Detail movements are animated by hand each frame. Single frame shooting allows for small f-stops at long exposure times. Coverage at various angles and camera speeds is especially useful to help cushion the risks on high-speed shots.

Calculating Camera Speed Explanation of table (Page 424)

The scale of the model may be stated as "inches per foot" or as a fraction of full size. In photographing a miniature, portraying any motion when the speed of that motion depends on gravity, the frame rate of the camera is governed by the scale. This includes falling objects or water, wave action, fire or smoke, explosions in which objects are thrown into the air, etc. On the other hand, any object (for instance, an automobile) moving at a controllable speed can be related to the selected camera speed in the first instance (gravity), the camera frame rate is increased as the inverse square root of the scale fraction (the square root of the relation of full size to miniature). For instance, for a miniature Vi6 full size (3A"=V), the inverse of the fraction is 16. The square root of 16 is 4 and the frame rate should be 4X normal = 96 fps.

In the same set, an automobile portrayed as traveling 60 miles per hour should move Vi6th that speed because of the scale, but increased 4 times because of the frame rate.

(Scale fraction) x (portrayed speed) x (frame rate) (normal frame rate)

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