Mm Systems

5.16mm camera, spherical lens photography for television, industrial and educational use. (Figure 5) (See also "Television Film Cinematography.") 16mm cameras equipped with spherical (nonanamorphic or "normal") lenses are used for this type of photography. Either reversal or negative films may be used as camera originals. Because 16mm is used for economy as well as portability, direct contact release prints are often made from the camera original film when only a few are required. In such cases, extreme care should be taken to protect the original. For prints in quantity, duplicate negatives are made on appropriate raw stock. The same comments as to the limitations of television transmission apply as were noted in the 35mm television section above (#2). The accompanying diagram shows the dimensions for the ground glass to be used for 16mm photography for television.

6.16mm camera, spherical lens photography for enlargement to 35mm for theatrical presentation. (Figure 5) (See also "Shooting 16mm Color Negative for Blowup to 35mm.") From 16mm originals, 35mm duplicate negatives may be prepared by optical enlargement for the manufacture of 35mm release prints for theatrical distribution. Most theaters in the United States are currently matting 35mm prints to a 1.85:1 aspect ratio.

The accompanying diagram shows the height of the ground glass mark suggested for this type of photography. As with 35mm photography, it is wise to protect the balance of the aperture so that both theatrical and television prints will be suitable.

7.16mm special camera, spherical lens photography specifically for enlargement to 35mm wide screen for theatrical presentation. (Figure 5) (See also "Shooting 16mm Color Negative for Blowup to 35mm.") (Super 16 or 16mm Type W) Special 16mm cameras with extended-width apertures extending into the area usually reserved for the sound track are used for this system. The aspect ratio of the resulting negative is 1.66:1, and this image is enlarged to the standard 35mm sound film aperture. 1.66:1 is commonly used in Europe and 1.85:1 in the U.S. Both dimensions are given for finder marks. A specially centered 1.33:1 16mm or 35mm duplicate negative and/or print is required for television display.

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