The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a software tool that contains letter templates for pastors and secretaries. The powerful software program helps men of God locate just that right letter to send out to either congregation or committee members, and begin to encourage people in ways you have never dreamed of before. The software will make your life simple and stress-free, as well as making sending letters to church members easy and quick. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 comes in an easy-to-download PDF format and is easy to use by virtually anyone. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a great product that will make your life easier as a pastor or church secretary. The software includes hundreds of letter templates that you can simply edit and send to the members of the church.Grab the Ministry Letters Version 2.0 and make your life easier. More here...

Ministry Letters Summary


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Highly Recommended

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The Village Church

In Martin Scorsese's case, the choice of St. Patrick's over public school was in fact particularly fortuitous. Catholic schools and churches of the time bristled with religious images representing incidents in the life of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the saints. Each image told a story in a way that carried a desired emotional impact. The art may not have been very good, but to a child, the connection between picture and story stamps the imagination forever. As an altar boy, who dressed in ecclesiastical robes and assisted at church services, Martin Scorsese witnessed up close the splendid rituals reenacting the events of the liturgical year Christmas, Lent, Easter, and the celebrations of the feasts of the Blessed Virgin, Joseph, and the other saints. Each of the rites brought its own delight of senses the vestments, candles, shimmering altar vessels, incense, and music. In catechism class, he would have learned about the hierarchical structure of the Church, with its leaders and...

Missionaries martyrs and fighter pilots

As we have already seen, movies like Leo McCarey's My Son John, released at the height of the McCarthyite witch-hunts, stressed communism's utter incompatibility with Christian family virtues, and were littered with crude religious symbolism. Other dramas like William Wellman's The Next Voice You Hear (1950), in which God appeals on the radio to suburban America to count its middle-class blessings, interlinked Christianity, the family and consumerism.22 Heroic characters in European-set espionage thrillers would often hold strong (though not overpowering) religious beliefs. In Nunnally Johnson's Night People (1954), for example, a kidnapping yarn set in West Berlin, the reminiscences of Gregory Peck's US army officer, Colonel Steve Van Dyke, about his home-town church clearly identify him as a Catholic.23 Science-fiction fantasies like the aforementioned Red Planet Mars endorsed Christianity as both the embodiment of American values and the set of beliefs best suited for defeating...

Postscript Religion Film And The Vatican

It may be valuable in the end to consider the opinions of an institution more powerful than this encyclopedia, more authoritative than this author the Roman Catholic Church. Popular perceptions of the interrelationship of art and religion often focus upon the bans and boycotts instigated by organizations such as the

Young Sherlock Holmes

We had this scene in a church, where the image of the man in the stained glass jumps out and becomes a real person. The church vicar begins backing away, believing he's having hallucinations. I had asked the people at Industrial Light and Magic if, when we see the image coming toward us, the camera could keep moving until we're over his shoulder, looking back at the vicar. We shot the scene, and they actually were able to do that later. That was the beginning of being able to make these kinds of moves that we now see all the time. It's a terrific shot, but it was the first time something like this was done.

Sm Fixing Is Believing

Known as the 'Sultan of Sleaze', John Waters (b. 1946) is notorious for his taboo-breaking films. Yet his work, unlike that of many exploitati directors, is recognized as being an intelligent, carefully observed commentary on society. His films may be gory, gross and extreme but they are infused with a savvy black humour. His uncompromising portrayal of aborti the Church, drugs, sex and perversi (which included images of transsex eating dog excrement) was instrume in redefining the boundaries of what was acceptable on screen. Waters' gritty approach to filmmaking has influenced a number of directors.

Departing from Trauma Dreaming in Motion

The presence of the past, and the necessity of return, are also structural themes in Black Talk (writer director Wayne Blair). The film takes the form of a conversation between Scott and Tim, two cousins waiting to go into church as various relatives and friends arrive for a funeral. Seated under a tree, the cousins share childhood memories and a skylarking sense of humour, as well as feelings of loss and shame. Their affectionate banter turns serious when Scott, who remained behind with his community, asks city-boy Tim where he will find his soul once his assimilated, consumer lifestyle has finished sucking it out of him. Tim's ambivalence towards home resolves itself into grief as the two cousins enter the small country church for the funeral. As Tim walks up the aisle alone to view the body in the coffin, we realise with a shock that this is Scott's funeral and that the conversation outside the church took place between the living and the dead that Tim has returned home for a final...

The Face of a Saint

The first thing we need to note about the processes of canonisation is that it is not so much a question about a person being saintly, but being recognised as such. In Saints and Society, Donald Weinstein and Rudolph Bell make the point that popular perception plays an important part in being recognised as a saint 'While the church uses heroic virtue to distinguish saints from wizards and witches, in popular belief Of course not all saints are born with the required face. Take Joan, for example images circulating in religious and popular culture of a beautiful, brave and innocent heroine bear little resemblance to the historical figure. In fact, the truth is that not much is known about Joan's actual physical appearance. Not that this has prevented historians from speculating. It is generally considered that Joan was 'ruddy-faced', though one historian lamely interprets the absence of any descriptions of her face as a sign that she was However, historical accuracy is...

Margarethe von Trotta

What distinguishes Von Trotta's films from those of other German filmmakers is that her social ethos has its roots in the German Lutheran Church, over the centuries perhaps the most durable home of bourgeois humanism and liberalism, with its own tradition of political nonconformism, social work, education, child care and, more recently, a principled anti-fascism and anti-nuclear militancy. This is the moral and ideological milieu in which her observations are

Independent Historical Production

Hollywood filmmakers had the potential to represent the historiographi-cal and racial complexities of Cooper's American history without sacrificing the drama or what screenwriter John Balderston perceived as its qualities as a historical epic. Cimarron alluded to Yancey's mixed status in several key scenes. Early in the narrative, Isaiah, a young black boy who stowed away with the Cravats en route to Oklahoma, copies Yancey's outfit and comes to church dressed as a pint-sized version of his hero. Yancey laughs when he sees his youthful mirror image, but Sabra, schooled in the South, does not find the implications of this cimarron mixing amusing. By foregrounding Cora's mixed ancestry, the filmmakers had the opportunity to do something similar. Yet Balderston considered the Native American aspects of the narrative a subplot, thereby distancing Edward Small's film from two large-scale silent versions made by D. W. Griffith (Biograph) in 1909 and Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown...

Other Mean Streets in Manhattan

But again like Travis, Jake is also part of a distinct subculture. Scorsese fills in details of the closed Italian American community around Arthur Avenue in the Bronx in the 1940s. Much of the early action takes place around the neighborhood swimming pool, in the social clubs where neighborhood Mafia bosses conduct business, and on a tenement roof ( tar beach, in New York parlance) during a wedding reception, in the parish hall of the local Catholic church, and in cramped apartments where the neighbors shout insults and threats to one another across the open courtyard, which is little more than an air shaft. Success in the ring allows Jake to move his family to a relatively prosperous area along Pelham Parkway, in the Bronx, but his life still bears the marks of the tenement. Financially prosperous as a major contender, he walks around his living room dressed in his underwear eating a hero sandwich. Even in a luxury hotel room, as he waits out a rain-delayed fight and in the...

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Mean Streets certainly wasn't a tale of crime aristocracy, of cons and dons, but rather the Dead End Kids grown up. Most memorable is Scorsese's casual attitude to violence (in particular a vicious poolroom bust-up, which explodes from nowhere) and his use of music. A stripper performs to 'Tell Her' by the Rolling Stones while Charlie looks on later Johnny Boy swaggers into the bar with two pick-ups to the same band's 'Jumpin' Jack Flash'. Johnny does a goofy dance to 'Mickey's Monkey' by the Miracles the poolroom fight is accompanied by 'Please Mr Postman' by the Marvelettes. The effect is electrifying, as is Robert De Niro's performance as Johnny Boy Harvey Keitel is equally notable as Charlie. De Niro's first appearance in the film is memorable, as he mischievously blows up a street corner mailbox. Emphasising Charlie's Catholic guilt, Mean Streets' tagline was 'You don't make up for your sins in church. You do it on the streets'. Mean Streets was one of Henry Hill's favourite...

How Do Festivals Work

A slightly different perspective arises if one thinks of the film festival as an event , and defines event with Jacques Derrida as a disjunctive singularity that can neither be explained nor predicted by the normative logic of its social context, because its occurrence necessarily changes that very context.23 This highlights and confirms, even more than Dayan, the recursive self-reference, by which a festival (re-)produces the place in which it occurs. Meaning can only emerge in the space between the iterative and the irruption - the twin poles of a festival's consistency as event, which explains the obsession with new-ness empty signifier of the compromise struck at any festival between the same and the different, the expected and the expected surprise. The self-generating and self-reflexive dimension is what is generally meant by the buzz of a festival, fuelled by rumor, gossip and word-of-mouth, because only a part of the verbal architecture Dayan refers to finds its way into...

FOCUS Italian Neo Realism Realism mise en scne

Stolen in the street while he is at work (pasting up an image of Rita Hayworth in Gilda). Without his bike, our 'hero' will be unable to support his family. From then on, as an audience, we just tag along with the fruitless search and observe Ricci being slowly broken by the desperation of his plight. When the bike is stolen, he first ignores Bruno's question about it, but soon resorts to lying. His preoccupation so consumes him that he neglects his son, who ends up getting unwelcome attention from a suspect character in a market. By the end, Ricci does not even notice Bruno fall headlong in the rainy muddy road, and is so utterly at a loss that he desperately visits a fortune-teller, whose useless 'visions' he had condemned earlier. The plot is slight, but the film is rich in meaningful detail. If de Sica wants to express his view of the Church's decayed values, he simply leaves a pile of crucifixes strewn on the floor, in the background, as Ricci and Bruno pass by. He rejects...

By Rachel A Witenstein

Took out a lot of the flavor and humor, even to the point of making references to going to church when the family was written as Jewish. Ironically, in the editing process, virtually everything that he added was cut, so I felt somewhat vindicated. But there was something irretrievable that definitely did not make it on to the screen and that still makes me sad, even today.

A characteristic of Bunuels work power of repetition in the image

Lucius Egroizard, artist and scholar of genius, who has gone mad after the murder of his daughter, repeats indefinitely the circumstances of the murder until he invents a machine to record the voice of a singer, deforms it, and restores so accurately the voice of his dead child that he regains everything daughter, happiness. It moves from an indefinite repetition to repetition as decisive instant, from a closed repetition to an open repetition, from a repetition which not only fails, but induces failure, to a repetition which not only succeeds, but recreates the model or the originary.8 We could mistake it for one of Bunuel's scripts. In fact the bad repetition does not occur simply because the event fails. It is that which makes the event fail, as in The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, where the repetition of lunch pursues its work of degradation through all the milieux which it closes on to themselves (Church, army, diplomacy. . .). And, in The Exterminating Angel, the law of bad...

Rules governing the relation between the particular and the general

In the film's final sequence, Terry confronts and defeats the corrupt union official, Johnny Friendly, wins the support of the other dock workers, and gets his job back. However, he is badly beaten in the incident. On the basis of actions in the final sequence, Lindsay Anderson attempted to identify Terry Mallory's intentions and motives, plus the principles he is fighting for (Anderson 1955). As with most film characters, Terry's actions are self-evident and manifest in the film. But his motives and intentions remain implicit, and Anderson concludes that, in the film's final sequence, it is difficult to identify them. Anderson attempts to identify the theme of the last sequence by focusing on the actions of other characters - particularly Father Barry, Edie, and the dock workers. Anderson reads the actions of Father Barry and Edie in symbolic terms (Father Barry's actions are not those of an individual, but represent the Catholic Church, while Edie's actions represent 'a...

B William Harrison Hays Sullivan Indiana November d March

Following his early career as a church elder and smalltown lawyer, Hays gained public prominence as chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1918. Demonstrating a gift for diplomacy and political machinations, he won the public support of several studios for Warren Harding's presidential campaign. In return, Harding appointed him Postmaster General shortly after coming to office in 1921. At this time, studio chiefs were facing a three-pronged threat an onslaught of criticism in the popular press for their apparent celebration of vice and the scandalous offscreen behavior of their creative personnel, the hearing of pro-censorship bills in thirty-six states, and a looming federal antitrust suit instigated by the Federal Trade Commission. To combat these problems, the studios hired Hays in March 1922 to head a newly created trade organization, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association of America (MPPDA). created, an association fronted by Will Hays, formerly the...

Religion politics and Cold War propaganda

There is no clear way to arrive at a precise assessment of the role of religion in the Cold War. It seems safe to conclude that most people, especially in the West, viewed the conflict in diplomatic and political terms. Yet religion was not an insignificant determinant, especially for those who were tempted to see the battle between communism and capitalism as a latter-day morality play, and in those countries, like Pope John Paul II's Poland, where the traditional authority of the church clashed with the enhanced powers of a reconfigured state.3 One of the main planks of Bolshevik propaganda after October 1917 was its campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church, in line with MarxistLeninist doctrine that religion was a product of social oppression and economic exploitation. During the 1920s Russian communists widely disseminated what they termed 'scientific-educational' propaganda, including vicious anti-clerical literature and films designed to 'liberate the toiling masses from...

Luis Bunuel Visual Discontinuity

Chien Andalou Bunuel Dali 1929

Bunuel and Dali followed up Un Chien d'Andalou with a film that is a surreal narrative, L'Age d'Or (The Golden Age) (1930). In this film, a couple is overwhelmed by their passion for one another, but society, family, and Church stand against them and prevent them from being together. This is a film about great passion and great resistance to that passion. Again, the satiric, exaggerated imagery of surrealism interposes a nonrealistic commentary on the behavior of all. Passion, anger, and resistance can lead only to death. The film's images portray each state (Figures 1.42 to 1.46).

The battle of Ypres the myth of Langemarck

Battle Langemarck

Wipe (and panning camera) to a statue of Saint Christopher with the child Jesus on his arm (against the background of a church in ruins). The scene ends with a soldier placing a small plant beside the two crosses, one which probably bears an English name, the other a German.

Suspense the extreme long shot

In Foreign Correspondent (1940), Johnnie Jones (Joel McCrea) has discovered that the Germans have kidnapped a European diplomat days before the beginning of World War II. The rest of the world believes that the diplomat was assassinated in Holland, but it was actually a double who was killed. Only Jones knows the truth. Back in London, he attempts to expose the story and unwittingly confides in a British politician (Herbert Marshall) who secretly works for the Nazis. Now Jones's own life is threatened. The politician assigns him a guardian, Roley, whose actual assignment is to kill him. Roley leads him to the top of a church (a favorite Hitchcock location), where he plans to push Jones to his death.

Deviants hypocrites and murderers

Communists were shown to be undermining the USA in a variety of ways, ranging from acts of sabotage, espionage and drug-smuggling to infiltrating labour unions, university faculties and even churches in order to spread the party line. Communist tentacles reached across the globe to Western Europe (Assignment- Paris, 1952), Eastern Europe (TheBeast of Budapest, 1956), Africa (Tangier Incident, 1953), Asia (The Shanghai Story, 1954), the Arctic Circle (Arctic Flight, 1952), and even outer space (The Flying Saucer, 1950).25 More seriously, they had penetrated democracy's very heartland, in a host of locations San Francisco (I Married a Communist, 1949), Pittsburgh (I Was a Communist for the FBI, 1951), Hawaii (Big Jim McLain, 1952), New York (Bowery Battalion, 1951), Alaska (Red Snow, 1952)26 and in a variety of institutions the science laboratory (Invaders from Mars, 1953), the military base (The Wac from Walla Walla, 1952), and even a national monument, Mount Rushmore (North by...

Ken Russell b Southampton England July

Russell's fascination with the gothic and with sexually transgressive subjects continued in The Devils (1971), his adaptation of Aldous Huxley's The Devils of Loudon. Starring Oliver Reed and Vanessa Redgrave, this study of corruption by church and state outraged critics with its visually vivid sensual depiction of sadistic and masochistic sexuality in a seventeenth-century French convent. The Music Lovers (1971), a musical biopic, probed Tchaikovsky's creativity through a stylized and theatrical depiction of the composer's incestuous and homosexual relationships. Mahler (1974), a film about another tormented composer with whom Russell identified, treated its subject in grotesque and dreamlike images and revealed the filmmaker's self-reflexive investment in his biopics. Lisztomania (1975) uses fantasy, horror, satire, and intertextual allusions to other films and composers in its depiction of Franz Liszt as a precursor of the rock star.

Cultural diplomacy of a celluloid kind The USIAs film machine

The MPS's distribution network spanned the globe. At its peak, in the 1960s, it maintained film centres at 226 USIS posts in 106 countries, reaching an estimated audience of 600 million people. These centres housed upwards of 50,000 prints of hundreds of MPS-made 16mm and 35mm films (the latter produced for theatrical use), acting as lending libraries to a host of local institutions comprising schools, clubs, churches and union halls. In smaller posts and in developing countries the 16mm productions were often used alongside

Case Study I The Competent Director Antoine Fuqua King Arthur

It is 450 A.D., and Rome is controlled by the Pope and the Church. The Woats and Arthur's knights are pagan. At the Roman villa, they find that the priests are torturing and killing the Woats. Arthur intervenes and saves the two Woats who are still alive, a young boy and a woman, Guinevere. This represents Arthur's first distancing from the authority of Rome, and for Arthur Guinevere will become the voice of Britain for the Britons. On the journey back to Hadrian's Wall, Merlin, the leader of the Woats, invites Arthur to lead all Britons against the common enemy, the Saxons. Lancelot, Arthur's friend and principal knight, urges self-interest-ride away, leave this place but Arthur cannot just ride away as other Romans can. He leads the Britons to defeat the Saxons. A number of his knights, including Lancelot, die in the battle. Arthur

Questions Of Ethics Politics And Aesthetics

The documentary is sometimes referred to as a sponsored film. Whether it is a public affairs documentary or a documentary underwritten by a local church, the sponsor has a particular goal. That goal may be journalistic, humanistic, or mercenary, but it always has on impact on the film that the director and editor make.

Sequence Analysis Of The Saraghina Sequence

Gramma Uninhibited

The Saraghina sequence is triggered by Guido's consultation (on the insistence of his producer) with a cardinal of the Catholic Church about the Catholic themes of his film. During the interview, the cardinal questions Guido not about his film but about his personal life, questions that make the director clearly uncomfortable. Is Guido married (he answers yes) does he have children (he answers yes and then no) what is his age (forty-three). The cardinal then directs Guido to listen to the cry of a bird and Guido obediently complies, but not for long. His attention is captivated by the sight of a heavy-set peasant woman carrying a basket, her skirt raised above her knees. It is this sensual sight that triggers, even in the presence of a church dignitary, Guido's sexually charged memory of Saraghina. Next we see Guido in meditation over the mummified remains of a decaying female saint. In confession he is asked if he is aware that Sara-ghina is the devil. His ordeal over at last, he...

Glamour and Post Modern Style

Revival also informed the development of post-modern architectural criticism. Just as the traditional structures and personalities of the world's most powerful film industry had disintegrated and were superseded by a younger, independent clutch of film-makers, so the Hollywood of the past was reconstructed as a self-conscious parody of glamour. For example, the boutique Biba, established as a mail-order company in 1963, recreated the luxury and glamour of pre-war department store shopping and Hollywood film stars (Figure 48). At the time when Andy Warhol produced the Marilyn Monroe and Elvis Presley screenprint series, Barbara Hulanicki created a dark and mysterious environment with fake leopard-skin seats and moderne styling. The clothes Biba produced also drew on the dress of 1930s Hollywood stars. Cream silk, bias-cut dresses, feather boas, ankle-strapped shoes, turbans, double-breasted suits for men with matching trilbies, wide ties, two-tone shoes, dark, vamp eye make-up all...

Film Industries And Cultures Of The Allies Great Britain France And The Ussr

General trends in film attendance were recorded in a survey undertaken for the Ministry of Information called The Cinema Audience, which showed that film outstripped newspapers and books in its ability to reach large segments of the population. Thus, the ministry's Films Division organized a program of both theatrical and nontheatrical exhibition, utilizing commercial cinema circuits as well as such other venues as churches, canteens, and even railway stations.

High Noon and Its Legacy

The law-and-order film, of which High Noon is the progenitor, consists of several key elements. A central character is the town, the name of which provides the title for two of these films. Hadleyville's abandonment of Marshal Will Kane (Gary Cooper) in High Noon provides the central moral conflict. While several perspectives are given for the town's failure to support the marshal, including the disability of his mentor, the pacifism of his Quaker wife, and the fear of the judge who sentenced Frank Miller to death, the central point is made by the mayor (Thomas Mitchell) during an ad hoc town meeting at the church. Upstate businessmen are considering investing in Hadleyville, he argues, and a gunfight in the streets on a Sunday will drive them away. He urges Kane to leave and convinces the town not to support him. The commercial interests of the town, seeking to protect their prosperity, reject the moral certitude of a noble marshal. Firecreek strays far from the visions of marshals...

Hanging Foreground Miniature

Shot A Trans Atlantic crane, very high, slowly panned across the nighttime expanse of the city of Paris (circa 1928, during Russian Easter) to the bell tower of the Russian Orthodox Church. The shot was held, faded, and then tilted down below the miniature, hanging piece to the street and church below. Scenery An architectural miniature of the bell tower (Fig. 4-12) was suspended in the foreground above, with the nighttime city of Paris in miniature in the background. This hanging miniature was in quarter scale (3 1), corresponding to the full-scale church and street built on the studio lot below. The miniature was bordered on the bottom with a course line of bricks and finishing moulding this acted as a hard cutting edge for the transition between the miniature bell tower model and full-scale church and tower on the studio lot. Technique There were two issues to consider the depth of field and the nodal point of the camera lens. The same camera lens was used for shooting both the...

Publishers of solo material

Meriwether publishes books of original monologues. It publishes material that is suitable for high schools, teenagers, the college market, church groups, and community theaters. It is especially interested in authors with name recognition. Generally you'll hear from Contemporary in about one month. The remuneration is royalty up to buyout figure. Be aware that the publisher holds the copyright.

The African Experience

As in eastern Europe, this form of autocratic rule has not favoured economic growth or development, and the resulting social discontent is at least partly responsible for the successive military coups which are such a feature of African political rule. Where Islam is the dominant religion, the situation is perhaps even more extreme, since the distinction in the Christian West between church and state is not matched by a similar split within Islam. There is no Muslim state in Africa or the Arab world as a whole which functions as more than a notional democracy. African filmmakers - like African cultural workers as a whole - have therefore to find means to operate - that is to say, to find necessary freedoms - under political systems where autocracy is the norm.

Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray

Shakespeare's Happy Endings, a spoof documentary produced as part of the BBC's 2005 'Shakespea(Re)-Told' season, concludes with a scene outside Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon.1 Here, the erstwhile presenter, Professor Simon Starkman (Patrick Barlow), greets William Shakespeare (Kevin Eldon), welcoming him as the 'man of the millennium' and announcing a surprise celebration in honour of the famous guest. Unfortunately, the church is closed the vicar has forgotten about the party, no one has bothered to turn up and, in a sublime rendition of bardic demythologising, Shakespeare is reduced to kicking at the doors and battering at a window in an attempt to gain entrance. The dramatist's inability to make a connection with his renowned place of nativity is part of a comic collision between what Shakespeare has come to signify (the commodified rhetoric of the industry) and the 'reality' of an early modern writer revealed as an embarrassing and confused unsophisticate. Certainly,...

Dreamstates subjectivity and motion

Perhaps no film of Hitchcock's is as complex or as ambitious as Vertigo (1958), which is the story of a detective, Scottie (James Stewart), whose fear of heights leads to his retirement (Figure 6.2). The detective is hired by an old classmate to follow his wife, Madelaine (Kim Novak), whom he fears is suicidal, possessed by the ghost of an ancestor who had committed suicide. She does commit suicide by jumping from a church tower, but not before Scottie has fallen in love with her. Despondent, he wanders the streets of San Francisco until he finds a woman who resembles Madelaine and, in fact, is the same woman. She, too, has fallen in love, and she allows him to re-create her into the image of his lost love, Madelaine. They become the same, but in the end, he realizes that, together with Madelaine's husband, she duped him. They knew he couldn't follow her up the church stairs because of his fear of heights. He was the perfect witness to a suicide. Having uncovered the murder, he takes...

The Western in Hawks functionalism

First of all, the locations lose the organic life which encompassed them, traversed them and situated them in a set the purely functional prison in Rio Bravo does not even need to show us its prisoner the church in El Dorado no longer bears witness to anything but an abandoned function the town of Rio Lobo is reduced to 'a diagram, now only showing functions, a bloodless town condemned by the weight of a past'. At the same time, the fundamental group becomes very vague, and the only community which is still well-defined is the incongruous makeshift group (an alcoholic, an old man, a young boy . . .) it is a functional group which no longer has its foundation in the organic. It finds its motivations in a debt to be discharged, a mistake to be redeemed, a downhill slope into degradation to be climbed again, and its forces or means in the invention of an ingenious machine, rather than in the representation of a collectivity (the catapult-tree in The Big Sky, the final fireworks in Rio...

Film Exhibition And Theater Ownership

The first moving picture exhibitors were itinerant showmen who exploited the novelty of projected moving pictures by using the same film program for a series of brief engagements in different locations. They typically purchased outright the short films they screened at theaters, churches, and public halls. As early as 1903, film exchanges that owned and rented moving pictures emerged in Boston, Chicago, and New York City, creating a separation between exhibition and distribution and

Crossing the East River

For Woody Allen, a George Gershwin score plays in the background continually, as it does in the opening sequence of Manhattan. Witty people from publishing or academia or the arts spend more time in tastefully furnished apartments and chic restaurants than at their jobs, and they rarely worry about paying their bills at the end of the month. In Manhattan, no one grows old or gets sick or has to share a flat with impossible in-laws or failing grandparents, as they did in the Brooklyn of Radio Days. People may lose jobs for a while, but the effects on their lifestyle are minimal, nothing like the Depression. No one goes to a social club or a blue-collar tavern for a beer after work, or to church or temple, except for an occasional wedding or funeral. No one rides the subway for Allen, living in Manhattan involves urban combat no more serious than competition for taxicabs, which in fact most native New Yorkers cannot afford. Most important, no one has a neighborhood. To live in Woody...

My Darling Clementine

My Darling Clementine tells the story of Wyatt Earp (Henry Fonda). When he and his brothers drive a herd of cattle to California, the cattle are stolen and his brother James is killed outside of the town of Tombstone. Earp becomes the town marshal to apprehend the killers of his brother. He is aided by his two brothers, Morgan and Virgil, and by Doc Holliday. He and his brothers meet the rustler killers at the OK Corral and justice is done. The clip focuses on Wyatt's relationship (or desired relationship) with Clementine (Cathy Downs), Doc Holliday's lady from the East. In this scene, the two attend a Sunday church meeting. When they dance it is a sign to tell all that Clementine may now be the marshal's lady.

The Narrative Style

The conventional descriptions of plot-driven or character-driven structures do not really apply to Calendar. There is a journey to photograph churches for a calendar, but the character's struggle is not so much with the pictures as it is with his resistance to being in Armenia. He is there physically, but emotionally he is consistently backing away. Back in Canada we see the actual calendar (the published calendar serves as a transition device between the visit to take the pictures and the present in Canada). In Canada, the character tries to relate to women (as his guests), but each rejects him. The fact that they speak their native language on the phone implies that his bland Canadian presentation does not engage them. Consequently, there is no development in the relationship dimension of the narrative.

The Main Character and His Goal

The main character in Calendar is a photographer. He goes to Armenia, ostensibly to photograph churches for a calendar. He travels with his wife and a driver. While in Armenia we see only his point of view, never him. He asks questions, he reacts, but never in a sympathetic manner. His wife acts as the translator for the driver, explaining the history of the sights. The photographer seems rigid, defensive, and eventually jealous of the developing relationship between his wife and the driver. On a deeper level, he seems to be reacting against her acceptance of being both Armenian and Canadian (she speaks the language). He, on the other hand, seems a stranger in Armenia, certainly separated from any sense of identification with the place.

Movement In The Scene And The Use Of Props

And then there is the lucky accident. Something happens unexpectedly in a rehearsal or a take that wasn't planned. The accident is sometimes pure gold, helping to deepen the scene, or get the laugh, or fill in a visual gap. An apocryphal story about this kind of lucky accident is told about a scene between Marlon Brando and Eva Marie Saint in On the Waterfront. (Once again if you haven't seen this film, run to the nearest DVD or VHS rental store as it is an American classic.) It is a scene in which they are walking away from a disturbing meeting in the church. It seems cold and gray but there is a sexual tension that provides the heat between the two characters as they are getting to know one another. As the story goes, during a take Eva Marie accidentally dropped one of her gloves as she was putting them on. Marlon picked up the glove and, acting out of the instinct of the moment, studied it for a second and then attempted to put his hand inside it. Elia Kazan, brilliant director...

Little Italy Martin Scorsese

Once a Catholic Prominent Catholics and Ex-Catholics Discuss the Influence of the Church on Their Lives and Work. Boston Houghton-Mifflin, 1987. Schr der, Paul. Taxi Driver. London Faber and Faber, 1990. Scorsese, Martin. Interviews. Edited by Peter Brunette. Jackson University of Mississippi Press, 1999.

Home Sweet and Sour Home

The movies, like the tabloids, present only one part of the picture, but lived reality is something far more complex. Although the streets provided threats to physical and moral well-being in abundance for any youngster, just as the movies proclaimed, fear was balanced by a sense of security, of being at home. Hollywood movies frequently miss this. The neighborhoods included the churches and synagogues, the schools and candy stores, the delis and movie houses that gave the young person a sense of belonging to a comfortable, living community. Friends played stickball in the playground, or if there was no playground, in the street, despite the intrusive interruption of cars. The block was a small town, and the street, as the focal point surrounded by stoops, formed a village square. The building was something like an extended family. The odors in the stairwell revealed what the neighbors were having for dinner. Unlike the movie version, which stresses the impersonal nature of living in...

Sexuality Beyond The United States And Western Europe

Catherine Breillat Sex Comedy

The development of film industries in areas outside the United States and western Europe also had to negotiate representations of sexuality. For example, in many nations where the Catholic Church held a powerful presence, such as some Latin American countries, there was a strong pressure on filmmakers to keep their representations of sexual desire within the bounds of religious doctrine. It is also important to recognize that filmic

Luis Bunuel b Calanda Spain February d July

The best-known Spanish filmmaker before Pedro Almodovar, Luis Bunuel had a film career that spanned fifty years and involved work in three national cinemas, those of Spain, France, and Mexico. Ironically, of the thirty-one films he made, only four of them were shot in his native Spain. Along with persistent attacks on Christian dogma and church hypocrisy, Buiiuel's most characteristic theme is a contemptuous view of bourgeois morality and middle-class values. His Mexican period, beginning in 1946, includes some of his most internationally acclaimed films Los Olvidados (The Young and the Damned, 1950), El (This Strange Passion, 1952), and Nazartn (1959). Though varying in style and subject matter, these works parody bourgeois morality and contain powerful and violent imagery.

Driveins And Art Cinemas

Paralleling the rise of the drive-in was the abandonment, demolition, or conversion of a great many urban movie theaters, both pictures palaces and smaller neighborhood venues (which sometimes became churches or markets). Some larger downtown theaters stayed in business by shifting to Spanish-language films or to low-budget fare, like the wave of horror and science fiction films that emerged in the 1950s.

Nontheatrical Exhibition

Ambitious film programs that involved elaborate sound effects. (In Europe, traveling moving picture shows were extremely common at fairgrounds.) As automobiles and expanded highway systems allowed for greater mobility, a host of other itinerant exhibitors brought moving pictures to rural audiences throughout the silent period and well into the 1940s. Traveling exhibition thrived in the Depression and World War II years, especially with the increased availability of highly portable 16mm sound projection equipment. At the same time, the non-theatrical market also included individuals and companies (including government agencies like the United States Department of Agriculture) that sought to tap the vast interest in regularly exhibiting motion pictures at schools, churches, military bases, YMCAs, and retail stores. These non-theatrical exhibitors offered a variety of programs, some very similar to what was being screened in contemporary theaters, others highly idiosyncratic and tailored...

Exhibition And Early Viewing Contexts

Appeared in a variety of exhibition sites. The diversity of places films were screened points to the broad potential envisioned for film from the outset. Everywhere from outdoor fairs to department stores, opera houses to dime museums, offered films. The venue and context determined the role films would play films documenting war-related activities might be screened in a community hall to boost morale during wartime, while a church might show a filmed Passion Play to coincide with a religious service. In certain countries, particularly in Europe, itinerant exhibitors played a crucial role in spreading cinema across the countryside, often screening films in the fairground circuit. For this reason, films tended to be sold outright, since exhibitors would move from site to site, ideally finding new audiences for their programs at each locale. traveling showmen in Great Britain, and rural, middle-class churchgoers viewing films at a Chautauqua in the rural Midwest of the United States...

Closeup Jack Paars Walk Off The Set Of The Tonight Show February

One night, in February 1960,1 read something that I thought was funny in an earthy, outhouse genre, yet rather sophisticated in its double entendre. I told a harmless story, the kind of story that could practically be read at a Wednesday-night church social. The joke played on the use of W.C. in England to stand for wayside chapel as well as ''water closet, or toilet. An NBC censor ordered the three-minute segment cut and re

Dialogue And Character

A very different type of sequence establishes character but does not provide as clear a sense of the dialogue's role in its establishment. In Robert Altman's McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), we are introduced to gambler John McCabe (Warren Beatty) as he enters the small mining town of Presbyterian Church. He takes off his coat and searches for the bar. He is dressed differently than the others in the bar. In the first scene in the bar, there is a dialogue exchange. The dialogue is neither textured nor localized it's about the price of liquor and the price of playing a card game. The goal of the scene is to position McCabe among the town's occupants as a negotiator and as something of an entrepreneur. The scene establishes this. The scene proceeds in a highly fragmented fashion, with only a short establishing shot. Many close-ups feature McCabe and the miners McCabe is seen as something of a dandy, and the miners appear dirty, wild-eyed, and something less than civilized. The scene does...

Some General Reflections On Authorship

These examples, however, begin to illustrate another kind of difficulty with the idea of an author. While obviously some authors artists have created their work in private and with the aim of expressing their creativity (Rubens and Gauguin in painting perhaps, Virginia Woolf and Salman Rushdie in literature, to take a few random examples), this has certainly not been the norm. Most painting and sculpture before and after the Renaissance was commissioned either by the Church or by wealthy patrons - the 'artist' was thus basically doing a job for someone. Much music was also written composed in the same way, and indeed many post-Renaissance composers, Mozart and Wagner among them, continued to rely on commissions and patronage to earn a living.

Cinema Audiences and Society

The relationship between films and their viewers is central to Film Studies. ' I t is through the existence of an audience that film acquires social and cultural importance' (Jostein Gripsrud, quoted in Hill and Church Gibson (1999), p. 203). It is precisely because of this powerful relationship that the film industry has been subject to censorship and regulation from its earliest days. Similarly, there has been an interest in the impact that a film has upon its audience from the turn of the twentieth century onwards, as well as in who constitutes that audience. The study of these matters falls into two main areas audience research and spectatorship. In this chapter, we shall be considering the 'audience' rather than 'specta-torship' (the academic study of how individual viewers subjects relate to and decode film texts), which is examined elsewhere in this book.

Cinema Navet

WE LIVE ALONG a cultural fault line that constantly threatens the vitality of the arts in America. On one side of this fault is the commonplace complaint that there is too much sex, violence, and offensive material in art and media. On the other side is an equally strong force that defends speech and expression in absolute terms, that resists anything that smells of censorship, and that elevates art of all kinds to an irreproachable level. Occupying but often lost in the cultural space between these two positions is a delicate ironic stance. This is an irony that contextualizes the concerns of both sides but remains independent enough to resist the Manichean terms of the debate. Without such irony we get riots over cartoons, churches boycotting movies with gay characters, and museum curators staunchly defending urine-soaked crucifixes. York, but before a distributor was allowed to book a movie in theaters in other parts of the country, it had to receive the approval of the most...

The Conversation

I am a product of the Christian Reform Church, which is a Dutch Calvinist, Protestant sect. That was in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The community was predominately I would say, exclusively Dutch. I went to West Side Christian growing up it was a Christian high school and eventually Calvin College, which is also a seminary. At that time, motion pictures were proscribed by decree against what they called the worldly amusements, which included things like theater, dancing, card playing, drinking, smoking, and so forth. So, in fact, I grew up in a community that was movie-free. Didn't see a film until I was a bit older and I was able to sneak out when I was, I don't know, maybe fifteen or so. I didn't feel particularly deprived, because no one I knew was seeing movies. It was outside the cultural loop. It was still possible at that time to have a kind of closed community, but television eventually came and completely destroyed that concept. That closed community no longer exists, even in...

The Wider Horizon

Even after the disappointment of being refused admission to Fordham, and with several questions about Church teaching beginning to arise in his life, Martin Scorsese did not totally abandon his idea of becoming a priest, but it was becoming less likely. He was starting to move out of the restricted family environment of his childhood and Catholic schooling toward new territories of young adulthood. A significant first step was his growing alienation from the Catholic Church. In various interviews, he specifies his difficulties with the Church, and they seem to cover a fairly standard repertoire for young men of his background in the 1950s. He experienced the predictable clash between parochial-school scrupulosity and puberty. In addition, after ten years of catechism, he found Church dogma and discipline overly concerned with peripheral matters, and he mentions being puzzled that after teaching for a thousand years that eating meat on Friday was enough to consign one to eternal...

Swamp Thing

The plot for Swamp Thing was based on a very popular comic book. It was one that I wasn't particularly familiar with, because comic books were another thing that was forbidden by the church. I read all the Swamp Thing comic books and just kind of made an amalgam of a story that was based on the major characters. That's how that came about. It was sort of an adaptation, if you will.

Sharp Angles

Most Soviet television documentaries portrayed people in an official way, creating only role models. That's why it was so hard to work on them. A film is interesting only when there's conflict, edginess, something unusual, and those were the very things that were hard to get past our bosses. The editors feared conflict the way devils fear church incense.

The Verdict

Powerful lawyers in Boston, Edward Concannon (James Mason), who represents Galvin's ultimate adversary, the Catholic Archdiocese of Boston. In this film, as is so often the case in Lumet's films, the WASP elite scarcely exists. This conflict is purely an internal matter for tribal chieftains. The oppressive majority consists of entrenched Irish Catholics, the old guard, and for the first time Lumet makes the official Church part of the mix. A cash, out-of-court settlement, it seems, will suit everyone's best interests the Doneghys as well as the doctors at St. Catherine Labore's and the Archdiocese of Boston, which operates the hospital. Avoiding the negative publicity about this tragedy is worth the price, even if the doctors were not negligent, as they claim. Bishop Brophy (Edward Binns) wants to offer the check personally to the Doneghys' attorney as a sign of the Church's compassion for the family after this terrible accident.26 All Galvin has to do is show up in the bishop's...

East Side West Side

But there were several key differences. For them, the City was more than a network of symbols it was their hometown, the place where they lived, went to church or temple, played stickball, and fell in love. They appreciated that Humphrey Bogart, for example, represented in look and sound the archetypal tough guy, and they could respond appropriately to his symbolic persona on the screen, but as a native New Yorker himself, he sounded like the neighborhood grocery man or the parish priest. The dark stairwells and foggy waterfronts Bogie crept through were menacing, of course, but they were not very different from the look of their own neighborhood. Because New Yorkers perceived these images, which were pure fantasy in other parts of the world, as arising from their familiar surroundings, they responded with a certain degree of ambiguity. They could grasp a menacing presence, but this did not transfer over to the City as a whole. New York was not all that dangerous for them, the fantasy...

Close to Home

Pattern for his treatment of the tensions he feels between group loyalty and personal integrity. Much of this struggle is framed through a Catholic sensibility formed in school, church, and Elizabeth Street culture. When explaining his belief that Scorsese's individual characters are at root moralists dealing with conflict, critic Michael Bliss convincingly explains this tension as an attempt to resolve the opposition between the behests of Catholicism as derived from the Bible and the rigorous demands of living in the world. 15 Scorsese makes his transition into commercial filmmaking with Who's That Knocking at My Door (1969). Also released at various times under the titles Bring on the Dancing Girls, I Call First, and JR, this film was originally conceived as the middle chapter in a trilogy. Scorsese wrote an extensive treatment of the first, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, while he was still at NYU, but he never was able to shoot it. The story recalls the experiences of several Catholic...

Crime Wave s

The film ended with the death of Rico on the steps of a church and his classic final line 'Mother of God .is this the end of Rico ' (which was altered by the censors to 'Mother of mercy' in some prints). Rico was based on Al Capone, who was incarcerated that same year for the less-than-glamorous crime of three years' tax evasion his defence was that he didn't think he'd have to pay tax on money garnered illegally. The second, and best, of the three crime films was William A. Wellman's The Public Enemy (1931), with James Cagney's dynamic turn as Irish hood Tom Powers, based in part on Bugsy Moran's associate, Dion O'Banion. This also climaxed with the mobster's memorable demise here Power's trussed-up corpse is delivered to his mother's doorstep.

Blurred vision

Even the plot's chief gimmick, the idea that the CIA would employ a unit like the ALHS to decode novels, was not entirely far-fetched. One of the former CIA operatives involved in the Watergate affair, E. Howard Hunt, had been accused of leaking agency plots to book companies as the basis for mystery novels. Furthermore, the ending could be read in two ways. Either it offered hope by suggesting the press was American democracy's salvation, as the exposure of Watergate had indicated or it implied the press would suppress Turner's story due to fear of, or collusion with, the nation's intelligence network, tying in with rumours of the government's infiltration of America's fourth estate. When Three Days of the Condor opened at cinemas in September 1975, Paramount exploited the film's topicality further by linking it with the start of public hearings into CIA wrongdoings by the Church Committee. Significantly, the movie's gala West Coast premiere was touted as a benefit evening for the...

Keeping Up the Beat

Logical racist and a member of the Ku Klux Klan, set off a bomb in the basement of the Baptist church that killed four girls, three fourteen years old and a fourth only eleven as they awaited the start of morning services. Lee carefully provides the context for the atrocity. In this present age, we have grown accustomed to random violence, but familiarity does not soften the horror. Spike Lee provides a thorough reconstruction of the historical context because he realizes that a younger generation needs to understand the systematic repression that existed in the South and in subtler forms in the North as well during the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first of the twentieth. His subjects point out that steady work in the steel mills might have created a relatively prosperous black working class in Birmingham, but if a man could not buy his daughter lunch when he takes her shopping, his weekly salary has little value. Segregation was not a benign institution, and...

Eric Bronson

In many ways, Brother Justin's response is vintage noir. As has been well documented, film noir first rose to popularity in the 1940s and '50s, at a time when Europe and America experienced real crises of faith. The wanton destruction of World War II, the unfathomable inhumanity behind the Holocaust, and the ensuing bankruptcy of moral will spurred necessary revolutions in philosophy and art. Traditional Faustian battle lines of good and evil were blurred real acts of heroism were hard to come by. Instead, a moral malaise seemed to infect everyone, from the highest reaches of academe to the most vibrant churches of Christendom. In philosophy's new field of existentialism, Camus' Plague, and Sartre's Nausea describe the human condition in stark and morose terms. It is perhaps the logical conclusion to Germany's prewar pessimism, a time in the nineteenth century when philosophers like Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche explained our world as inherently meaningless,...

Jewish New York

This intercity long-distance commuting would come later. By 1928, much had changed from the earlier days of Jewish immigration, but much remained the same. The coming of the subways at the turn of the century allowed the workforce to disperse uptown and to the other boroughs, but as the partially assimilated rode the IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit) into the middle class, the newest arrivals continued to come to the Lower East Side, at least until they were able to function in English. For the second generation, the old neighborhood still provided the most authentic food and the best opportunity to preserve a sense of ethnic roots through native-language newspapers, churches and synagogues, social clubs, and contact with newcomers bringing news from the old country. Of course, in many Jewish communities, the rise of National Socialism in Germany and the political climate of Central Europe would be a matter of concern. What was it really like for family and friends back home in the...

Sam Pollard

Sam has edited several dramatic features directed by Spike Lee, including Mo' Better Blues, Jungle Fever, Girl 6, Clockers, and Bamboozled. For HBO, he and Lee produced and Sam edited the documentary 4 Little Girls, an Academy Award-nominated film about the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, that claimed the lives of 11-year-old Denise McNair and 14-year-olds Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley. More recently, they coproduced and Sam was supervising editor on When the Levees Broke A Requiem in Four Acts, a documentary about New Orleans during and after Hurricane Katrina. He came up with a list of people he wanted to interview, and after he shot for a month the family members and people involved in the movement, we went into the editing room. For about three weeks, from 7 to 11 in the morning, we would screen dailies and talk. I came up with the idea of trying to do the parallel story. On one track we have the girls' lives unfolding on the other we see the...

Filmmaking In Quebec

Alexis Tremblay 1943

Canada is officially a bilingual country and recognizes the province of Quebec as a ''distinct society.'' Quebecois cinema faced some of the same obstacles as English-Canadian cinema, but its development was also hindered by the Catholic Church, which through the 1950s was the major cultural force in Quebec culture. Although separated from the rest of Canada by language and culture, Quebec eventually developed its own distinctive cinema as part of a belated embrace of modernity. In the 1920s and 1930s, ninety percent of the province's movie screens showed American films. In the 1930s, a number of French film companies, most notably France Film, distributed French movies in Quebec. The Catholic Church was strongly opposed to film, identifying Hollywood with immorality and English domination. Strong censorship laws were enacted, movies were condemned as exerting a corrupting influence, and for years movies were not allowed to be shown on Sundays. By the 1940s, however, the Catholic...

Dave rolinson

Community (violence, vandalism, verbal assault). This is particularly striking given that Guinness himself wrote the screenplay, adapting Joyce Cary's 1944 novel (for which he was nominated for an Academy Award). Meanwhile, its acidic one-liners give it a similar edge to late-i95os satires like I'm All Right Jack (John Boulting, 1959), while sharing that film's limitations through 'its socially determined need to adopt a 'broader' style'.3 Like I'm All Right Jack, The Horse's Mouth questions the efficacy of Ealing's representations of consensus, but does so by assimilating its tropes. The attempt of a group to save a church wall from demolition echoes the recurring Ealing plot in which 'ordinary people enacting the value of cooperation and community' rally around symbolic objects, but the group's failure and degeneration into violence problematises national solidarity.4 Of course, some Ealing films were themselves aware of the limitations of their consensual representations. The...

An Italian job

Worshipping freely at Orthodox churches. The latter film even allowed for the marriage in Russia between a touring American symphony conductor, John Meredith (played by Robert Taylor), and Nadya (Susan Peters), a Russian pianist. When Nadya decides to travel with her husband to the United States at the end of the movie, this is not to defect but to preach the message of the Soviets to America.40 Around this time Ninotchka also appeared in Vienna, a city then still controlled by the Russians, British, French and Americans. In November 1950 alone, more than 70,000 Viennese saw the film in the two large theatres within the international zone. A few months later, the US Embassy happily reported to Washington that 'considerable persuasion and reassurances of American interests' had paid off with respect to the film audience.59 As in Rome in 1948, Soviet officials complained bitterly about Ninotchka's release in Vienna, and several theatre owners withdrew the film due to threats of violence...

Martin F Norden

History is littered with examples, but ones from the first years of the twenty-first century should suffice. Within two days of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Baltimore Sun spoke for many when it defined Osama bin Laden as the face of evil. In the months following the attacks, U.S. President George W. Bush stirred considerable controversy by labelling Iraq, Iran, and North Korea the axis of evil. In his first public statement on the sexual molestation cases that rocked the Roman Catholic Church in the U.S., the late John Paul II observed that some priests had succumbed to the most grievous forms of the mysterium iniquitatis mystery of evil at work in the world. In a 2004 essay on Iraqi terrorists' video-recorded beheadings of western hostages, Harvard scholar Michael Ignatieff posed a poignant question Why can't we just call such acts by their proper names and conduct ourselves accordingly The name for this is evil. In April 2007, a Virginia Tech student from South Korea...

Bruce Babington

The Country music biopic represents the Country performer's 'special relationship' with his or her audience, at least to the degree that the star, however successful as a recording artist, stays on the road giving live concerts, as when Loretta Lynn and Patsy Cline duet 'Back in Baby's Arms Again' at a small fair in Connecticut in Coal Miner's Daughter. In such sequences the camerawork also declares that Country music audiences are different from others as it shows an extended community, or even a hugely extended family, middle-aged, old and young. In contrast, in The Buddy Holly Story, in which a new form of music is validated at the expense of traditional Country styles, Holly's performance at an ice rink splits the young rock 'n' roll audience from their elders. The audience that the camera pans across in Coal Miner's Daughter, and which is parallelled in other Country music biopics, reminds the viewer of the primary audiences for whom the protagonists play in their local medicine...


The filmmakers built on his visit to present modern Germany at a time when Israel was opening its embassy for the first time and war criminals from Auschwitz were on trial. Interviews with Germans who served in the war intermingle with newsreel footage of Hitler and the concentration camps. Old and new footage are unified by the narrator. Always, the question is asked How could the Holocaust happen in a land as cultured as Germany The role of the doctors and the churches is also explored. The next scene is of the town of Belsen in 1965. The visuals show its citizens pouring out of a church after Sunday Mass. The majority appear to be older people. The narrator talks of their not knowing of the camp during the Holocaust, although there was too much evidence toward the end of the war to deny. Brittain also editorializes about the appeal of Nazism in this rural region.

Fred inglis

Englishness, however, has taken a bit of a pasting these past thirty or so years, and the kind that I am talking about was only embarrassed by the efforts of Mrs Thatcher and her cronies to reassert a fatuous Great Britishness, which turned out to be in truth a merely shop-keeping little Englandism. Those same efforts of hers compounded the derision of Englishness so cordially expressed over the borders of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and concentrated at home by critics flying on the queasy, internationalist wings of academic leftism. Given that politics is now so completely dissolved into culture, those same critics on the left, friends and comrades of mine, found the Englishness of their malediction in every turn of the country's popular narratives. In the poetry of Ted Hughes and Philip Larkin, the novels of John Fowles and Penelope Lively, the music of Benjamin Britten and William Walton, the architecture of Leslie Martin and Colin St-John Wilson and above all in the films of...


Hulk of the Veterans Medical Center, some remaining green space within Fort Hamilton, and the forlorn skeleton of the parachute jump at Coney Island in the distance. To the left, Fort Hamilton High School exerts a dominant presence among the elegant private homes on Shore Road, and just before the exit ramp drops down to ground level, one can see the tiny War Memorial and cannon at the end of Fourth Avenue. The connecting road makes a loop from Irish Bay Ridge, past the edges of Italian Bensonhurst, skirts Scandinavian Sunset Park (now largely Latino) and the ivy-covered New York State Arsenal, and rises again to enter the elevated Gowanus Expressway. The road slides past the monstrous white fossils of the Bush Terminal industrial complex and the remnants of a working waterfront, finally plunging into the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel to Lower Manhattan. This ride creates a time warp. It slows me down and brings me back in time to familiar people and houses, to schools and shops and...

Isabel quigly

Film stars in the flesh - perhaps our most envied perk - were nearly always a disappointment, shorter, older, less pretty and certainly less friendly than one had imagined or perhaps hoped. But what did we hope for To them we were all church mice, dull outsiders they had to be polite to, just in case. Of the many actors I met in those days only three stand out in my memory as real people rather than well-drilled automata John Cassavetes, Sophia Loren and Tom Courtenay. All of them I met and came to know a little, as it were, privately, outside the usual run of publicity parties. Cassavetes was as human as his films, as responsive as one could hope for. He sent a friend to see me when he got back to America, who terrified my baby-sitter by telephoning with (not surprisingly) an American accent. I came home to find two small children and the sitter clutching one another in terror on a sofa, convinced that a gangster had rung up and was going to pop round at any moment. (Village girls in...


Before the violent confrontation at their farm, the couple attend a church social. All of the main characters attend the couple, the Venners, their friends, Henry Niles, the young girl whose disappearance will cause the action, the town magistrate, and other residents. For the mathematician's wife, the scene is fragmented by a cutaway to her memory of the rape, and she is so overwhelmed that she and her husband leave early in the evening. The young girl and Henry Niles do likewise. introduction to this scene. Peckinpah carried the sound of children's noise-makers through the scene. No matter what the visual is, the sound of the noisemakers pervades the scene. The shrillness of the sound gives the opening segment of the church social a relentless, disturbing quality. Later, once the attack at the farm has begun in earnest, Peckinpah relied on rapid cutting less than he did in the church sequence. Instead, Peckinpah relied on a counterpoint of sound and visual action to deepen the...

Ossie Davis

Davis' background has been highlighted in numerous African American biographies, as well as in his enlightening 1998 co-autobiography, With Ossie and Ruby In This Life Together. Born in 1917 in Cogdell, Georgia, Ossie Davis was the son of religious parents, with his father serving as a preacher in their church. Upon completing high school, Davis attended Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, but unable to meet his financial obligations, he relocated to Washington, D.C., and stayed with relatives while studying at Howard University. The classroom, however, couldn't hold Davis and his ambitions to write fiction and drama. He traveled to Harlem, where he began acting with a black troupe in 1941. Joining the army to help the war effort, Davis was stationed in Liberia, West Africa, where he wrote and produced stage performances to entertain the soldiers. After the war, he returned to New York and continued acting, and in 1948, he met his future wife, Ruby Dee, while they performed the play Anna...

Scandalous Cinema

Pictures and nickelodeons The exhibition of this one film alone has been the cause of more adverse press criticism than all the films manufactured before, put together, have done. It has the police active in trying to put down the nickelodeon. It has been the cause of action by church, children's, purity and other societies and these societies have branded all alike, taking the old saying, 'Birds of a feather flock together.' 7 Considered by film historian Charles Musser as the most controversial American film produced prior to the establishment of the Board of Censorship in 1909, 8 The Unwritten Law was the first film in the United States to be widely constructed as scandalous, singled out as a specific focus for the moral panic about dangerous representations and spaces that emerged in early 1907. Located in this context, the film became central to the beginnings of a discursive cordon sanitaire separating licit filmic representations from the illicit it was caught up in important...

Uplift Theaters

Educational films were validated more generally from this moment on, with an emergent sense that this educational role could be moved to center stage in the cinematic institution as a whole, with the nickel theater in effect becoming like a school. After the close of the experiment of the uplift nickel theater Addams praised the educational potential of cinema It is unfortunate that the five-cent theatre has become associated in the public mind with the lurid and unworthy. Our experience at Hull House has left no doubt in our minds that in time moving pictures will be utilized quite as the stere-opticon is at present, for all purposes of entertainment and education, and that schools and churches will count the films as among their most valuable equipment. 147 Lyman Howe, a well-known traveling exhibitor, likewise asserted in January 1907 that t he day is not far distant when every schoolroom will have its moving picture machine. I have the same forecast from more than 500 teachers...

Do What You Know

I never saw any real light. You wanted light, you turned on a light bulb. Maybe that's why I can't get a shot like Steven Spielberg got in Empire of the Sun, with the Japanese kamikaze pilots silhouetted against the red ball of the sun rising in the morning. I never saw such a thing growing up. I saw men and women in cars, nightclubs, a lot of bars, churches, and the inside of tenement houses, and always lots of hallways. You'll see lots of hallways in my pictures. Even in Last Temptation of Christ, there's a scene with Jesus and Judas in a hallway we found a hallway in Morocco.

Staying Alive

It's no use being the world's greatest filmmaker if you can't get your film funded. In an expensive medium, you have to be a businessperson as well as an artist. You have to find a sponsor or you're dead. By sponsor, I mean anyone with money who will support your film. This can be a university department, a television station, an industrial corporation, a government agency, a church, a film distributor, or even friends.

Immoral Or Obscene

A clear and important articulation of the Arnoldian stance can be seen in the activities of the civic organization the People's Institute. Located in New York City, the People's Institute was a reform-minded association that sought to address the social and industrial problems of urban America principally by supporting a number of cultural and political activities for the immigrant and working classes.77 Late in 1907 the institute, alongside the Women's Municipal League, undertook a report on cheap amusements in New York City, concluding that the new social force of nickelodeons was in the main a positive one.78 After this the institute cocreated the National Board of Censorship in early 1909 with film exhibitors and film producers, initiating an important strategy of interaction between some elite reform groups and the film industry that I will delineate further below and in chapter 3.79 The National Board of Censorship was staffed by reformers drawn from the professional middle...

Billy Elliot

The insular provincial town is completely in the grips of a control-freak mayor, Comte de Reynaud (Alfred Molina), who is relentless in his attempt to eradicate any perceived threat to the religious and social order he has designed for its inhabitants. Le Comte perceives his tiny domain in black and white. (He also wears black and white through most of the movie.) Things are either his way or they are against the laws of God. When the wind that announces the arrival of Vianne blows open the doors of the church and lets in the daylight, Le Comte, who has the somber presence of an undertaker, marches authoritatively to the back and closes the doors to the outside.

Pioneer Ancestors

The public was astonished to learn that he was a Tennessee mountain man, born in a log cabin in Fentress County, largely self-educated, poor, devout, lean, lanky, and a dead shot with a long rifle. This twentieth-century Hawkeye resisted being drafted on four separate occasions, even appealing to President Wilson that his pacifism was the conviction of his church. His appeals were all denied. Eventually he would meet a Georgia-born major who attempted to convert him to the war effort with a barrage of Bible quotations. After the religious duel and a last leave in the mountains, York, transformed into a muscular Christian crusader, embarked for France. In the last days of October 1918, York was part of a detail ordered to clear a hill for the American advance. When the rest of his company was killed or wounded, he managed to capture a German machine gun company single-handedly. Imagining that the advancing

The Others

Moments of conflict can break through the surface and erupt into hatred. In both Do the Right Thing and 25th Hour, he interrupts the narrative to let characters voice in the crudest terms their inner contempt for other definable ethnic groups white, black, Korean shopkeepers, Irish cops, Pakistani cab drivers. Although the racial tension is always present in the films, it only rarely breaks out into interracial violence. His powerful documentary about the bombing of a Baptist church in Atlanta in 1963, 4 Little Girls (1997), provides a moving reconstruction of an act of unspeakable violence, but if anything, it is both a condemnation of what one reporter calls pathological racism and a testimony to the dignity of the survivors. Neither Lee nor the families he interviews call for racially motivated revenge. In Do the Right Thing, the death of a black teenager at the hands of overly aggressive white police officers leads to a mindless destruction of property as an expression of...


Throughout the twentieth century, motion pictures were screened in a host of different places, including schools, churches, parks, and retail stores. But until the use of the home VCR became widespread in the 1980s, the primary site for film exhibition was the movie theater, which offered on a regular basis and always for the price of a ticket a moving picture program, a social experience, and sometimes much more. ''Despite the glamour of Hollywood,'' wrote economist Mae Huettig in 1944, ''the crux of the motion picture industry is the theater'' (p. 54). To a great extent, this remained true well into the late twentieth century.


In pre-20s Hollywood, little effort was made to impose restrictions upon either the content of films or the ways in whicl they were advertised. Although censors existed, it had very little influence when set against the power of the major studi Later, during the 20s and early 30s, the industry came under increasing pressur from both the churches and political leaders who were eager to rein in a Hollywood which they considered to be setting the country an appalling exampl with its debauchery and moral bankrupt Their arguments gained both strength and publicity as a result of a number of notorious Hollywood scandals. Two of t most shocking concerned the death of Wallace Reid from influenza, brought on by drug-abuse, and Fatty Arbuckle's arr for the alleged rape and murder of a young actress who had been a participa in an all-night alcohol- and drug-fuelled 'orgy' he was hosting (he was later cleared of all charges). The critics were further provoked by Hollywood's continuing preference...

The Arc of a Show

In the beginning, I worked a lot in church basements. Later on, I moved upstairs in the church. I must say, the Unitarian's really moved my career along. I've also worked in coffeehouses. Now I do concert halls. The way that I used to rehearse was, I worked in front of my blue couch. I picture imaginary people sitting there. My best friend was there I'd imagine Lily Tomlin, Dorothy Parker, all kinds of folks. I'd rehearse my material to them, imagine their reactions.

Tough Guys

The promethean gangster was shackled by the election of Franklin Roosevelt as president in 1932 and the stricter enforcement of the Hays Office's 1930 Production Code, provoked in large measure by the founding of the Catholic Church's Legion of Decency in 1934. Roosevelt, an activist president who assiduously manipulated the newly dominant technology of radio to transform his public image from a New York patrician crippled by polio to a paternal man of the people in whom ordinary Americans could believe, launched a series of highprofile initiatives immediately on his inauguration in 1933 insuring deposits in Federal Reserve banks, mandating increased prices for farm products, and launching the largest public-works programs in American history to start putting the unemployed back to work. That same year, Joseph I. Breen of the Hays Office finally succeeded, with the inadvertent help of the outrageous Mae West and the gangster cycle, in pressing the major studios to abide by the...

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