Computer Game Tester Jobs

Video Game Tester Jobs

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Analysis video game logic in The Fifth Element

Just as the filmic image is a hybrid between the photographic and the digital, the narrative in The Fifth Element is a hybrid between the classical (psychologically motivated cause-effect) narrative logic and digital (video game) logic. In the following we shall focus on those moments in the film when video logic becomes apparent. What is significant about The Fifth Element is the way the banal story and its transparent moral are structured and conveyed to spectators. In his discussion of the film in his essay 'Infinite City' Nigel Floyd (1997) mentions the influence of graphic' artists on the film's visual design. But what is more significant than this is the influence of the rules of video games on the way the film is structured. It is easy to look at the content of the film and begin identifying the rules of video game logic metaphorically for example, we could argue that the cityscape metaphorically represents the film's different levels of play, or that the scene where the...

Video game logic and cognitivist criticism Chapters and

At the same time, it is self-evident in the case of video game logic, and implicit also in the case of cognitivism, that the shift of paradigm and the apparent sidelining of narrative as the key principle of meaning-making has paralleled certain technological changes, such as digitization, which are transforming the cinema as well as our ways of thinking about it. Although we would not wish to put forward an argument derived from technological determinism, it is reasonable to conclude that different media practices are partly responsible for putting the classical story structure under pressure. The new technologies (of post-photographic moving images) implement new modalities of sound and image recognition and perception, which we also wanted to consider in the form of case studies Luc Besson's The Fifth Element must in this situation be regarded as a hybrid, since it places itself between classical narrative and digital narrative (as represented in video games). For all practical...

Method mastering the rules of the video game

Video games possess 'an excess of visual and aural stimuli' but also 'the promise of reliable rules' (Gottschalk 1995 13). These rules, which are reliable in that they are systematic and unambiguous (for they are unencumbered by morality or compassion), constitute the video game's environment, or location, which is not restrained by the laws of the physical world. The game user can experience video pleasure primarily by attempting to master these rules, i.e. decipher the game's logic. Moreover, the desire to attain mastery makes video games addictive, which at times can lead to the user's total absorption into the game's rules and environment. This absorption in turn may alter the user's state of consciousness and lead to a momentary loss of self (see Fiske 1989 ch. 2). Here we outline a number of the general structures used to construct these rules. When analysing digital narratives, attempt to identify several or all of these structures, since by themselves they do not define a...

Video Games

The field of computer game studies is a relatively new one, especially in terms of detailed textual analysis of the forms of games themselves (as opposed to studies based on assumptions about their social or psychological effects). A number of different theoretical paradigms are in potential competition in current efforts to map the field. Cinema might seem a logical point of reference for many games, especially with the movement of adventure-style games from text to animated graphical form, and subsequently to three-dimensional graphics, a process that began in the early 1980s. There are a number of ways that games borrow from, or can be understood in the light of, aspects of cinema. What must be avoided, however, is an imperialist venture of the kind feared by some game theorists (for example, Espen Aarseth's Cybertext points out fallacies in the application of literary theory to games). Perspectives drawn from the study of film offer one set of tools with which to approach...

Steven Spielberg Filmography

Always(1989) Hook(1991) Jurassic Park (1993) Schindlers List (1993) Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair (Video game, 1996) The Lost World Jurassic Park (1997) Amistad (1997) Saving Private Ryan (1998) The Unfinished Journey (1999) A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) Minority Report (2002) Catch Me If You Can (2002)

The Birth of Skywalker Ranch and Other Enterprises

While I was trying to get my company and ILM built up and independent, I started a video-game company. I'd started a computer division, which was designed to develop high-end computer graphics technology, and we developed a nonlinear film-editing system. I wanted to develop a system that was based on pure editing. It was the kind of thing that I wished

Theorizing The Postmodern

Unlike Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, another important theorist of the postmodern, sees its development as decidedly negative. He bemoans above all the way in which media images and signs have usurped real experience for the modern subject. Although Baudrillard focuses on television as the distribution nexus for these images, his critique of the circulated image does have bearing on the postmodern and cinema. Baudrillard reads twentieth-century history as the transition from a manufacturing-industrial society to an order based upon communication and the circulation of signs. Baudrillard claims that not only is our world cluttered with these images, but also, crucially, that these signs have become our reality. In this capitalist hyperreality of simulations, referentiality has dissolved images no longer have any connection to what they are supposed to represent signs are more real than reality itself. By this logic, Baudrillard claimed in 1991 that the Gulf War (1990-1991) did not take...

Star Brands The Sometimes Elusive Franchise

The fate of film and music might have diverged to some extent in the case of Wild Wild West, but they remained linked as media products, sold at least partly in terms of the brand image established around the central figure of Will Smith. As with Men in Black, the distinctive Smith brand was a crucial ingredient in the selling of the product it does not appear to have suffered much from the disappointing reputation of the film (Wild Wild West 'didn't hurt him. He's still a great investment,' as one 'top studio executive' is quoted as saying in a survey of star values in Entertainment Weekly, March 2000). The construction and ownership of identifiable brands and franchises is at the heart of the preferred industrial strategy of contemporary Hollywood. The ideal property for a studio is one over which it retains legal rights, for future exploitation in the shape of sequels or other spin-offs. Men in Black is a good example a potent franchise developed by Amblin and Columbia which...

The Aesthetic Opportunities

To begin to understand the aesthetic opportunities of the nonlinear digital age, we should begin by stating that, to date, interactive technology has had a more profound impact on video games and on making available art and photographs for specific educational goals than upon mainstream film and video. Consequently, its impact has been relegated to special effects and animation. That is not to say that these special effects in Terminator 2 Judgement Day (1991) or in Jurassic Park (1993) were not spectacular in aiding the dynamism and credibility of the story. What it does mean, however, is that those stories, Terminator 2 and Jurassic Park, remained conventional screen stories, neither challenging old forms nor old ideas. The special effects simply made the films more sensational for their audiences.

Television Merges with Electronics the s

With the widespread popularity of VCRs, viewers could now record their favorite program on VHS tape and watch it at their leisure. Video stores popped up in every neighborhood with recent movies and video games to rent. The television set was evolving from a passive medium to an interactive device. The impact of the VCR was especially harsh on advertisers who grew apprehensive, because viewers could completely tune out Madison Avenue's expensive commercials. The film business was equally concerned as bootleg copies of movies became widely available.

The Merchandising Process

The major studios realize that not only can the sale of movie-related products generate substantial revenue, but the presales of merchandising rights can sometimes contribute to a film's production budget, as in the case of Lord of the Rings, when 10 percent of the budget for the trilogy was apparently raised by selling rights to video games, toys, and merchandise companies. In addition, these products can be useful in promoting films and thus movie-based merchandise is often part of the massive, coordinated promotional campaigns often started months before a film's release. Typically, 40 percent of movie merchandise is sold before a film is released.

Prozines And Populist Film Magazines

In the 1950s movie ticket sales fell dramatically. Cinema attendance grew again in the mid-1980s, partly as a result of the wave of expensive studio blockbuster films. A new breed of populist film magazines coincided with this change in the film industry, with publications often dealing more with the spectacle of the films and the work of popular directors than with film stars. This is not to say, though, that stars ceased to be marketable factors for film magazines, as magazine covers remain highly dependent on star portraits for their consumer appeal. The new magazines include the US publication Premiere (begun in 1987) and the British film magazines Empire (begun in 1989) and Total Film (begun in 1996). With the postclassical film industry marked by high levels of synergy with other media forms, it is not surprising that these publications devote space not just to films but also to DVDs and relevant books, soundtracks, and Websites, as well as television and computer games. Such...

Analysis SZ and The Fifth Element

An analysis of the entire film in terms of Barthes's five codes would run into many pages. As an alternative, we shall attempt to analyse the whole film using a different strategy - by focusing on the film's narrative structure and its relation to digital narrative, as represented in video games.

Appendix A Glossary of Film Production and Finance Terms

Ancillary rights rights that may be capable of commercial exploitation that accrue or are acquired as a result of or in the course of production of a film, as distinct from the exploitation of the film itself. They include merchandizing rights, television spin-off rights, sequel, prequel and remake, book publishing rights, computer game rights, soundtrack album rights and the music publishing rights in the score. These rights are sometimes referred to as secondary rights. Angel see Private investor.

David Cronenberg b Toronto Ontario Canada March

Producer (James Woods) who becomes obsessed with a sadistic-erotic program emanating from a mysterious American pirate station is a postmodern parable about the seductive effects of television and media. Videodrome is a stylistic tour-de-force in which fantasy merges with reality, and neither character nor viewer can tell the difference. Cronenberg would later use the same technique in his cyberpunk film about computer games and virtual reality, eXistenZ (1999).

Media Conglomerate Strategies

With regard to media conglomerates, the links between hardware and software are becoming increasingly important. Media products such as films on VHS and DVD, television programmes and music CDs need technology such as VCRs, DVD players, TV sets and CD tape players for them to be consumed. The entertainment industry, now largely constituted by media conglomerates, has already made major moves into acquiring hardware and software interests. With the growing importance of computer systems and digital technology, as seen in the advances made in digital television and Internet access, further inroads are likely to be made into media hardware industries. The multinational and global nature of the contemporary media industries is illustrated by the locating of media companies in a variety of countries and by the consumption of media products around the world, but is also well served by the growth of telecommunications technology ('tele' literally meaning 'over a distance'). The previously...

Animation And Special Effects

How does this digression inform this discussion First, one consequence of this conception of animation as an effect negates significant authorial figures like Willis O'Brien, Ray Harryhausen and Dennis Muerhen. Second, and crucially in this analysis, the substantive work that they undertake operates within the site and space nominally taken up by 'stars'. What is King Kong (1933, USA) without Kong Fay Wray and an air show. What is Jason and the Argonauts (1963, USA) without the skeleton fight Big lads in togas. What is Jurassic Park (1993, USA) without the dinosaurs A lot of people frightened by wind. When animated 'figures' constitute the main claims to narrative imperative and modes of spectacle, they in essence become 'stars' because of their fundamental relationship to the new graphic terrain of late twentieth- and early twenty-first-century visual cultures. These are prosthetic phenomena that embrace all the credentials of performance, persona and proto-meaning, and transcend the...

Notes on Contributors

Bernadette Flynn is a lecturer in screen production and digital media in The o School of Film, Media and Cultural Studies at Griffith University, Australia. Her s research focuses on the areas of computer games, digital aesthetics, documentary and spatiality. With a background in video art and production, she has been engaged in new media research practice since 1993. Her current project is an u exploration of dynamic spatialization in the Neolithic temples of Malta. Her writing o

Cybernetics for modeling behavior

Games like The Sims highlight the fact that digital simulations are complex and dynamic systems that create increasingly convincing representations of human behavior and sociability. The Sims is one of the most popular desktop computer games and has significant proliferation through photo albums that are posted on the Web (Sims version of 'my home page'), 'skins' (character or environment texture maps that players can design and import into the game) and the development of theme-based communities in The Sims Online. 5 Many players develop Sim households that explore their own family and relationship situations and develop significant bonds with their simulated creatures. The gameplay then occupies a similar position to the observational documentary in constructing the appearance of a lived situation. Indeed Mark J.P Wolf puts forward the argument that a simulation might be special mode of documentary - a subjunctive documentary in the way that it employs simulation models to offer...

Narrative And Participation

The player of video games has to respond to events in a manner that affects what happens on screen, something not demanded of readers of books or viewers of films. Success often depends on rapid responses, effective hand-eye coordination and learned moves or skills made through the use of devices such as keyboards or game-pads, or puzzle-solving skills. Games are demanding forms of popular audio-visual entertainment, requiring sustained work that is not usually associated with the experience of popular, mainstream cinema. It is possible for players to fail a game, or to give up in frustration, if they do not develop the skills demanded by the particular title, a fate that has no equivalent in mainstream cinema. Games are a participatory medium the game-world is left undiscovered, character capabilities left locked, and story arcs do not unfold unless the player is actively willing to build the specific skills required to progress through a game.

Chapter contents and alternative films

The chapter titles also take the same form. They indicate the traditional theory, the more recent theory, and the film(s) under analysis. The traditional theories are (in which 'theories' encompasses schools of criticism) mise-en-scene criticism thematic criticism and auteurism post-structuralism (Roland Barthes's S Z) David Bordwell's cognitive theory of film narration theories of realism Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis and feminism. The more recent theories are computational statistical style analysis deconstruction new media theory (video game design) Edward Branigan's cognitive theory of film narration theories of digital realism and modal logic (possible world theory) New Lacanian psychoanalysis (especially Slavoj 2izek) and Foucault's and Deleuze's theories of subjectivity and gender. In Chapter 5 we outline the post-structural theory and method of Roland Barthes's S Z (Barthes 1974), and then apply it to The Fifth Element, a French imitation of the Hollywood blockbuster....

Historical Background And Definitions

There is an extremely wide variety of movie-based merchandise, including items based on a specific movie, character, or theme, or ongoing movie characters and themes. While there has been a strong emphasis on children's toys, games and other items (lunch boxes, school supplies, and so forth), and on video games, other movie-based merchandise includes home furnishings (clocks, towels, bedding, mugs, telephones), clothing, jewelry, stationery items, print material (novelizations

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Threedimensionality And Toys

In recent years, the phenomenology of characters has increased with the two-fold development of theme parks and studio stores specialising in any number of toys and costume paraphenalia which enhances the 'three-dimensionality' of two-dimensional figures. While 'dolls' have always been a significant part of a child's play environment, their specificity in relation to other media texts is an escalating aspect of their production. What becomes interesting here, however, is the contemporary status of the 'toy' amidst the competing attractions of other mediated forms. It is becoming increasingly difficult for toy manufacturers and retailers to secure profitable margins purely in the market of traditional toys, which are being significantly challenged by the impact of computer games and PC applications. Major retailers FAO Schwarz and Toys 'R' Us have seen a rapid decline in 'toy' earnings, and have had to embrace the well-known phenomenon in the industry of 'Kids getting older younger',...

The Political Economy Of Costume

Such issues are shaped by, and need to be situated within, the political economy of contemporary Hollywood, in particular as it applies to family-oriented adventure films like the Batman series. A starting point for this contextualisation is provided by Robert Allen's discussion of licensed merchandising associated with the family film boom of the 1980s and 1990s. He argues that successfully branded franchises function as 'narrative and iconographic fields through which old licences are renewed and from which new licences can be harvested' (1999 121). These commercial opportunities are facilitated by the 'toyetic' fantasy settings of many such films, from which action figures, video games, and transferable images can readily be derived. Allen suggests that the cultural and economic value of star-images appearing in this context should be reconsidered

Remediation And Synergy

Where games do borrow from cinema, this is for reasons that are far from arbitrary. ''New'' media tends to borrow from older equivalents more generally, as suggested by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin's concept of ''remediation.'' As they argue, the experience of playing computer games that offer cinematic milieu might be understood in terms of a move ''inside'' the world of the cinema screen. The immediate thrill produced by direct engagement in the interactive experience is often based on a sense of ''hypermediacy,'' of awareness that the world occupied virtually is akin to that of other forms of representation. Film-based or film-related video games are sold at least partly on the basis of the attraction of an occupation of worlds the contours of which have been established in other media most directly, in film, but often also in literature, comic books, or television. The player can, at one remove, become the central figure in a cinematic milieu, following and extending the...

Original Films Versus Adaptations Remakes And Sequels

Ingrid Bergman And Ernest Hemingway

It should come as no surprise that in Hollywood more scripts are adaptations than original scripts from clearly original ideas. Because Hollywood has always been a business, the fact that a book or a play or even a television show has been popular certainly spurs on producers to say, Let's make the movie '' The year 2003 even saw the adaptation of an amusement park ride into a hit movie (Pirates of the Caribbean) and similarly with a video game (Resident Evil). In such a manner, Gone with the Wind (1939) moved from the pages of Margaret Mitchell's best-selling novel to the screen in an Oscar -winning script by Sidney Howard and others. The list is endless and the formula of page to screen'' might seem quite mechanical were it not for the fact that there are so many variations in the adaptation process.

Theory video pleasure and narrative cinema

In the remainder of this chapter we shall simply offer the beginnings of a discussion on the different structures of digital narrative, and the appearance of several of these structures in The Fifth Element. This digitization can be detected in the way film narrative has adopted the rules and strategies of video games. (The influence works both ways, of course, since many video games adopt the visual and aural aesthetics of science fiction movies.) Before discussing the specifics of digital narrative and video games, we shall briefly refer to the work of George Landow on hypertext. It is primarily Landow who first realized that Barthes's S Z - particularly his concept of the writerly - can be applied to hypertexts 'In S Z, Roland Barthes describes an ideal textuality that precisely matches that which in computing has come to be called hypertext - text composed of blocks of words (or images) linked electronically by multiple paths, chains, or trails in an open-ended,

Spectacle interactivity and writerly texts

Predetermined structure based on specific outcomes. A participant's input can simply destroy that structure. The predetermined structure of narratives excludes the possibility of interactivity - that is, interactivity is incompatible with narrative structure. Narratives are therefore inherent readerly - it is narrative that makes a text readerly. This is why The Fifth Element employs all the video game rules listed above except interactivity.

Postclassical Hollywood formal and cultural criteria

It is this high-impact, technologically sophisticated involvement on the part of the primary target audience that Hollywood needed to appeal to which has found in the notion of 'spectacle' a shorthand common denominator. Technological advances in very different fields of popular entertainment (from animatronics in theme parks to computer games on play stations) and at all levels of picture-making and sound reproduction (from IMAX screens to digital sound, from morphing to virtual reality environment) have indeed made inroads in such a traditional mass entertainment form as the cinema, and they have affected its staple product, the full-length feature film. One way, therefore, of interpreting the opposition spectacle narrative - and with it, the division classical post-classical - is to say that, just as in previous periods of cinema history it was new technologies that were putting pressure on the mode of production as well as transforming reception, so it has always been the task of...

Structure Of The Book

The future for Film Studies Although there is an emerging discipline, 'Screen Studies' -the objects of which include TV, video, video games and whatever happens on a monitor screen as well as film itself - Film Studies will surely remain relevant and must surely inform the new Screen Studies. To be sure, rapid changes in production and projection technologies and viewing contexts are now evident, and these are addressed at a number of points in this volume.

Possible Authors in Film

The initial attraction of film was as a novelty, and film-makers (the distinction between director, producer, company, etc. only becomes useful after about 1907 with the development of the first film studios in North America) and exhibitors were not slow to exploit the entertainment and exploitative possibilities of the new medium. American nickelodeons between 1905 and 1915 ran continuous programmes, typically from 8 o'clock in the morning until midnight programmes were often sensationalist and were advertised stridently. The emphasis was thus on the experience and the novelty - in much the same way that Virtual Reality arcades, computer games and indeed perhaps still the circus are advertised consumed today - and the idea that individuals artists could produce films was at first nowhere in sight.

Computer And Digital Technology

Unlike most of the technologies considered in this chapter, computer and digital processes are relatively new developments. But as for the other technologies, their adoption by the film industry has involved a combination of commercial and aesthetic considerations. Digital technologies have provided the means for creating new and different special effects images through computer generated imagery (CGI) (it should be noted that the initials are also used to refer to 'computer graphic interface' or to 'computer gateway interface'). They have made production and postproduction techniques more efficient. They have allowed the creation of new types of entertainment product, such as video and computer games, theme rides and virtual reality (VR) experiences. And finally, they have provided new avenues for distribution CD-ROM, the Internet, satellite and cable, laser discs and DVDs.

Another View of Brooklyn

Tyrone faces too many decisions for a child of his age. He retreats into the fantasy world of Gangsta, a violent video game that he plays wearing goggles that provide virtual reality for his aggression. Sadly, he cannot adequately distinguish between the gangstas and the shooting in his game and those in the real world, and he murders Errol Barnes (Tom Byrd), a neighborhood drug dealer dying of AIDS, with the gun he took from Strike's apartment. Klein handles the investigation, and when Andre learns where Tyrone got the murder weapon, he goes after Strike. The closing scenes of Chokers are unconvincing dramatically, but they do serve as a restatement of Spike Lee's usual themes. Solidarity and mutual support provide the key to success of the black community. Victor emerges from the Brooklyn Correctional Facility and into the arms of his mother, wife, and children. The children have not grown, so in Lee's world, a good family man can be acquitted or will serve a brief sentence, even...

Changing World

That's a pretty big change, and audiences have become much more cynical. The rate at which information is processed has become much faster. The movies that I first started out making all seem so slow now. They're all released now in the new world of DVD and commercials and video games. The information delivery system and the ability to process information have completely changed. People now watch things simultaneously. The level of social discourse has become coarsened both in the area of propriety and the area of seriousness. These are not very serious times and they are not very polite times. I'm not necessarily passing judgment on that, but it's just a fact of life.


For it is this knowingness about itself as self-display, as well as about its role in the marketplace of popular culture and cultural politics, that gives the film its multiple entry points for diverse audiences. This includes servicing the needs of fans, of technical aficionados, of radical intellectuals, and of definition-hungry scholars, but also of a new kind of commodification of the Hollywood product via interactive video games indicating that the post-classical film knows that it has to reach not only the supposedly homogeneous audience of middle America but the by now highly specialized, culturally and ethnically segmented audiences of global reach, of which women, for instance, make up a high proportion, even for action movies.


I am referring by this, first of all, to a powerful sense that in the past twenty years the cinema of whatever provenance - mainstream, avant-garde or art house, as well as the art world that has finally found in the moving image one of its main resources for renewal and self-reflection - has made a pre-occupation with the body its central concern. From action spectaculars with Bruce Willis or Sylvester Stallone, to sexually explicit, semi-pornographic thrillers by Paul Verhoeven, Catherine Breillat, by Brian de Palma or Jane Campion from the body art of a Stel-Arc and Marina Abramovich to high-street tattoo parlors and body piercing from slasher exploitation films by Tobe Hooper or Wes Craven, to video art by Bill Viola and Gary Hill from the films of David Fincher to the diasporic videos of Mona Hatoum, it seems that visual culture in the Western world has put aside the metaphors of window and mirror, of door and vista, of frame and screen that...

Stefan Herbrechter

The present volume is unashamedly but not dogmatically theoretical even though there is not much agreement about what kind of theory is best suited to confront post-theoretical times. But it is probably fair to say that there is agreement about one thing, namely that if theory appears to be like the Matrix today it does so because the culture around it and which made it itself seems to be captured in some kind of Matrix. The only way out of this is through more and renewed, refreshed theorising, not less. Therefore it seems interesting in itself to point out that in addition to its unprecedented success as film, video, computer game, franchise, etc. the Matrix has been fully embraced as a rich source of theoretical and cultural references. There have been far too many interventions in journals, at conferences, on the internet to be listed here. Some of the most influential references can be found in the bibliography at the end of this introduction. The main predecessors to this volume...

Spectacle Economy

Since Debord's theorization of the society of the spectacle in the 1960s and 1970s, spectacle culture has expanded in every area of life. In the culture of the spectacle, commercial enterprises have to be entertaining to prosper and as Michael J. Wolf (1999) argues, in an 'entertainment economy,' business and fun fuse, so that the E-factor is becoming a major aspect of business. Via the 'entertainmentization' of the economy, television, film, theme parks, video games, casinos, and so forth become major sectors of the national economy. In the U.S., the entertainment industry is now a 480 billion industry, and consumers spend more on having fun than on clothes or health care (Wolf 1999 4).

Emotional Work

In 3ay Story 2, some toys are 'shelved' and sold in a yard sale because they are broken or not used any more - Woody's attempt to save the 'voiceless' Weezy the penguin results in his own abduction by the villainous Al, owner of the 'Toybarn' who recognises Woody as a 'collectible'. This clever conceit adds another dimension to the idea of the 'shelf-life' of toys, and their contemporary status as collectible items, or cultural artefacts their value ironically rests in the idea that they have never been used as playthings. The central tension in both films is the 'meaning' of a toy. Both films address the value of a'toy' for its owner, as a plaything, companion and harbinger of joy, an object defined outside the parameters of economy or longevity, while also showing that if toys had a degree of consciousness, their preoccupations would be entirely about those parameters. In Toy Story 2, Woody is given the dilemma of remaining Andy's long cherished toy, or joining up with Jessie,...

Defined Terms

Of course this is a silly example, but defined terms can be tricky, especially when the defined term is close to, but not exactly, the same as its dictionary definition. For example, everyone knows what a motion picture is, right But what if a filmmaker uses the following definition in her contract ' Motion Picture' shall mean the audio-visual feature film production, in whole or in part, produced by Film Prod, LLC, based on the screenplay Script-o tentatively titled Movie, or any part thereof, and all derivatives of such production(s) and their or its parts, now or hereafter in existence, in any medium whatsoever, whether now known or hereafter in existence. Now the term Motion Picture means not just the film she's making, but any sequel to that film, any television series, graphic novel, video game, and so forth Sneaky Tip Watch out for the word derivative, it encompasses more than you think. (See Appendix A Derivative Work, p. 251.)

Breaking Ground

A lover of cinematic history can easily appreciate the efforts of those early visionaries who contributed to the digital moviemaking tradition now more than 20 years old. Back in the late 70's the Internet was referred to as ARPANET, Microsoft was still a fledgling company, and video games were found in experimental form, offered as Atari VCS and Mattel's Intellivision. In 1981, production designer Dean Mitzner (1941, Nine to Five, Looker, Princess Daisy, The Man with One Red Shoe, Charmed) had just begun his contribution to the fledgling visual effects revolution. His participation in TRON, an animated live-action Disney experiment, heralded a creative departure for him by its presentation of a bold design concept. In technical terms, it ventured beyond the marriage of traditional animation techniques and live-action in Mary Poppins (1964) by also including backlit animation to the mix. It was the first film to use CGI for its vehicles and in its action sequences, and involved the...