Special Purpose Systems

During the history of motion pictures, there have been numerous camera and projection systems, some of which have had widespread use for a period and then have become obsolete. It is the purpose of the American Cinema-tographer Manual to explain and display current systems; for history, please refer to earlier editions of the manual and American Cinematographer magazine.

8. 65mm, 5-perforation, frame photography for compositing to one of the 35mm systems. Any part of the negative image may be used.

9.65mm, 5-perforation, frame photography for printing on 70mm. The difference in camera and projector apertures allows for a magnetic sound track between picture and perforations on each side, and the added 5mm width allows for two magnetic sound tracks outside the perforations on each side. (Figure 6)

A. General theatrical distribution; rarely used presently.

B. Showscan; uses this format but photographed and projected at 60 fps in a specially designed theater environment on a large screen at higher than standard brightness and with terraced seating to improve sightlines. Grain, flicker and image "strobing" are minimized.

C. For special purpose projection systems such as Disney's 3-D atEPCOT.

10.65mm, 15-perforation, horizontal frame photography (24 fps) (Imax/Omnimax). (Figure 7) The film format for the two systems is the same. Imax is projected on a large flat screen in specially designed theaters.

Omnimax is photographed with a "fisheye" lens, optically centered 0.37 inches above the film centerline and displayed on a dome screen, filling 180 degrees laterally and 20 degrees below and 110 degrees above the horizon for central viewers. The picture shape is thus elliptical. Both systems use terraced seating to improve sightlines.

No. 8 8 9 TODD-AO SUPER PANAVISION— NONSQUEEZED NEGATIVE

No. 8 8 9 TODD-AO SUPER PANAVISION— NONSQUEEZED NEGATIVE

CAMERA APERTURE 2.066" x 0.906"

CAMERA APERTURE 2.066" x 0.906"

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