Small, low-budget companies, mini-majors, or entities for financing, producing, and distributing films, i.e., Miramax, New Line Cinema, Polygram, working outside of the system or a major Hollywood studio. California-based Miramax, although the leader in the independent film movement in the early nineties, has become so powerful and successful that it has lost most of its independent studio status. Indie refers to a movie, director, distributor, or producer not associated with a major Hollywood film studio, often with groundbreaking subject matter designed for sophisticated audiences, and not necessarily produced with commercial success as the goal (like mainstream films).
Example: Indie films include Jim Jarmusch's Stranger Than Paradise (1984) and Kevin Smith's Clerks (1994). The cable TV Independent Film Channel showcases Indie films.
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