Emulsion Testing

The object of this series of tests is to determine the best working exposure index and the dynamic range for your original camera negative. This system takes into account any processing techniques, print stock and further duping of the original camera negative. Judging these tests should be done visually, although densitometer readings should be taken for later reference. It is more important to train your eye to see the various characteristics of the chain of events that result in the...

Transmission Blue Screen

Iri transmission blue screen, the source lights, power supplies and color of the screen itself have all seen changes. Incandescent lights, impractical because of their low blue content, have been replaced by fluorescent lamps, in particular by lamps containing the single phosphor strontium pyrophosphate Europium. Such lamps have a narrow band output peaking at 420 nanometers. They may be obtained from the major lamp manufacturers and are identified by the prefix SDB (Super Diazo Blue). These...

Bell Howell mm Filmo

Compact, spring-wound 100' daylight loading 16mm camera. Accessory 400' magazine and electrical motor for models 70HR and 70SR. Movement Cam-operated single claw. Spring-loaded edge guide and pressure plate. Relieved aperture plate. Shutter 204 (models before SN 154, 601 216 ) Viewfinder Outside finder tube, 3-lens turret, parallax correcting eyepiece. Focusing Magnified central image on ground glass when objective lens turret is rotated 180 . Safety latch prevents camera running when in...

Early Sync Pulse Systems

The advantages of Vi tape as a recording medium for motion pictures and television were recognized as early as 1948, both by Colonel Richard Ranger and Sherman Fairchild. In both the Ranger and Fairchild systems, a synchronizing pulse is taken from the camera's synchronous motor power source and recorder on the tape as an index of camera frame speed versus sound timing. The synchronizing recording of the Ranger system is in the center of the studio track and is recorded with a special magnetic...

Arriflex SR

Description The Arriflex 16SR-2 is a silent 16mm production camera, featuring a narrow, symmetrical body design and a unique, patented swing-over viewfinder. The 16SR-2's unique design allows the user to operate from either side of the camera. The 16SR-2 features a pin-registered film transport and fixed-gap channel, a fiberoptic viewing screen, patented orientable swingover viewfinder, APEC TTL metering system, auto shutter stop, and preset iris activator. It is widely used internationally for...

Modern Telephoto Lenses

Turner & Chris Condon The term telephoto lens is generally used to describe any lens, regardless of its optical configuration, which magnifies the image at least 50 more than the normal lens on any specific camera. The term true telephoto refers to lenses designed for physical compactness, yet having an effective focal length (EFL) longer than the physical distance of the optics from the image plane. This type of lens employs a negative rear optical component. The term...

Mechanics of Zoom Lenses

Perhaps the single most important factor in preparing a zoom lens for use is the mounting procedure. Unlike fixed focal length lens, a zoom will not perform correctly if not seated properly in the camera. The distance from the seat or flange of the lens mount to the film plane (known as the flange focal distance) is hypercritical. If not set to the prescribed dimension (17.52mm for Standard C mount, 40.0mm for Aaton, 52mm for Arriflex Standard, 38.1mm for CP, 48mm for Eclair) out-of-focus...

Zoom Lens Flexibility

There are a number of attachments available for zoom lenses to increase their flexibility. These attachments can be used to further change the angle of view, working distances, color and contrast, as well as protect the lens. One of the most commonly used front-mounted attachments is the close-up lens (sometimes referred to as a diopter). These attachments fit on the front of a zoom lens, permitting a closer than normal focusing range, as well as the full use of the zoom. Its prime limitation...

Preparation of Motion Picture Camera Equipment

Marty Ollstein, Michael Hofstein & Tom 'Frisby' Fraser All motion-picture camera equipment must be periodically inspected and maintained to insure proper performance in production. Camera rental facilities employ skilled technicians to service and repair equipment after each use. Once the equipment leaves the rental house, however, the camera crew must service that equipment throughout the production. The camera assistant must be prepared with the right knowledge, skills, tools, and...

Zoom Lenses

In order to understand why we use a zoom lens, it is best to first understand what a zoom lens is. By definition a zoom lens is a precision optical mechanical system, which can change its field of view without noticeably changing its aperture or focus. This is made possible by the use of complex cams and followers controlling precisely designed and manufactured optical components. Today the zoom lens is used mainly as a variable prime, meaning that the zoom lens carries within it an infinite...

Pros and Cons of and Super Film Formats

The most prevalent film formats, or aspect ratios, projected in the United States are 1.85 and 2.35. As a point of reference, these ratios are determined by dividing the width of the picture by the height, which is why you will sometimes see them written as 1.85 1 or 2.35 1 Verbally, you will hear them referred to as One Eight Five or Two Three Five (2.35 is also often referred to as Scope, referring to its origins as Cinemascope). An examination of films over the past forty years shows that...

Understanding an MTF Chart

For many, evaluating a lens has usually been a matter of being aware of the manufacturer's past record and the experience of others who have used that type of lens. To those more technically inclined, the use of a test chart indicating resolving power, in lines per millimeter, may be considered a criterion of lens quality. However, resolving power value can be very subjective and does not necessarily indicate the true value of a lens. Resolving power alone, regardless of its accuracy, can be...

Catadioptric or Reflective Systems

Reflective optical systems employing mirrored optical surfaces enable long focal lengths to be folded inside of a compact assembly, thus saving space and weight. These systems usually combine reflective surfaces and refractive correcting lenses. The color correction is good and normally requires no correction for using infrared sensitive film. Because of the necessity of using the entire light path, an iris diaphragm usually cannot be incorporated in these systems. Neutral density filters or a...

Other Filter Considerations

Effect of Depth of Field and Focal Length Changes Standard color filters generally function without change through variations in depth of field and focal length. This may not be true of many of the special effect filter types. There are no solid rules for predicting the variation in filter effect due to depth-of-field or focal length changes. There are some things we can expect, however. Let's look at a fog mist type filter that causes a light to glow, or flare. Take the example of a certain...

Problems of Grain in Front Projection

There are rather severe limitations on the use of zooming in a front projection scene and these limitations are caused by image grain. It must be remembered that the scene being projected was once photographed by a camera on negative film. In front projection, this scene is being copied onto the film in the camera and this film is a negative. Thus the background part of the scene is a dupe that has been made on camera negative rather than a fine grain duping stock. The graininess is therefore...

Special Considerations

Some lenses and filters will also fluoresce under ultraviolet radiation. Hold the lens or filter close to the ultraviolet lamp to look for fluorescence. Fluorescence of the lens or filter will cause a general veiling or fog in your pictures. In severe cases, the fog completely obscures the image. If a lens or filter fluoresces, you can still use it for fluorescence photography if you put the recommended ultraviolet-absorbing filter over the camera lens or the filter that fluoresces. It also...

Reflected Light Meters

Reflected light meters can be classified into two groups, according to function. The meters in each group may give exposure readings which are substantially different from those given by the meters in either of the other two groups. This is due to differences in basic principle of operation. Group 1. These are the meters which are designed to measure the average brightness of an entire scene. Such meters are usually used at camera location and pointed at the scene. For a discriminating...

With Non Time Code DATs

From the previous section, it will be apparent that even the simplest DAT recorder can be relied upon to run at constant speed without an additional synchronizing device or special track. Therefore, a standard clapper can be used for synchronization. All DAT machines have an additional advantage in that they contain two high-quality audio tracks that are actually technically superior to the best current analog recorders. This feature will alleviate the use of a second machine when it is...

Synchronous Motors and Selsyns

In both cases, the above systems were driven by synchronous motors. These normally took the form of a 220-volt 3-phase AC motors designed to run at 50 or 60 Hz, depending upon the geographic area of the world where they were intended to operate. (60Hz for North America and parts of Asia and 50Hz for the rest of the world.) The stator windings of these motors produce a rotating magnetic field in the armature area of each motor. The speed of rotation is the same for all motors and the armatures...

Alignment of Anamorphic Lens

The use of anamorphic lenses introduces special problems in front projection. Such lenses have two front nodal points, one associated with the vertical tilt motion and the other with panning motion. Both nodal points exist in the camera and projector lens, since these lenses have, in effect, two different focal lengths. If these nodal points in the camera and projector lenses are not equally spaced, there is no way to simultaneously superimpose both sets of nodal points. The problem can be...

Aerial Image Cinematography

An image which is formed by a lens in the air instead of on a film or on a ground glass is known as an aerial image. Such an image can be seen and photographed but it cannot be touched or felt. The image which is observed through a telescope, a microscope or a simple magnifying glass is an aerial image. Because of its clarity, sharpness and its intangible presence, it has led the cameraman to the development of the technique of aerial image cinematography, which is, in fact, a method of...

Cinemagic of the Optical Printer

Dunn, ASC Former president, Film Effects of Hollywood The earliest optical printers were custom built by the major studios and film laboratories, and were usually designed and made in their own shops to fit their particular requirements. Modern standardized optical printing equipment, capable of creating the innumerable effects heretofore possible only in the major studios, became available to the entire motion-picture industry in 1943 with the introduction of the Acme-Dunn...

I I M

This is a medium-speed color negative film with very fine grain, wide exposure latitude, high sharpness and faithful color rendition. Designed for general cinematography, this film lends itself to both indoor and outdoor use. This is a medium-speed color negative film with very fine grain, wide exposure latitude, high sharpness and faithful color rendition. Designed for general cinematography, this film lends itself to both indoor and outdoor use. EXPOSURE TABLE FOR TUNGSTEN LIGHT (24 frames...

Camera Stabilizing Systems

By John Jurgens Cinema Products Corporation Modern camera stabilizing systems enable a camera operator to move about freely and make dolly-smooth hand-held shots without the restrictions or the resultant image unsteadiness encountered with prior methods. These systems transfer the weight of the camera unit to the operator's body via a support structure and weight distribution suit. This arrangement frees the camera from body-motion influences. It allows the camera to be moved by the operator...

Info

5 pert 70 mm 2.2 1AR Proj Ap 1.912 x .870 ration of release printing duplicate negative. Prints must be projected with an anamorphic lens. (Alternate finder markings are shown for 35mm flat and 70mm extraction. Note that all extractions use the same headroom. Television extraction is not fixed at this writing alternate versions would crop sides and extend to the bottom of the camera aperture or use the same side lines and protect the area above the nominal headroom line. There have been minor...

Panavision mm T Slant Focus Lens

The plane of focus of this lens can be tilted in any direction (including vertical and diagonal) as well as horizontal by adjusting the rear lens rotating mount. If the lens focus is set on an object near the center of the field of view, the plane of focus can be tilted so that objects (left side of frame and or right side of frame) located along this tilted plane of focus will also be sharp. If there is not an object near the center of the field of view, measure the distance to the near and...

Screen Types and Lighting Backlit screens

A perfect blue backing would expose only the blue-sensitive layer of the color negative. Crosstalk in the negative layers, imperfect illuminators, and spill light on the set all compromise this ideal. Nevertheless, thanks to the joint efforts of the visual effects community and film manufacturers, the best current combinations of screen illumination and negative type yield backings of unprecedented qual-ity. Either of two types of blue backings can be used in the blue-screen matte process. If...

Pan Tilt and Zoom

It is possible in front projection to pan and tilt the camera during photography, provided that the x, y, z relationships of the nodal points are maintained. To do this, it becomes necessary to use a nodal-point camera mount that permits the front nodal point of the camera lens to be located at the center of rotation for both pan and tilt motions. This requirement of maintaining a co-location of projector and camera lens nodal points also applies to a zoom lens. Because the front nodal point of...

Safety Bulletin No Guidelines for Insert Camera Cars

An Insert Camera Car shall be a vehicle that is specifically engineered for the mounting of cameras and other equipment for the primary purpose of photography from a stationary or moving vehicle. 2. A camera car shall be safety checked before and after use on a minimum of a daily basis by qualified experienced personnel specifically brakes, tires, electrical system and towing equipment. 3. All rigging of equipment shall be done in a safe maimer by qualified, experienced personnel. 4. Aii Insert...

Cinema Products Cpr Cpra

Reflex 16mm news documentary studio single double system sound cameras. Movement Sinusoidal, intermittent movement, self-engaging single-claw film pull-down. Film accurately guided over a series of stainless-steel balls to guarantee in-focus, scratch-free pictures (with no emulsion pickup). Stainless-steel pressure plate, ground lapped with recessed center area, easily removable for cleaning. Shutter Focal plane 170 (optional 144 ). Reflex Viewfinder Rotating mirror integral with focal plane...

Blow Ups and Reductions

The fixed set-up optical printer is used for 16mm reduction negatives and prints, and for certain limited release printing from 35mm originals. This is utilized when small volume makes this procedure more economical than through a converted negative, and when maximum quality is of greatest importance. Enlarging from 16mm to 35mm color or black and white is a very important function of the optical printer. Many fine theatrical films, such as the Academy Award-winning The Sen Around Us, The...

Cinema Products CP CPA

16mm news documentary single double system sound cameras. Movement Sinusoidal, intermittent movement. Self-engaging single-claw film pull-down with precision lapped surfaces for quiet, long-life reliability. Film accurately guided over a series of stainless steel balls to guarantee in-focus, scratch-free pictures (with no emulsion pickup). Stainless steel pressure plate, ground lapped with recessed center area, easily removable for cleaning. Viewfinder The CP-16 was designed for specific use...

The Cinematographer and the Laboratory

Laboratories routinely use the film manufacturers' recommended specifications for processing, modified to meet their particular equipment. (The entire system type of film, manufacturers' EI recommendation, laboratory printing and processing range is calibrated to produce a pleasing rendition of fully lighted flesh tones under normal projection conditions.) In addition to producing normal results on the screen, most laboratories can on request modify the screen results to produce a particular...

Camera Aperture

.404 x .295 -TV STATION-PROJECTOR APERTURE .380 x .286 - TV TRANSMITTED AREA .368 x .276 -TV SAFE ACTION AREA .331 x .248 CORNER RADII R .066 ' SAFE TITLE AREA 293 x 221 NO. 6 16mm FINDER MARKINGS lor enlarging to 35mm NO. 6 16mm FINDER MARKINGS lor enlarging to 35mm Camera aperture .404 x .295 Projector aperture .378 x .276 (max). Projector aperture .378 x .205 (1.85 1) (enlarging ratio 1 2.18) SUPER 16 (16mm Type W) for enlarging to 35mm Camera aperture .493 * .292 Projector aperture .463 x...

High Resolution Electronic Intermediate System for Film

Eastman Kodak Company has developed a high-resolution electronic intermediate system designed for the contemporary needs of the motion-picture industry. This system can be used to scan and digitize frames of motion picture film so they can be interactively manipulated and composited at computer workstations. The digital pictures can be recorded back onto film without compromising image quality. There are many significant advantages to this technology. By converting film to digital form (l's and...

Mm Cameras Aaton XTRplus

Economically designed standard 16 and Super 16 camera for studio and documentary use, featuring time code and video assist. Sound level 19dB. (Aaton XTRplus specific features appear in italics.) Movement Linear-stroke single claw self registering. Lateral and vertical registration system ensures a positioning of the film better than 2.5mm in all three axes. Hair-free gate with air circulation channel pulls hair out. Shutter True 180-degree front surface mirror facilitates 60Hz HMI and...

Kenworthy Snorkel Camera Systems

A remote image-taking system with operator and camera components removed from shooting area. The camera looks into a periscope-like optical relay tube that extends downward below the camera and ends with a small front-surfaced mirror. Since the mass of the camera with operator is removed from the shooting area, considerations of scene staging are concerned only with the small end (1JA x 1-1 4m at the mirror) of the tube. The tilting mirror is remotely controlled, as are other functions such as...

Special Techniques Aerial Cinematography

Motion pictures often require scenes photographed from the air, principally utilizing fixed-wing planes and helicopters. In addition, there are occasional demands for shots made from gliders, balloons, and while skydiving. Many fixed-wing aircraft have been adapted for various camera mountings. When photographing air-to-air it is necessary to consider which camera aircraft is correctly matched to the aircraft being pictured in regard to safety, speed and maneuverability. The cinematographer...

Cinematographic Systems

Most films produced for theatrical presentation are photographed in one of the systems intended for projection in an aspect ratio greater than 1.33 1. These are loosely categorized as wide screen systems. All films produced for use in television systems and most of those produced for industrial and educational use are photographed in an aspect ratio of 1.33 1. Following are the photographic systems currently employed in the preparation of motion picture negatives or reversal originals from...

Projector Aperture

1.912 x 0.870 Dotted line indicates finder marking for 35mm extraction 1.912 x 0.816 11. 35mm, 8-perforation, horizontal frame photography (VistaVision) for compositing to one of the 35mm systems. As any part of the negative image may be used to suit the user, no projection aperture or finder markings are shown. (Figure 8) (Lens angles are given in the tables only for the full negative aperture.) Depth of field is also affected by the ultimate use it is therefore suggested that the 35mm tables...

Special Visual Effects

Motion-Control Cinematography 424 Travelling-Matte Composite Photography 430 The Future for Travelling-Matte Digital Effects Cinematography 460 Intermediate System for Film 462 Cinemagic of the Optical Printer 475 Aerial Image Cinematography 481 Charts 413,419,423,443 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES Underwater Cinematography 495 Safety Guidelines for Insert Camera Cars 503 Day-for-Night Cinematography 518 Stereoscopic Motion Picture Technology 534 3-D Cinematography 538 Synchronizing Methods for Picture...

MSM Model mmperf Vista Vision

Movement MSM Monoblock high-speed, triple register pins, claw engages four perfs. Shrinkage adjustment changes both stroke and entry position. Indexable loop-setting sprockets have independent locking keeper rollers. Vacuum backplate assures film plane accuracy, removes without tools for cleaning. Aperture and movement remove easily for cleaning and lubrication. Aperture size 1.485 wide x .992 high. Frame-rates from time-lapse to 72 fjps forward, to 30 fps reverse. Shutter Focal plane shutter,...

Zero Cut Editing

To completely avoid the possibility of jumping splices, the negative can be cut into A & B zero-cut format. The zero-cut method, with a minimum of four frames for an overlap, will eliminate the splice-jump problem, but 16mm contact prints made from zero-cut negatives will have a one-frame dissolve at the scene changes. Quite often this dissolve is noticeable when viewing the print. Since Super 16mm contact prints with sound cannot be made directly from a Super 16mm negative, there is no...

Sound Recording Hints

Before embarking upon any recording, it is mandatory to check out thoroughly all of the equipment that will be used. People often have difficulties in the field which could have been avoided if every piece of equipment, including the cables, had been completely checked before leaving for work. If one is uncertain about the use or performance of the equipment, ask for a technician to be available to explain everything and to verify that all of the individual components are operating correctly....

Incident Light Meters

These meters are normally used at the location of the photographic subject. They measure the light which is effective in illuminating the subject. They give an answer in terms of f-stop or T-stop for the camera lens. The camera lens diaphragm opening is then set to match the effective intensity of the prevailing illumination. When the film is exposed, the various reflectances presented by the subject will then each fall into a given place in the film acceptance range. For example, a face tone...

Wilcam W Vista Vision High Speed

Wilcam Vistavision

VistaVision, 8-perforntion 35mm designed for operation at 200 frames per second. Film Transport 2 claw pins. Transport claws never enter the registration pin perforations. Shutter Beryllium mirror with tungsten counter weights. Viewfinder Rotating mirror. Uses servo motors for constant erect image while the eyepiece is being rotated. Lenses 14mm f 2.8 Canon, 19mm f 2.8 Leitz, 24mm T-1.4 Canon, 28mm T-1.8 Zeiss, 35mm T-1.4 Zeiss, 50mm T-1.4 Zeiss, 85mm T-1.4 Zeiss, 135nim T-1.8 Zeiss, 35-140 f...

Automatic Telecine Operation

The telecine operation at major broadcaster's installations or in most video postproduction houses serving the broadcast and cable television industries is characterized by an effort to reproduce the film as faithfully as possible within the physical limitations of the telecine device. Despite the misgivings of some cinematographers, the video operator does not make arbitrary changes in the character of the image with a well-photographed and timed print, the operator will make an essentially...

Rear Screen Projection

Rear-screen projection process essentially consists of filming live foreground action against a specially photographed background plate which is being rear-projected onto a translucent screen. The following items are required 1. Special background projector with camera-type registration and 220 volt, 3-phase, AC sync motor. 2. Motion-picture camera with crystal-controlled motor with a camera projector electronically phaseable shutter sync box. 3. Specially prepared print on print stock with B...

Laboratory Procedures for Compositing

The Color Difference Blue Screen Traveling Matte System permits a high level of realism. To maintain this realism in such items as smoke, glassware, fine detail, and so forth, special care must be exercised in selecting the density and gamma of the separations and mattes. All separations and certain mattes are to be made on a black amp white panchromatic film stock at a nominal gamma of 1.0. with all printing factors, such as the Callier Q Effect, taken into account . The Eastman 5235 film is...

Arriflex High Speed MOS

Movement One registration pin and dual-pin pulldown claw. Film channel incorporates a pressure pad at the back of aperture area. Aperture plates and ground glasses for all aspect ratios are interchangeable. Shutter Rotating, front surface coated mirror shutter system, with variable shutter 180 , 172.8 , 144 , and 135 . Variable shutter from 15 to 135 in 15 increments is available for earlier cameras, and is standard on 35-3 130 fps models. The 15 to 180 shutter is constructed of lightweight...

Isbn

Cover Design and Artwork by George E. Turner Copy edited by David Heuring, Stephen Pizzello and Marji Rhea Production by Martha Winterhalter Printed in the United States of America by Sinclair Printing Company This edition, like all of the previous editions, was a joint effort. We have called on ASC members, associate members and manufacturers' representatives to discuss the state of the art in the areas of their expertise. I would like to thank each of the more than 50 contributors for taking...

Filter Factors

Many filter types absorb light, and this must be compensated for when calculating exposure. These filters are supplied with either a recommended filter factor or a stop value. Filter factors are multiples of the unfiltered exposure. Stop values are added to the stop to be set without the filter. Multiple filters will add stop values. Since each stop added is a doubling of the exposure, a filter factor of 2 is equal to a one-stop increase. Example three filters of one stop each will need three...

Black White Films

For pictorial purposes, the greatest use of infrared sensitive film for motion-picture photography has been for day-for-night effects. Foliage and grass reflect infrared and record as white on B amp W film. Painted materials which visually match in color but do not have a high infrared reflectance will appear dark. Skies are rendered almost black, clouds and snow are white, shadows are dark, but often show considerable detail. Faces require special makeup and clothing can only be judged by...

Eclair CM mm

Movement Pull-down claws are mounted on sliding cam-driven plate. Movement has two sets of ratchet-type pull-down claws one on each side for 35mm and a centered claw for 16mm. Ease of adjusting claw stroke permits adapting camera to either normal four-perforation pulldown or two-perforation pull-down for Techniscope, or single-perforation pull-down for 16mm operation. Claw movement stroke may be changed by sliding cam, which is reached through opening in aperture plate. No disassembly or...

Printer Points

The laboratory controls print density and color balance by increasing or decreasing the intensity of each primary color of light in steps called printer points. Since the development of the B amp H model C printer most manufacturers have standardized on a range of 50 light points in 0.025 Log E increments. In addition to the light points each printer usually also has 24 trim settings 0.025 Log E , giving an available total of 74 lights. The ideal settings for scene-to-scene timing would be at...

Cine Zoom Lenses on Video Cameras

Now that the video medium has progressed to state-of-the-art equipment, where gamma and other picture qualities are controllable enough to provide the film look, cinematographers are finding a need for a greater variety of lenses to render the same quality images they have photographed on film. Unfortunately, professional television equipment manufacturers have not produced many extreme type lenses and therefore there is an urge to utilize the great variety of cine lenses on video cameras. Cine...

Forced Development of Color Films

With the color films most commonly used today, it is possible to compensate for underexposure by extended development or pushing. Similar to the principles of traditional black amp white sensitometry, forced development of these color films increases their contrast, graininess and the fog level. Therefore, forced development can never yield the same image quality possible when films are exposed and processed strictly according to the manufacturer's recommendations. In many instances, however,...

Reverse Blue Screen

This process was developed in response to a requirement to be able to matte objects incorporating highly reflective surfaces, such as glossy paint even blue paint or specular metallic materials, as well as details such as mesh, thin wires, and the like. Such characteristics have proved to be difficult, and in some cases, impossible to matte by conventional blue screen or frontlit backlit processes. The process requires a sophisticated motion-control system capable of multiple passes in...

Photo Sonics mmER

High speed, 6 to 360 f.p.s. pin register studio recording camera. Movement Intermittent with 12 pull-down arms, four registration pins and a vacuum back. Shutter Adjustable rotary disk type with increments 5 between 5 and 50 10 between 50 and 120 . Reflex Viewfinden 4ER incorporates a reflex viewing system in conjunction with a Jurgens Arriflex orientable viewfinder system and shuttered CCD video tap. Lens Mount BNCR, Panavision or Photo-Sonics. Drive Built-in motor and circuitry. Requires 208...

Using the Ulti Matte Video Previewer

UltiMatte is a video matting device that can provide a preview of the final composite scene on a color monitor prior to and during photography. The UltiMatte eliminates much of the guesswork and uncertainty in photographing complex scenes in which the actor must be realistically integrated among people and objects in the background scene. Prior to UltiMatte, complex blue-screen shooting was slow, difficult, and often unsuccessful. A small color video camera is used to observe the scene to be...

Eclair ACL mm

Movement The claw movement is a wedge-shaped claw controlled by an eccentric and a fixed cam and rendered positive by the use of a counter cam. The steadiness of the image is excellent, with a tolerance of less than one-thousandth of frame height. Lateral steadiness is assured in the gate by a fixed side bar and a spring-loaded guide. Image sharpness is ensured by a spring-loaded pressure plate which forms part of the front of the ACL magazine and which maintains the film perfectly against the...

Blue Screen Process

Male Matte Bluescreen

The Color Difference Traveling Matte System is the most flexible of all compositing techniques. It can be used with any pin-registered camera, and with normal unfiltered set lighting lamps. The only special requirement is that one must paint the backing an appropriate blue. The blue-screen traveling matte technique prior to 1959 had as its trademark a blue halo following all moving objects and frequently non-moving objects . The Color Difference system eliminates the blue halo and provides...

Arriflex

The Arriflex 535 is a completely integrated camera system. Its microprocessor control technology permits shutter angle and speed changes while running at the camera or remotely. Movement Multi-link film transport with dual-pin registration conforming to optical printer standards, and dual pull-down claws. Easily removed for changing to a 3-perforation pull-down. Adjustable pitch control. Universal aperture plate has both interchangeable format masks and a behind-the-lens gel filter holder....

Eclair NPR mm

Movement Film is advanced by desmodrimic cam movement. Quiet movement is achieved by wedge-shaped claw which slides into perforation with a wedging motion. Film is pulled down and registered upon bench-type registration pin which begins moving into position before film has stopped. Extra-long rear pressure plates and side guide rails steady film. Raised areas in center of aperture portion of pressure plate eliminate possibility of breathing or focal shift. Shutter 180 high reflectance...

Arriflex C

Arriflex Techniscope

Description The 35-2C series consists of multipurpose 35mm cameras. They are used handheld, and with appropriate accessories, for almost every type of motion picture production application. 35-2C B Standard 2C featuring the Arri parallax-free viewfinder system, a precision film transport system with a maximum speed of 48 fps, a three-lens mount turret, and an interchangeable motor-drive system. 35-2CGS B Standard 2C features plus Pilotone output and startmarking system. 35-2CV B Standard 2C...

Reverse Front Projection

Front Projection Diagram

In both front projection and transmission blue-screen compositing, extreme close-ups have presented various problems. In close-up photography via transmission blue, blue spill is the principal villain encountered. In front projection, if a subject approaches very close to the camera projector apparatus, the projected light will record on the subject in spite of the vast difference in gain between the subject and the Scotchlite screen. Furthermore, certain rules have long existed in front...

Continental Camera Systems Remotely Controlled Pitching Lens f Optical Relay

Concept A system to remotely control a prime lens that is mounted at the end of an optical relay tube. In normal configuration the 18 tube extends downward from the camera. The prime lens is mounted at right angles to the tube and can tilt 15 up to 90 down. The entire system rotates 380 . This allows lenses such as Nikkor or Arriflex to get into very small areas. Use of an anamorphic element between the end of the relay tube and camera allows a spherical lens to produce an anamorphic image on...

AC Arc Lamp Flicker Problem

All of the AC photographic arc lamps described in the Lighting Section and in the Commercial Industrial light sources section can exhibit the flicker phenomenon. This includes fluorescents, mercury vapor, metal halide additive types, and high-pressure sodium as well as the photographic types like HMI, CSI and CID. Figure 43. Waveform for an HMI lamp. Figure 43. Waveform for an HMI lamp. Figure 44. Waveform for a 1000-W CSI lamp. Figure 44. Waveform for a 1000-W CSI lamp. All of the noted types...

Arriflex BL

Arriflex 16mm

Movement Registration pin operates through a variable speed range of 5 to 50 fps, forward or reverse, when used with appropriate motor and speed controls. Reflex Viewfinder Rotating mirror-shutter system with fixed 180 opening 4s sec at 25 fps , high-aperture parallax-free viewing, 10X magnification at the eyepiece. An offset finder accessory is available for handheld camera applications for additional operator comfort. Lens Mount Steel Arri Bayonet mount lens housings are required to maintain...

Arriflex Super

Two versions of the 16SR-2 camera are available in the Super 16 format the 16SR-2 5-75 fps and the 16HSR-2 Highspeed 10-150 fps . Normal operation and functions of both are virtually the same as with standard 16SR-2 cameras. The height of the Super 16 aperture in the 16SR-2 is identical to that in regular 16SRs, but the aperture is 2mm wider, pushing into the left perf area on the negative. The Super 16 aperture is 7.5 X 12.3mm, and the aperture of regular SRs is 7.5 X 10.3 mm. This...

Mitchell Nc Ncr Bnc Bncr mm Fc Bfc mm

Mitchell Camera Bncr

The NC camera differs from the standard model in that it uses a mechanically different and quieter movement and has other features which make it quieter. NC, BNC, FC, BFC are rack-over models. NCR, BNCR are reflex models. NC model has a four-lens turret, the others a single lens mount. B models are blimped versions. Movement Dual-register pins, four-prong pull-down adjustable stroke. Timing marks on shutter and movement facilitate removal and reassembly. Removable aperture plate with built-in...

Vari Con Adjustable Contrast Filter

The Arri VariCon is a compact, variable contrast-con-trol system which quickly and easily slides into the dual filter stage closest to the lens of any regular 6.6X 6.6 matte box. The VariCon differs from low-contrast filters in that it provides for a continuously adjustable contrast over the entire photometric range of the film without any loss of resolution, and without any effect on the highlights. It differs from standard flashing pre- or post-exposure of the negative in the lab or in the...

Stereoscopic Motion Picture Technology

By Christopher James Condon, 3-D Consultant President, Stereo Vision International, Inc. Three-dimensional stereoscopic films, when expertly photographed and projected, can result in motion pictures with amazing roundness and depth. Recent state-of-the-art examples shown at theme parks have proven that these films can be the most realistic visual medium sometimes even exceeding the capabilities of our two-eyed perception. This exciting effect can now be achieved in local cinemas if the process...

Exposure Meters

Type Hand-held digital analog incident meter. Light Sensor Large area, blue enhanced silicon photo sensor. Swivel head 270 degrees. Measuring capability Direct readout of photographic exposures in full f-stops or fractional f-stops. Also measures illuminance level in footcandles and Lux. Measuring Range Direct-reading multiple-range linear circuit incorporates a high quality CMOS integrated amplifier whose bias current is compensated against drift up to 70 C. Dynamic range 250,000 to one....

Lenses and Lens Ports

Ports are available both with a flat surface and as a corrected dome. With a flat port the magnification created by the water air to water refractive index is 1.33 causes the camera lenses to assume the characteristic of slightly longer lenses and objects appear closer by 4. The corrected dome port permits the lenses to function with their true focal lengths. The dome radius is critical and its center must be on the nodal point of the lens to function correctly, if not diopters will be...

ZAxis Displacement for Closeups

When it is essential to make a rather extreme closeup of a single object or person, it can be done without a halo by observing a special rule. If the single foreground object extends outward in all directions from the center of the camera-lens axis, it then becomes possible to move the camera forward by several inches, placing it well within the shadow cone of the projector. This action would normally produce a severe shadow on the inside edge of all off-center objects. But the single object or...

Equipment and Filming Technique

In the Arctic or on mountain climbing expeditions, as the altitude and the subsequent cold increase, breathing becomes difficult, and it involves a great effort to work normally. Reactions are slow. Therefore, everything pertaining to the use of the camera should be made as simple as possible. Exposure estimates may be poor when the faculties are dulled, so exposure and other data should be printed on a card and fastened to the camera or its cover in plain view. Certain general cold-weather...

Television Film Apertures

In almost any receiver, the accumulated effects of mask shape and off-center scanning or excessive height or width of scanning would result in the display of excessive picture information that was transmitted. While this area loss is different in each receiver, the average loss, or to put it another way, the area displayed by the average receiver, has been noted with the establishment by SMPTE of a safe action area and a safe title area see Cinematographic Systems . Masks of the shape and...

Camera Filters

Camera filters are transparent or translucent optical elements that alter the properties of light entering the camera lens for the purpose of improving the image being recorded. Filters can affect contrast, sharpness, highlight flare, color, and light intensity, either individually or in various combinations. They can also create a variety of special effects. It is important to recognize that, even though there are many possibly confusing variations and applications, all filters behave in a...

Lens Focus Calibration

see Photographic Testing and Evaluation a 40mm or wider set camera at 3 feet from Focus Chart. Focus lens visually, compare with lens dis tance markings. For more critical testing, shoot film tests of each lens. b Longer than 40mm set camera at 7 feet from Focus Chart. Focus lens visually, compare with lens distance markings. c All lenses focus on distant object to test sharpness at infinity. 2 Zoom Lenses Use calibration procedure described for Prime Lenses, and repeat for several focal...

Panavision Super R mm

Panavision Platinum

Movement Dual pilot pin registration. Double pulldown claws. Pitch control to optimize camera quietness. Entire movement may be removed for servicing. Aperture Plate Removable for checking and cleaning. Full-frame aperture is standard, aperture mattes are used for all other frame sizes. A special perforation locating pin above the aperture ensures trouble-free and rapid film threading. Aperture Mattes Interchangeable aperture mattes are available for Academy, Anamorphic, Super-35, 1.85 1,1.66...

Special Purpose Lenses Swing Shift Lens

The Clairmont Swing Shift Lens System consists of a multi-axis moveable lens board receiver attached to a Arriflex style PL lens mount by a rubber bellows. Specially modified lenses are attached to the receiver board by two captive screws. The assembly is able to move the entire lens in the following directions tilt up and down, swing side to side, shift position and focus right to left, or up and down. Tilting swinging the lens plane alters the focus tilting swinging the film plane alters the...

Cinema Products Steadicam Universal Model III

The Steadicam system consists of a stabilizing support arm which attaches at one end to the camera operator's vest and at the other end to a floating camera mounting assembly which can accept either a 16mm, 35mm or video camera. The comfortable, adjustable, padded, close-fitting camera operator's vest is an effective and sophisticated weight distribution system. It transfers and distributes the weight of the Steadicam system including camera and lens across the operator's shoulders, back and...

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Background plates 394 Barndoors 390 Batteries and cables 261 Black amp white film 120 Black amp white negative and reversal films 283 Blowup 16mm to 35mm 527 composing 16mm for blowup to 35mm 528 composing Super 16mm for blowup to 35mm 530 laboratory procedures 533 Super 16mm 529 titles 531 zero-cut editing 533 Blue screen process black amp white self-matting process 445 blue floor shooting 436 blue screen materials 437 electronic and digital compositing 444 front projection blue 456 front-lit...

Mitchell mm Reflex SSR Single System DSR Double System Sound Cameras

Movement Single claw, single or double for double system sound registration pin. Adjustable stroke. Three sprockets. Removable aperture plate has built-in filter slot. Movement removable without losing timing. Speed range 16-64 fps. Alternate non-metallic and steel gears for quietness. Guides and locks interlocked with compartment door. Shutter Focal plane 170 separate from mirror. Reflex Viewfinder Rotating mirror. Ground glass tinted outside film aperture area, biter changeable ground...

Mitchell mm Reflex TODDAO

Displacement Magazines Images

Four pull-down claws. Adjustable pull-down stroke. Removable aperture plate with built-in matte slot. Aperture 2.072 x .9055 Speed range 12 fps-32. Reflex Viewfinder Pellicle beam splitter shock mounted views more than full aperture area. High magnification for critical focusing contrast viewing filters. External Viewfinder Large erect image viewfinder calibrated for different focal-length lenses. Calibrated for any two aspect ratios. Parallax correcting cams...

Composing mm for blowup to mm

The aspect ratio of a picture frame is the relationship between its width and height. The ratio of the standard 16mm and 35mm frame is 1.33 1. Reducing the height of the picture while maintaining the width will increase its aspect ratio. This is done in 35mm projection by using a mask to crop equally the top and bottom of the picture frame. 35mm prints are projected at a 1.85 1 aspect ratio in the United States and at 1.66 1 in Europe. On TV, the picture is viewed at a 1.33 1 aspect ratio. This...

Extension of Prime Lens

As the prime lens is moved forward, less light is transmitted because the effective T-stop is progressively diminished by its distance from the film. At a subject-to-lens distance of about 10 focal lengths field width of 8 for 35mm, or 4 for 16mm this begins to become noticeable. The table shows the amount of illumination increase required to maintain full exposure in terms of image scale factor. By convention, most camera lens distance scales are calibrated at a subject distance measured from...

Panaflex Panastar High Speed

Panaflex Diagram

Movement Dual pilot pin registration ensures process-plate image steadiness. Pilot pins register in the same perforation holes immediately below the bottom frame line as optical printers. Four pull-down claws. Entire movement may be removed for servicing. Aperture Plate Same as Platinum Panaflex. Aperture Mattes Same as Platinum Panaflex. Shutter Focal plane shutter with infinitely variable opening and adjustable in-shot. Maximum-opening 180 , minimum 40 with adjustable maximum and minimum...

Panavision Panaflex mm Camera System

Panavision Panaflex

Movement Pilot pin registration ensures optimum image steadiness. Entire movement may be removed for servicing. Aperture Plate Removable for checking and cleaning. Normal 16mm aperture plate is standard, Super 16 is available. Shutter Focal-plane shutter with infinitely variable opening and adjustable in-shot. Maximum opening 200 , minimum 50 with adjustable maximum and minimum opening stops. A digital display allows adjustments in ' io increments. Micrometer adjustment allows critical...

Wilcam W Vista Vision Lightweight

Wilcam Camera

Vista Vision, 8-perforation 35mm designed for general purpose use. Maximum speed 100 frames per second. Film Transport 2 claw pins. Transport claws never enter the registration pin perforations. Shutter 180 Beryllium mirror with tungsten counterweights. Viewfinder Rotating mirror. Uses servo motors for constant erect image while the eyepiece is being rotated. Lenses 14mm f 2.8 Canon, 19mm f 2.8 Leitz, 24mm T-1.4 Canon, 28mm T-1.8 Zeiss, 35mm T-1.4 Zeiss, 50mm T-1.4 Zeiss, 85mm T-1.4 Zeiss,...

Mm Arriflex Bl Doublesystem

Standard zoom and telephoto lenses should be used with the Bridgeplate Support System. APEC Exposure control system, meters behind the lens and displays continuous exposure information match-needle mode in the viewfinder. Motor Drive Two motor-drive systems are available. The quartz-controlled motor provides cordless sync-con-trol and automatically stops the shutter in viewing position. Its speed range is 6,12, 24 quartz-controlled and 48 fps. The Universal motor is transistorized and governor...

Steadiness Test

Test steadiness of camera movement by double-exposing image. 1 Prepare chart simple cross of one-inch white tape on black card. 2 Mark start frame in film gate with felt pen. 3 Roll 30 seconds of the chart at 50 exposure. 4 Backwind film, or rewind film in darkroom, to place start frame back in film gate so as to thread on the same perforation . 5 Offset chart by the width of the tape, and double-expose chart. 6 Process and project to evaluate steadiness.

Film Stock

Improvements in film stocks are now occurring with such rapidity as to preclude the prior practice of providing comparative data in this manual. Instead, guidelines for use in selecting and testing appropriate stocks for composite photography will be discussed. The importance of color difference matting in composite photography has now been sufficiently well established that all manufacturers have made efforts to achieve the requisite chromatic discretion in their product. Recent years have...

Cinema Products GSMO mm

Movement A high-precision, single-claw, sinusoidal registration movement with a curved film gate for minimum pull-down time. The interchangeable film gate as sembly with its floating pressure plate and hard chrome-edge film guides is located in the cassette-type coaxial magazine. Shutter Rotating mirror 180 stops in viewing position. 144 shutter for TV filming applications optional. Reflex Viewfinder Fiberoptic viewing screen marked with TV safe action, 16mm projection, and 35mm blow-up lines....

Arriflex B

The Arriflex 535B is the lightweight version of the 535, designed for handheld and Steadicam cinematography. Refer to the Arriflex 535 section for full 535 specs. Movement The 535B has the same multi-link film transport, with dual-pin registration that conforms to optical printer standards, and dual-pin pull-down claws as the 535. It has an adjustable pitch control. The 535B operates at crystal-accurate speeds from 3 to 60 fps. Shutter The 535B has a manually adjustable mirror shutter, variable...

Arriflex BLs

Arriflex 35bl Schematic

Shutter Rotating, front surface coated mirror shutter system, with variable shutter 180 , 172.8 , 144 . Exposure is Vis of a second at 24 fps with 180 shutter. 35BL-1 and 35BL-2 cameras have 180 fixed shutter. Reflex Viewfinder 35BL-4s and BL-4 viewfinders are a full stop faster and brighter than earlier 35BL cameras, and feature a larger exit pupil, ArriGlow illuminated frame lines, and a high aperture 12.5 finder extender with swing-in contrast viewing filter and variable magnification up to...

Photographing Miniatures

The recent increase in the use of miniatures in motion pictures means that live-action cinematographers may now be called upon to photograph miniatures, an area usually handled by specialists. Today's pinpoint-sharp lenses, very fine-grain color negatives, and crystal-clear 70mm release prints can reveal flaws, and the solutions require the utmost attention to detail by every member of the effects team. The cinematographer should talk to the director, the live-action director of photography,...

Diopter Lenses

By definition, diopter is the measure of the power of the lens expressed as the reciprocal of the focal length in meters 1000 divided by the focal length of the lens in millimeters . The term is commonly used by cinematographers to refer to supplementary lenses used in close-up photography. The lenses are generally of a weak meniscus form and are marked with the number indicating the diopter power V2, 1, 2, etc. When a prime lens is set at scale focus infinity, and a diopter lens is mounted in...

Aerial Image Zoom for Oxberry Animation Stand

Although it is not possible to zoom the camera while using an aerial image on an animation stand, it is possible to zoom the aerial image itself. The area taken by the camera lens will still be the same 10 V2 field of the table top condenser, but the aerial image generated will be a zoomed version of the frame in the aerial-image projector. To generate a zoom aerial image, the standard aerial-image projector is replaced by an aerial-image configuration very similar to that of an optical...