general. It tends to be a more straightforward relationship because it is a business relationship the superimposed layers of creativity and artifice do not as easily compound the business of making art as do previously discussed responsibilities. The UPM and the studio are interested in film as product. As a commodity, a project's focus is about getting the best quality...

Frames per second also fps

Present-day films are usually run through a camera or projector at a frame rate, that is, running speed or camera speed of 24 fps. Older films, made at 18 fps, appear jerky and sped-up when played back at 24 fps this technique is referred to as undercranking. Overcranking refers to changing the frame rate, i.e., shooting at 48 or 96 fps, thereby producing slow-motion action when viewed at 24fps. Example The William Tell Overture sequence in A Clockwork Orange (1971) is an example of...

Duz

Gaffer, 311 Gate matting, 90-95 Gear list, 247-248 Gimbals, 172-173, 311 Girard, Stephanie, 155, 157 Glass mattes, 88-90, 91, 126 Gnomon, 73 Gone With the Wind, 9 Grant McCune Design, 109 Gray, John, 25 Graysmark, John forced perspective sketches, 107 front projection, 111, 113, 114 hanging foreground miniature, 102, 105 painted glass technique, 89, 91 Green, Colin, 60, 68, 126, 128-130 Green light, 312 Greenscaping, color plates 6-20, 6-21, 6-24, 153-155, 162-163 Greenscreen, 100, 312...

Handling Changes

Developing an operational plan flexible enough to withstand small and large scale shifts is practical. Most of the changes are likely to occur within the building and finishing stages of scenery production, once the designing process on the page is done. For instance, repainting an interior set is an inconvenient task that disrupts the timeline. Because the construction crewmembers have already been assigned to a given number of sets, additional crew would...

Icon Iconic

(Gr. eikono- < eikon, image) A simile or symbol. An icon is an image that is what it is. Human emotions captured on the screen are icons that can be read in any language they are universal. When we watch Roberto Benigni (Life Is Beautiful) win the 1998 Academy Award for best actor, we understood joy. In the language of film, which includes semiology, or the study of systems of signs, there is a signifier and the signified. An icon is a sign in which the signifier (image) represents the...

Index

One of three signs or metaphorical imagery used in film language. As an image, a sign presumes a sign(ifier) and that which is sign(ified) within the visual syntax of a film. A sign or visual image can be 1) an Icon or an image that is what it is a screaming face is horror or 2) an Index, an image that suggests an inherent relationship a wad of bills given to a prostitute or 3) a Symbol, an image representing a meaning through convention a flag symbolizes patriotism. Semantics, you say Yes,...

Info

Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 5 15 96 A.D. Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 5 15 96 Set Des Design Completion Date 4 1 A.D. Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 6 2 96 A.D. Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 6 2 96 Set Des Design Completion Date A.D. Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 5 22 96 A.D. Michael Rizzo Shoot Date 5 22 96 Set Des Design Completion Date 4 5 96

Interdepartmental PR

Before I begin my first day of work on a film, usually on the same day I interview with the UPM to set up my deal memo and corresponding perk package, I make a beeline to the head accountant's office. This is a vital PR stop more than anything else. Making friends with the head accountant beforehand positively ensures that payroll will happen effortlessly that vendor checks might be assured to happen within a 24-hour turnaround and that a healthy communication channel is established. Nurturing...

Interviewing

Production designers expect loyalty, amenability, creative thinking, leadership, follow-through, and attention to detail. Unit production managers expect attention to detail, follow-through, leadership, budget focus, frugality, and flexibility. Notice the overlaps and the outliers. Tweaking the outlier attributes addresses the niche market you happen to be playing to at the moment the middle range or overlapping attributes cover the normal range. These guidelines are worth thinking about before...

Keeping a Chronicle

Entering daily agenda data into a PDA is a foolproof way to chronicle art department events. A Palm Pilot is an indispensable organizing tool but backup detail is also important. Even if blessed with a photographic memory, a written documentation of a phone conversation with a vendor or crewmember will help jog a memory working on overtime, recalling data items like budget figures and shooting schedule details. You can't remember everything so put it down on paper or save it electronically as...

Keeping Ahead of the Camera

Once the camera begins to roll, it remains faithful to its relentless shooting schedule. During the shoot, focus is on the set. It is the job of the art director to remain far ahead of the shooting timeline while supplying the daily needs of the shooting crew in terms of scenery or special props and effects listed on the daily call sheet. The goal is to make the shoot as smooth as possible despite unexpected changes or events that will occur. This goal can only be attained if a solid,...

L

LA411, 166-167 Lasky lighting, 6, 8 Lens, designing for, 78-85 Lens choice, 102-103, 130 Lenses, terminology, 79 Lens test, 84-85 Libraries, 53-54, 86, 165, 256 Lifeforce, 111, 113 Lighting, 6-9, 78-79 Lillian Michelson Research Library, 54, 86 Locations folder, 44-45, color plate 3-1

La Soundstages

This list is credited to the Entertainment Industry Development Corporation, Please note that while the following list is current, there is no guarantee as to how long any individual Web site will remain valid. Also note that providing you with this list does not constitute an endorsement of any of the Web sites nor the services, claims they offer. Michael Rizzo 12 2004

Landing the Next Job or Taking a Vacation

The instability of keeping actively employed in the movie industry compels most lifers to accept whatever projects are offered in order to remain solvent. The mixture of a slight bit of workaholic ethic and superstition prevents the enjoyment of our time off between jobs there are few people who actually know how to relax and catch a breath. For some, working on location is vacation enough for others, the buzz of just doing what they love day in and out, precludes the thought of some time off....

Lens Test

Fig. 3-14 displays a series of lens tests taken to determine the best establishing shot for the scenery elevation photographed in the example. A previously drawn landscape plan was used to reference general distances from the front porch overhang. Subsequent lens tests were taken at 18 mm at 120', 25 mm at 130', 35 mm at 190', and 50mm at 284'. Close inspection of the photo samples reveal more foreground detail with the widest lens shown, although there is greater background detail and texture...

List B

Alien Registration Receipt Card with photograph (INS Form I-151 or I-551) 6. Unexpired Temporary Card (INS Form I-688) 7. Unexpired Employment Authorization Card (INS Form I-688A) 8. Unexpired Reentry Permit (INS Form I-327) 9. Unexpired Refugee Travel Document (INS Form I-571) 10. Unexpired Employment Authorization Document issued by the INS which contains a photograph (INS Form I-688B)

List C

Documents that Establish Employment Eligibility Driver's license or ID card issued by a state or outlying possession of the United States provided it contains a photograph or information such as name, date of birth, sex, height, eye color and address ID card issued by federal, state or local government agencies or entities, provided it contains a photograph or information such as name, date of birth, sex, height, eye color and address 6. Military dependent's ID card 7. U.S. Coast Guard Merchant...

Minding the Budget

Adjustment reflects the dynamic nature of a set budget. Set overages will occur as a result of directorial request, acts of God, or actor availability, but usually happen as a result of a director modifying a creative decision. Consider the following scenario The original decision to digitally film sections of a hero house in flames changes ten days before shooting. Having watched several films as reference during late pre-production phase, the director and cinematographer decide that...

Mobile Miniatures

Mobile miniatures demand that attention be paid to time-scale relationships, i.e., the laws of physics, namely gravity, buoyancy, velocity, and friction. Speed (1994), a recent, high-concept action-adventure designed by Jackson De Govia, showcased the most excellent use of miniatures as it addressed three laws of inertia, velocity, and friction. This is expressed in two prominent miniature sets an L.A. skyscraper elevator shaft and a section of the L.A. Metro subway train. Once research and...

Montage

Literally, putting together refers to a filming technique, editing style, or form of movie collage consisting of a series of successive short shots or images that are rapidly juxtaposed into a coherent sequence to suggest meaning, i.e., dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and wipes are often used to link the images in a montage sequence. An accelerated montage is composed of shots of increasingly shorter lengths. Example The breakfast scene in Citizen Kane (1941), the ambush scene in Bonnie and...

N

Figure 3-4 A) Solar anti-mosquito guard, B) Magnetic angle locator, C) Fly catcher strip, D) Professional Measure Master II , E) Suunto inclination device, F) Digital distance indicator, G) Scale Master Classic digital plan measure, H) Rulers flat architectural scale ruler, three-sided architectural scale ruler, and a wooden scissor-extension ruler (diagonal). A 12-diameter measuring wheelie with an extendable tube makes measuring over terrain easy up to 999' without the use of a 500' cloth...

Nasa

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Arnes Research Center Mountain View, CA 94035-1000 For Release Immediately Photo No. AC89-0097-15 THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS A GOVERNMENT PUBLICATION - NOT SUBJECT TO COPYRIGHT. This photograph may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA or any NASA employee of a commercial product, scrvice, or activity, or used in any other manner that might mislead. NASA should be acknowledged as the sourcc of this photograph. It is unlawful to falsely claim...

Networking and Self Promotion

This category is a purely selfish one. Networking is how we create careers. It incorporates every aspect of our managing skills and our personalities into what an interviewer sees and how this person is convinced to hire us. Self-promotion is a place where you get to be the product or service. If you were going to market yourself, how would you begin Probably the best way is to define your target audience. The production designer is your obvious target market, but you will also be interviewing...

OnSet Presence

During the shoot, an art director's task list becomes longer as the length of the day remains the same. The shorthand communication already established within your working relationships during the pre-production phase becomes an asset in getting the expanding job done. Wireless phones as prime communicating devices enhance the speed of receiving and exchanging of information. While art directing on Vanilla Sky, we were first introduced to the newest line of Nextel cell phone walkie talkies now...

Paperwork and Production Tasks

Film production companies generate stacks of paper during the activity of delivering a film product to the studio. Script revisions run the gamut of white, blue, pink, yellow, green, goldenrod, buff, salmon, cherry, tan, gray, and ivory. The remainder takes the shape of contracts, forms, lists, and memos. The good news is most production companies provide large recycling bins for the waste the sobering news is an art director will fill at least two three-hole, four-inch binders per show. Super...

Parlor Level Hallway Plan

1316 1*2 Abbot Kinney Elvd Venice CA 90291 1316 1*2 Abbot Kinney Elvd Venice CA 90291 Figure 3-7D Discovery Basketball animatic, created by Pixel Liberation Front 2000. PANIC ROOM 2002 Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Courtesy of Columbia Pictures. architecture, and the track needed to fit on the staircase but not be in the shot. The Gazelle camera system is the one that fulfilled all of those restrictions.5 The balance of the Colin Green interview concludes in Chapter 5...

Past Changes

The function and title of art direction continued into the next decades before the landscape of the art department was changed forever. Since Buckland's inauguration, Hollywood's creative visual managers were simply called art directors. Each of the existing studios including 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, and Warner Brothers contained stables of art directors overseen by a supervising art department head. The paradigm shift began in 1939 during...

Pda

20GB+ capacity CD-RW burner DVD-RW burner Infrared download capability WI-FI capability Adobe Photoshop CS Adobe Illustrator CS Adobe Acrobat 7 Betacam SP quality & a fraction of the price Macromedia Flash MX Appropriate back-up discs for EVERYTHING Shirt pocket size 3.2 x 5.4 x 0.9 Weight 8 ounces Extra charged batteries for EVERYTHING

Perspective

This final application of depth of field, aperture, and aspect ratio can now be explained in graphic terms. One-point perspective tells us that all outlines of object surfaces in the picture plane converge to the same vanishing point on the horizon this is called convergence. From this we can draw a parallel in terms of how the focal length of a lens determines the degree of convergence in a photographic image. An art director can use the angle of view for a lens to determine graphically the...

Please Read All Instructions Carefully Before Completing This Form

It is illegal to discriminate against any individual (other than an alien not authorized to work in the U.S.) in hiring, discharging, or recruiting or referring for a fee because of that individual's national origin or citizenship status. It is illegal to discriminate against work eligible individuals. Employers CANNOT specify which document(s) they will accept from an employee. The refusal to hire an individual because of a future expiration date may also constitute...

Present Changes

Several years ago, the Art Directors' Guild in Los Angeles was in a minor uproar when the title of our union, Local 876, had come up for review and subsequent vote by the membership. As we have just seen, the battle of who's who had gone on intermittently in an informal way during the many years since Hollywood's Golden Age. A handful of committed members called for a formal discussion and vote to resolve the squabbling for a truly descriptive title for the Guild, once and for all. After a...

Production Meetings

The final production meeting is a formal, well-structured event held at the end of the pre-production phase. The first assistant director presides over the meeting. It is well publicized and requires the mandatory presence of all department heads and their assistants. The meeting opens with brief, round table introductions, then proceeds directly to an item-by-item review of the one-liner schedule and shooting schedule, highlighted in Figs. 8-5 and 8-6 and Appendix D Production Lists,...

Production Value Budgeting Scheduling

A designer is hired to develop the visual aesthetic of a film. S he also gets to be art director, set designer draftsperson, prop person, mechanical effects supervisor, set decorator, and shopper. Multi-tasking creates long lists, but it affords the eager designer near total visual control. Insist on as many bodies to inhabit the art department as possible and be organized enough to use everyone. In the commercial film arena, an art director is required to think like a director in the realm of...

Protecting the Crew

In general terms, the well-being of the art department crew, including the production designer, must be ensured. Optimal physical and psychological conditions enhance optimal performance. Obstacles need to be constantly removed, even to the point of providing comic relief to cut the level of stress and promote a positive working vibe. Quote of the day, shared emails, and contests keep the laughs coming and the atmosphere relaxed. Creatives seem to work best in this type of minimal stress,...

R

Rear (back) projection, 98, 115-116, 307 Relationships, 27-32, 221-222. See also Networking Rental backings, 165-166 Rental inventory, 272 Research art department coordinator and, 35 in design process, 53-59 for historical films, 54-59 libraries, 53-54, 86, 165, 256 for My Fellow Americans, 150, 160 for science-based films, 173 Re-shoots, 208-209, 317 Retrofit, defined, 317 Retrofitting in interior set construction, 141-143 of locations, 43, 48, 49 Right-to-work states, 225, 317 Rizzo, Michael,...

Rear Projection And Mirrors

The 2001 A Space Odyssey art department also employed some good examples of the rear projection technique. All of the graphics displayed in various monitors in the Pod bay of the lunar shuttle set, as well as the activity in the windows of the lunar base miniatures, were mini-movies shot in 16 mm for those smaller screens. The graphic geometry, animated by Doug Trumbull, technical graphic animator, was shot for the 16 mm rear projection monitors in these sets and seen as animations in real time...

Research

Painting Lillian Michelson

Research reveals additional information to the designer and art director as they refine the film's visual concept. OK, but what is a visual concept It is shorthand for a longer explanation it abbreviates words into symbols, metaphors, or indexes it is an image that defines the central idea of a movie. Do all films have a central idea They should and they are presented in iconic terms. Why do you do this Core images provide coherence and continuity for a film. It is the aesthetic glue that...

S

Safety, in special effects, 171-172 Saklad, Steve, 18-19, 217-218 Scenery changes to, 203, 204, 205-206 mechanical effects and, 170-178, 182 pre-built, 165 construction, 3 See also Sets Scenery construction delegation and, 137-138 expense of changes in, 137, 203-204, 205-206 total quality management in, 137-138 vendors, 164-168, 205, 229, 252 See also Exterior scenery construction Interior scenery construction Scenic artist, 38-39 Schedules and lists, 189, 190-197 Schmidli Backdrops, 166...

Second Responsibilities

The art department is home away from home, 12 to 18 hours a day, six days a week, for a duration of anywhere from three to six months a year. The art department place and people become primary family while primary family often take on a secondary, surrogate role to our professional lives. So, responsibility to the art department is another fundamental concern. As formal head of the department, the art director is its leader-protector. As such, exercising the power to hire only the best...

Second Scouts

The initial round of scouting completed, a second series of scouts begins between the production designer and art director. Second scouts serve two purposes by allowing the production designer to confirm the quality of choices made with the locations manager and by providing bonding time between the designer and art director. Physically visiting the locations and sharing their possible shooting potential also transfers creative and managerial responsibility from the designer to the art...

Securing Cg Talent

As long as you have access to hardware and software and willing talent, you can create a small but impressive, visual effects art department core. The crew should consist of at least three animators, 1) A character animator, 2) A background animator, and 3) A supervisor. This key person should be somewhat skilled in art and commerce. Creative strengths in working knowledge of previz and visual effects, plus someone who can jump in whenever necessary to carry the load, will take care of the art...

Sequel

A cinematic work that presents the continuation of characters, settings, or events of a story in a preceding movie in contrast to a prequel. A sequel is also known as a follow-up, serial, series, spin-off, or remake. Example The Maltese Falcon (1941) followed by The Black Bird (1975) National Velvet (1944) followed by International Velvet (1978). Sequels generally tend to be inferior products with some exceptions such as The Godfather, Part II (1974), Toy Story 2 (1999), The Empire Strikes Back...

Sequels

Having worked on the first film of several headed for sequel status doesn't guarantee steady employment. Interviewing for the next job and getting it is the only sure guarantee of employment. One might expect the original production designer to be hired back to design a sequel in order to maintain an outstanding visual look for the next film in the series, but this also is not guaranteed. The phrase, You're only as good as your last job, certainly comes to play in this situation. In general...

Set

The environment an exterior or interior locale where the action takes place in a film. When used in contrast to location, it refers to an artificially constructed time place, supervised by the film's art director. It can be a physical space or a virtual environment created digitally. Strike refers to the act of taking apart a set once filming has ended. Example The War Room set, production-designed for Dr. Strangelove, Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), or The Polar...

Set Decorator

The set decorator is the most valuable player in the art department. The production designer and art director create the structure for a film by defining its concept parameters. The set decorator provides context, subtext, and texture. In a recent Film Society tribute to Bob Boyle (It Came From Outer Space, Saboteur, Cape Fear, The Shootist, The Birds), a Universal Studios design legend at 94, he clearly defines the camera as a stand-in for the audience in terms of point of view. Taking this...

Set Designers

Digital or traditional patience is a virtue, especially in set designers. Draftsmen constantly redraw whatever they have already drawn. With the assistance of the archivist, every Rhino and CAD document fragment, or drafted scrap of tracing paper, or napkin scribble can be scanned and saved to help ensure that erasures and revisions can happen a lot easier. Draftsmen who are manually and digitally adept are very desirable this double indemnity insures performance whether the power is on or off...

Steve Saklad

(Spiderman 2, Red Dragon, The Mambo Kings) Explain your networking process going from Yale Drama School to film. Out of Yale, I first assisted Broadway set designers David Mitchell and later Tony Walton on a series of Broadway plays and musicals. During the eighties in New York City, I was typically involved in segueing between assistant art directing drafting on movies and working as assistant designer on Broadway shows. I first met art director, W. Steven Graham, when he hired me to draft on...

Storyboard

A sequential series of illustrations, stills, rough sketches, or captions, sometimes resembling a comic or cartoon strip of events, as seen through the camera lens, that outline the various shots or provide a visual synopsis for a proposed film story or for a complex scene. The storyboards are displayed in sequence for the purpose of mapping out and crafting the various shot divisions and camera movements in an animated or live-action film. A blank storyboard is a piece of paper with rectangles...

Stunts

Traditionally connected to the mechanical effects department, stuntmen straddle both the below-the-line section of the film crew and the directing department, as physical effects consultants and second unit assistant directors. Although not necessarily connected to the art department, their active participation in the mechanical effects department requires close scrutiny of how a certain stunt will impact the look of a film and consequently will need to be art directed. This sub-subdepartment...

Taft Hartley

Senators who, in 1947, birthed the general, anti-labor legislation bearing their names. Among the legacies of Taft-Hartley in grandfathering persons who work for companies which are organized automatically qualify for admission into the union and must become members in good standing of the union not later than a specified 30-day period. In addition to entry through organizing, the other principal way persons join Local 800 is when they meet the experience...

Telling the Truth

Stress is a given while principal photography progresses demands are great, tension is high, time is metered, and personalities are volatile. Having knowledge of up-to-the-minute changes, ability to quote budget numbers on the spot, and having critical data at hand are several ways to offset the stress an art director experiences. A practical art director is well prepared to negotiate every situation that arises. Understanding the facts and telling the truth matter the most. On-set disputes...

The Relationships

Developing relationships in Hollywood translates to cowboy work. From the first moment a tenderfoot steps out of the creaky stagecoach onto the dusty dude ranch dirt, that neophyte is looking for a leg up. Throughout the process of mucking stalls, splitting rails to put up and tear down corrals, learning how to chew tobacco and win spitting contests, tying a proper lariat knot or choking on round-up dust, getting a hand with the hard work and patting other cowpokes on the back, the journey...

The Schedules And Lists

The following schedules and lists seem repetitive but have different purposes and will be discussed in more detail in the following pages. They are created by the assistant directing staff, e.g., the 1st AD, 2nd AD, and 2nd 2nd AD, reviewed by the 1st AD and UPM, and distributed by the production office into manila pouches, push-pinned onto a designated production office wall. In more technically updated film production offices, this same information is digitally distributed over the company...

Third Scouts

The third series of rekkies during pre-production are fact-finding missions. They occur for the benefit of the set designers during a full day visit to all existing locations. By and large, most locations are retrofitted, temporary sets that must be carefully analyzed. Specific measurements of loading docks, elevators, and similar building entrances or egresses are recorded to determine the size of scenery modules to be designed to load easily in and out of the building. Width, length, and...

Training

Each year for the last four years Local 800 has received grants of several hundred thousand dollars from CSATF to enable members to attend craft-specific training courses in cutting-edge and traditional technologies. Providers of such courses are Don Jordan's Digital Media Xchange, Gnomon School of Visual Effects, and Studio Arts. For the first time in several years, such funds were not forthcoming from Contract Services in calendar year 2004 the Guild is currently exploring alternative funding...

Transportation

Picture vehicles, or hero cars, are shot in just about every film and this subdepartment provides them. In addition to its appropriate historical period, a vehicle might need to be found in triplicate or quadruplicate for work in mechanical effects scenes or simply be dusted down with Movie Dirt by the on-set scenic artist to suggest aging and passage of time. Inevitably, Transpo deals with every department because it is responsible for parking caravans of talent trailers, five-ton trucks,...

Two Paths

There is no better way to learn how the art department operates than by working for a time as an art director. For some, a solid supporting role as design manager is exciting and appeals to a more detail-oriented, hands-on personality. For others, the seductiveness of a more visible and politically dynamic role in the spotlight as a production designer offers a more feasible career direction. Both positions are equally prestigious, containing respective pros and cons, and both will be discussed...

Typecasting A Fuller Picture

Basic personality traits define the working style of every art director. Despite the marker traits that make an art director unique, there are other indications that are universal to all. As described briefly in the introduction, the basic personality of an art director is creatively practical without it, this person is most likely a production designer. I'm not inferring here that production designers are impractical, but without a highly developed sense of practicality, an art director is...

Vendors

Vendors are a vital part of the support structure of the film industry as subcontractors, they provide relief to a demanding workload. Graphics and signage, billboards, or site surveys for location sets are examples of many jobs outsourced to other companies. The progress of those projects requires daily management scrutiny. Dealing with vendors in Los Angeles is simpler, in many ways, because they understand how urgent the time factor is in the overall process. In some cases, you will receive...

Visual effects also VFX

Visual and audio fantasy illusions that cannot be accomplished normally, i.e., travel into outer or inner space. Many photographic or optical and filmic techniques are used to produce digital effects, bluescreen or greenscreen chromakeying, (MOCAP) motion capture, in-camera effects, and the use of miniatures models, mattes, or stop-motion animation. Considered a subcategory of special effects it refers to anything added to the final picture that was not in the original shot. The visual effects...

Widescreen

Refers to projection systems in which the aspect ratio is wider than the 1.33 1 ratio that dominated sound film before the 1950s in the 1950s, many widescreen processes were introduced to combat the growing popularity of television, such as an anamorphic system known as CinemascopeTM, a non-anamorphic production technique in which the film is run horizontally through the camera instead of vertically known as VistaVisionTM, and Todd-AO and Super Panavision that both used wider-gauge film also...

Wild or wild wall

A partial or full wall in an interior set designed to be removed to allow shooting crew and camera access for easier shooting ability. The formal end of shooting a film. Wrap time The actual time the company stops shooting on any given day on the shooting schedule, or at the end of principal photography. With call time, and breaks during the day, wrap time is noted by the assistant directing staff and script supervisor, recorded, and reported to the studio. (See also, call time)

Zfilm

Refers to a very low-budget, independently made, non-union, less than B-film grade movie, usually featuring first-time director and actors. Quickly made for the teenaged youth market, Z-films are amateurish-looking but with campy appeal. They incorporate exploitative subject matter and include surfing films, motorcycle flicks, cheap horror films, etc. Z-films often become prime candidates for cult film status. Example American International Pictures specialized in Z-films, such as Gas-S-S-S...

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Figure 6-9 CG model of exterior neighborhood for The Cat in the Hat by J. Andre Chaintreuil. Courtesy of Universal Studios Licensing LLLP. Figure 6-9 CG model of exterior neighborhood for The Cat in the Hat by J. Andre Chaintreuil. Courtesy of Universal Studios Licensing LLLP. Figure 6-10 Pre-Cog chamber showing concept model of the set. Courtesy of Alex McDowell. MINORITY REPORT 2002 Twentieth Century Fox All rights reserved. Figure 6-10 Pre-Cog chamber showing concept model of the set....