Costume Designer Ebook

Professional Fashion Design

Know how to Get Paid $1,000 per week being a Professional Fashion Designer. Listed below are My Best 5 Strategies for Stepping into The Fashion Industry: 1. Have Passion (for fashion) 2. Know about new trends and emerging labels (know your competition) 3. Know what sells and what customers desire to wear 4. Be Prepared to do what it takes and reach your goal. 5. Know just how the fashion industry and retail industry works. Uncover how You Can Achieve Your Ultimate Dream of Becoming a Professional Fashion Designer! Learn how to Draw Your Designs like a Pro! Have the Dream Job You've Always Wanted. Get Paid for What You Love Doing! Start A personal Fashion Line with Your Own Name! Hot Tips from the Pros: Learn the Fashion Industry Secrets! Save $$$ thousands on Fashion Course Fees! Learn How to Start Your Own Fashion Business and Be Successful! Trend Forecasting Tips- stay ahead of the fashion trends! Tips for finding a Clothing Manufacturer to produce Your Clothes. Read more here...

Professional Fashion Design Summary

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Author: Annette Corrie
Official Website: www.fashion-design-course.com
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My Professional Fashion Design Review

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This book comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

International History Of Costume Design

While it is sometimes difficult to be sure of costume design information because the silent-film period gave designers no screen credits and, during the 1950s, the studios disposed of many records, four elements can be said to form the foundation of film costume design as it is in the early twenty-first century the establishment of its own studio department the freedom given to designers to create extravagantly the influx of, and competition with, international influence and the recognition of design as a force on fashion. Though built by emigres who had worked in the garment business (Carl Laemmle was a haberdasher, Adolph Zukor a furrier, Samuel Goldwyn a glover, and Louis B. Mayer a shoemaker), early Hollywood put little emphasis on costume. Actors used their own clothing and a woman with a better closet would get a better part. This continued well into the 1930s for men like Fred Astaire and Cary Grant who often wore their own, custom-made wardrobe. However, an initial office of...

The Costume Designers Relationship With The Film Crew And Cast

The costume designer liaises with the actor, director, cinematographer, art director, hair and make-up stylists, and even the writer and stunt coordinator. On the set daily and or nightly, until shooting wraps, for fittings, alterations, accidents, or additions, the costume designer is involved from a film's earliest pre-production and must do exhaustive research, even for a modern movie, regarding location, climate, class, age, taste, and fads. But, the designer must be always inventive. Historical clothing must be both accurate and believable for today's eyes. Truth, at times, must be sacrificed to ensure that an actor will look correct and the designer must determine how to make departures from strict historical accuracy appropriate both to the period and to the actor's physique. For example, the narrow shoulder lines of a nineteenth-century cowboy jacket could make a twenty-first-century actor look pinched, and so must be adjusted. This is a difficult and intuitive process because...

Fashion Designers And Film

It was Hubert de Givenchy's (b. 1927) collaboration with Audrey Hepburn that fundamentally changed the relationship between film and fashion. In Sabrina (1954), as in Funny Face, the distinction between the costume designer and the couturier co-opted into costume design is signaled ironically within the films' Cinderella narratives. In both, Edith Head, the films' costume designer, produced the drab, ordinary clothes that Hepburn wore as the still-immature chauffeur's daughter or bookshop assistant. In both films, Head's role as designer was usurped by Givenchy who designed the show-stopping evening gowns that Hepburn wore after her character had metamorphosed into a sophisticated, glamorous woman. The joke in Funny Face in which Hepburn's character models clothes on a Paris catwalk is ultimately that, for all the appeal of high fashion, Hepburn is happiest (and most iconic) when dressing down in black leggings, polo neck, and flats.

Costume Designer

About two-and-a-half months before the film begins shooting principal photography, the costume designer is brought in to dress the characters. Well, not actually dress them, but decide what they are going to be wearing throughout the film. But according to Susan Nininger, who has designed costumes for stars such as Kevin Costner, Robert De Niro, and Whitney Houston, a costume designer does more than that. It is not just one job it has a lot of components. She describes her career as being part designer, part artist, part psychologist, and part mother. Being a costume designer is not something you can start out doing. Susan has a fine arts background and has worked hard to get where she is today. Along the way, she's done all the jobs that

Babettes Feast Denmark Director Gabriel Axel

Producers Just Betzer and Bo Christensen screenplay Gabriel Axel, from the story by Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen) photography Henning Kristiansen editor Finn Hendriksen sound Hans-Eric Ahrn production design Sven Wichmann costume designer Annelise Hauberg music Per Norgaard, with additional music by Mozart and Brahms gastronomic consultant Jan Petersen.

Death in Venice Italy

Producers Mario Gallo with Luchino Visconti, Nicolas Badalucco and Robert Gordon Edwards screenplay Luchino Visconti and Nicolas Badalucco, from the novel by Thomas Mann photography Pasquale De Santis editor Ruggero Mastroianni sound Vittorio Trentino with Giuseppe Muratori art director Ferdinando Scarfiotti music Gustav Mahler music director Franco Mannino costume designer Piero Tosi.

The Magnificent Ambersons

Producer Orson Welles screenplay Orson Welles, from the novel by Booth Tarkington photography Stanley Cortez editor Robert Wise sound Bailey Fesler and James G. Stewart art director Mark-Lee Kirk music Bernard Herrmann special effects Vernon L. Walker costume designer Edward Stevenson.

Some Important Color Films

Notable uses of color in film include Sven Nykvist's (b. 1922) symphony of red and green in Viskningar och rop (Cries and Whispers, Ingmar Bergman, 1972, in Eastmancolor) and the sunset-lit palette Nykvist utilized in What's Eating Gilbert Grape (Lasse Hallstrom, 1993) Jean-Luc Godard's (b. 1930) primary-colored text blocks as part of the rhythmic design of Weekend (shot by Raoul Coutard in Eastmancolor, 1967) and the effects produced by the cinematographer Gordon Willis (working with designer Mel Bourne, decorators Mario Mazzola and Daniel Robert, costume designer Joel Schumacher, and makeup artist Fern Buchner) for Interiors (Woody Allen, 1978), in which a perfectly coordinated, subdued, even shackled bourgeois environment set out in a range of beige tones costumes, walls, curtains, vases, complexions, shadows, everything is suddenly disrupted after a matriarch's suicide by the appearance of the father's new girlfriend, dressed in explosive scarlet.

The Conformist Italy FranceWest Germany Director Bernardo Bertolucci

Producers Maurizio Lodife with Giovanni Bertolucci as executive producer screenplay Bernardo Bertolucci, from the novel by Alberto Moravia photography Vittorio Storaro editor Franco Arcalli production designer Ferdinando Scarfiotti music Georges Delerue costume designer Gitt Margrini.

The Godfather Trilogy

Ruddy screenplay Francis Ford Coppola and Mario Puzo, from the novel by Mario Puzo photography Gordon Willis editors William Reynolds, Peter Zinner, Marc Lamb, and Murray Solomon sound Bud Granzbach, Richard Portman, Christopher Newman, and Les Lazarowitz production designer Philip Smith art director Warren Clymer music Nino Rota costume designer Anna Hill Johnstone.

Am A Fugitive From A Chain Gang

Producer Hal Wallis screenplay Howard J. Green and Brown Holmes, from the autobiography I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang by Robert E. Burns photography Sol Polito editor William Holmes art director Jack Okey music conductor Leo F. Forbstein costume designer Orry-Kelly technical advisors S. H. Sullivan and Jack Miller, uncredited assistance by Robert E. Burns.

The Lady From Shanghai

Producers Orson Welles with Richard Wilson and William Castle screenplay Orson Welles, from the novel Before I Die by Sherwood King photography Charles Lawton, Jr editor Viola Lawrence sound Lodge Cunningham art director Stephen Goosson and Sturges Carne music Heinz Roemheld special mirror effects Lawrence Butler costume designer Jean Louis.

Dr Strangelove Or How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb

Producer Stanley Kubrick associate producer Victor Lyndon screenplay Stanley Kubrick, Terry Southern, and Peter George, originally conceived as a serious adaptation of Red Alert by Peter George, main titles by Pablo Ferro photography Gilbert Taylor editor Anthony Harvey sound supervisor John Cox sound recordist Richard Bird dub mixer John Aldred sound editor Leslie Hodgson production designer Ken Adam art director Peter Murton music Laurie Johnson, song ''We'll Meet Again,'' is the original recording by Vera Lynn special effects Wally Veevers travelling matte Vic Margutti costume designer Pamela Carlton aviation advisor Capt. John Crewdson.

USA Director John Ford

Producer Willis Goldbeck screenplay Willis Goldbeck and James Warner Bellah, from the story by Dorothy M. Johnson photography William H. Clothier editor Otho Lovering sound Philip Mitchell art directors Hal Pereira and Eddie Imazu music Cyril Mockridge music director Irvin Talbot (theme from Young Mr. Lincoln by Alfred Newman) costume designer Edith Head.

The Adventures Of Robin Hood

Producer Hal Wallis screenplay Norman Reilly Raine and Seton I. Miller from the Robin Hood legends photography Tony Gaudio, Sol Polito, and W. Howard Green editor Ralph Dawson art director Carl Weyl music Eric Wolfgang Korngold, with orchestrations by Hugo Friedhofer and Milan Roder costume designer Milo Anderson.

Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach Germany Italy Director Jean Marie Straub

Producers Gian Vittorio Baldi, with Jean-Marie Straub screenplay Jean-Marie Straub and Daniele Huillet photography Ugo Piccone, Saverio Diamanti, and Giovanni Canfarelli editors JeanMarie Straub and Daniele Huillet sound Louis Houchet and Lucien Moreau music conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Schola Cantorum Basilienses concert group conductor August Wenziner, Hanover Boys Choir music director Heinz Hennig costume designers Casa d'Arte Firenze, Vera Poggioni and Renata Morroni.

Man of Marble Poland Director Andrzej Wajda

Producer Andrzej Wajda screenplay Aleksander Scibor-Rylski photography Edward Klosinski editors Halina Pugarowa and Maria Kalinciska sound operator Piotr Zawadski production designers Allan Starski Wojciech Majda, and Maria Osiecka-Kuminek music Andrzej Korzynski, songs performed by the group Ali Babki and the Groupe Instrumental costume designers Lidia Rzeszewska and Wieslawa Konopelska.

Australia Director Peter Weir

Producers Hal McElroy and James McElroy screenplay Tony Morphett, Petru Popescu, and Peter Weir, from an idea by Peter Weir photography Russell Boyd additional photography Ron Taylor, George Greenough and Klaus Jaritz editor Max Lemon sound editor Greg Bell sound recordist Don Connolly sound re-recordist Phil Judd production designer Goran Warff art director Neil Angwin music Charles Wain special effects Monty Fieguth and Bob Hilditch costume designers Annie Bleakley adviser on tribal Aboriginal matters Lance Bennett.

Charles K Feldmans Casino Royale United Kingdom

Feldman, Jerry Bresler screenplay Wolf Mankowitz, John Law, Michael Sayers suggested by the Ian Fleming novel assistant directors second unit, Richard Talmadge, Anthony Squire assistants, Roy Baird, John Stoneman, Carl Mann photography Jack Hildyard additional photography by John Wilcox and Nicholas Roeg editor Bill Lenny sound John W. Mitchell, Sash Fisher, Bob Jones, Dick Langford, Chris Greenham production designer Michael Stringer art directors John Howell, Ivor Beddoes, Lionel Couch costume designers Julie Harris additional by Guy Laroche, Paco Rabanne, Chombert music Burt Bacharach main title performed by Herb Alpert and The Tijuana Brass titles and montage effects Richard Williams special effects Cliff Richardson, Roy Whybrow, Les Bowie choreography Tutte Lemkow.

Canada Director Atom Egoyan

Producers Atom Egoyan, Camilia Frieberg, Robert Lantos, David J. Webb (associate) screenplay Atom Egoyan cinematographer Paul Sarossy music Mychael Danna, Leonard Cohen editor Susan Shipton production design Linda Del Rosario, Richard Paris art direction Linda Del Rosario, Richard Paris costume design Linda Muir. Awards Genie Awards for Best Art Direction Set Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Director, Best Film, Best Screenplay, Best Supporting Actor (McKellar), and Best Score, 1994 FIPRESCI Award, Cannes Film Festival, 1994 Best Canadian Feature Film, Toronto International Film Festival, 1994.

The Story of Qiu Ju Hong Kong China Director Zhang Yimou

Producer Feng Yiting screenplay Liu Heng, based on the story Wanjia Susong by Chen Yuanbin photography Chi Xiaoning, Yu Xiaoqun editor Du Yuan assistant directors Hu Xiaofeng, Zhang Zhenyan, Tian Weixi art director Cao Jiuping music Zhao Jiping sound recording Li Lanhua costume design Tong Huamiao.

UKUSWest Germany Director John Huston

Producer Wieland Schulz-Keil, Chris Sievernich, William J. Quigley (executive) screenplay Tony Huston, from a story by James Joyce cinematographer Fred Murphy editor Roberto Silvi music Alex North casting Nuala Moiselle production design Stephen B. Grimes, J. Dennis Washington set decoration Josie MacAvin costume design Dorothy Jeakins production manager Tom Shaw makeup Fern Buchner, Keis Maes, Anthony Cortino, Louise Dowling, Anne Dunne, Christopher Shihar.

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At the 1968 Oscars, Bonnie and Clyde had ten nominations Estelle Parsons (supporting actress) and Burnett Guffey (cinematography) won Pollard and Hackman (supporting actors), Dunaway (actress), Van Runkle (costumes), Penn (direction), Newman and Benton (screenplay) and Beatty twice (as actor, and producer of best picture) didn't. In 1991 Beatty again played a real-life gangster, this time Benjamin 'Bugsy' Siegel, to great effect in the hit movie Bugsy (1991), which was similarly nominated for several top Oscars, winning only for costume design, and art and set decoration.

Zendegi Edame Darad Life and Nothing More Iran

Producer Ali Reza Zarrin screenplay Abbas Kiarostami cinematographer Homayun Payvar editor Abbas Kiarostami assistant director Hassen Afakrimi, Alirfa Akbari, Behram Kadhemi production supervisor Nemet Allah Yahifi, Khada Dad Ahmed, Mahrem Fifi production manager Sadika Sarfrazian costume design Hassan Zahidi artistic supervisor Ferched Bachirzada, Djalil Chaabani, Saad Saidi sound Abbas Kiarostami, Djenkis Sayed.

Farewell My Concubine Hong Kong China Director Chen Kaige

Producer Hsu Feng executive producers Hsu Bin, Jade Hsu screenplay Lilian Lee, Lu Wei, from the novel by Lilian Lee assistant directors Zhang Jinzhan, Bai Yu, Jin Ping, Zhang Jinting photography Gu Changwei editor Pei Xiaonan art directors Yang Yuhe, Yang Zhanjia sound Yang Zhanshan, Han Lin music Zhao Jiping music performed by Central Orchestra of China, Orchestra of the Peking Opera Academy costume design Chen Changmin subtitles Linda Jaivin.

New Looks Glamour Design and Cinema

Paris by a haute couture designer and its widespread adoption by the mass market was partly due to cinema. Much like the process whereby art deco was adopted from Paris by Hollywood and consumed in a different form by a mass audience, so the New Look was appropriated by costume designers for the screen. In America the New Look was known as the 'Sweetheart Line', and was first seen on film with Edith Head's creation for Bette Davis in June Bride (1948). The full-skirted, feminine dress was used throughout the 1950s to denote femininity, in particular for wedding dresses, as seen in Father of the Bride (1950) and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953). The starched, formal construction of Dior's New Look, complete with low neckline and corsetry to achieve the nipped-in waistline for the upper-class market, was revised by Hollywood and the mass market, adopting it for more everyday wear in easy-to-care-for fabrics. Seen in action in the 1950s Hollywood musicals such as Calamity Jane and Seven...

The Goat Horn Bulgaria Director Metodi Andonov

Screenplay Nikolai Haitov, from the short story by Nikolai Haitov photography Dimo Kolarov editor Evgeniya Radeva sound Mithen Andreev production designer Konstantin Dzhidrov music Simeon Pironkov song Maria Neikova special effects pyrotechnics Ivan Angelov costume designer Vladislav Schmidt stunts Petar Klyavkov.

Otto e Mezzo Italy France Director Federico Fellini

Producer Angelo Rizzoli screenplay Federico Fellini, Ennio Flaiano, Tullio Pinelli, and Brunello Rondi, from a story by Federico Fellini and Ennio Flaiano assistant directors Lina Wertmuller and Guidarino Guidi photography Gianni di Venanzo editor Leo Cattozzo sound Mario Faraoni and Alberto Bartolomei production design (scenery) Piero Gherardi music Nino Rota costume designer Piero Gherardi artistic collaboration Brunello Rondi.

India FranceGreat Britain Director Mira Nair

Executive producers Anil Tejani, Michael Nozik, Gabriel Auer producer Mira Nair co-producer Mitch Epstein screenplay Sooni Taraporevala Hindi dialogue Hriday Lani photography Sandi Sissel editor Barry Alexander Brown supervising sound editor Margie Crimmins production designer Mitch Epstein art directors Nitish Roy, Nitin Desai costume designers Deepa Kakkar, Nilita Vachani, Dinaz Stafford music L. Subramaniam children's workshop director Barry John film extract Mr. India (1987).

The Shop on Main Street Czechoslovakia Directors Jan Kadar and Elmar Klos

Producers Marie Desmarais and Eurofilm Ltd. head of production Ladislav Hanus screenplay Ladislav Grosman, Jan Kadar, and Elmar Klos, from the book Obchod na korze by Ladislav Grosman English sub-titles Lindsay Anderson photography Vladimir Novotny editors Jaromir Janacek and Diana Heringova sound Dobroslac Sramek art director Karel Skvor music Zdenek Liska costume designer Marie Rosenfelderova.

The Black Irish of Gone with the Wind

Walter Plunkett, famed costume designer specializing in historical films, made Prissy's and Scarlett's post-siege dresses out of the same cheap fabric. Melanie wore an apron made out of a burlap sack, and Suellen and Careen wore cotton print dresses that had obviously once belonged to slaves.62

The Color Effect And Color Film

Although the history of cinema has been inscribed by numerous exceptionally talented cinematographers (working with brilliant designers, costume designers, makeup artists, and lighting technicians all of whom necessarily collaborate in the production of screen color), nevertheless the decision to use a color stock for the purpose of shooting a motion picture does not guarantee that the color onscreen will play a significant role in the film. A color film can fail to function in, even if it is shot in, color. Color film stock guarantees that there will be color onscreen, technically speaking, but nothing more. When we come away from the film and think back on it, very often we remember no object or scene or point of concentration in which color is the determining variable. In Blood Simple (Joel and Ethan Coen, 1984), for example, there is one moment when a large amount of viscous and extremely dark red almost plum red blood oozes across a floor. That is a true color moment in a color...

The Damned Italy Germany Director Luchino Visconti

Producers Alfredo Levy and Ever Haggiag executive producer Pietro Notarianni screenplay Nicola Badalucco, Enrico Medio li and Luchino Visconti photography Armando Nannuzzi and Pasquale De Santis editor Ruggero Mastroianni sound mixer Renato Cadueri recording director Vittorio Trentino art director Pasquale Romano set designer Enzo Del Prato music Maurice Jarre special effects Aldo Gasparri costume designers Piero Tosi and Vera Marzot.

The Film Producers Functions

During the pre-production phase, the producer chooses the above-the-line talents for the project, most importantly the director and principal cast if they are not already associated with the project as a package. (If the producer is working on a studio-backed production, the studio executives also have a say in the choice of director and the casting.) The producer and director agree on the lead and supporting role casting, hire the below-the-line talents (the crew, including the cinematographer, production designer, costume designer, editor, special effects team, sound crew, composer, unit production manager, and casting director), and together scout locations. Many times these choices are based on the talent and crew's prior work and their skill in filmmaking within particular

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

Similarly, Barbara Hulanicki, the founder of the leading young fashion store of the late 1960s, Biba, remembered 'Sabrina Fair made a huge impact on us all . . . everyone walked around in black, sloppy sweaters, suede low-cut flatties and gold hoop earrings . . . Audrey Hepburn and Givenchy were made for each other. His little black dress with shoestring straps in Sabrina Fair must have been imprinted on many teenagers' minds forever' (Cook and Dodd 1993 37). My mother had her hair specially cut just like hers in Newcastle after seeing Roman Holiday (1953). As a student of art at teacher training college, the Americanized left-bank glamour of Hepburn suited her values and aspirations at the time. Hepburn's collaboration with Hollywood and the Parisian couturier, Givenchy, is typical of America's colonization of 'high culture' after the war, just as Hollywood's costume designers appropriated the Parisian New Look and recreated it in patchwork for Seven Brides for Seven Brothers.

The Jazz Age American Ascendancy and the Dbut of Deco

Art deco is a term commonly used by design historians, dealers and collectors for a style of architecture and design prevalent during the period 1925 to 1939, the period when Classical Hollywood Cinema was established and the United States took the world lead in creating a consumer culture.1 Art deco as a potent style in the American home and export markets became a powerful symbol of transatlantic glamour. In this chapter the origins of Hollywood glamour are explored in terms of Parisian haute couture and the 1925 Exposition des Arts D coratifs et Industriels Modernes. The manner by which the art deco style was transposed to signify growing American prosperity and British postcolonial anxiety and class differences will then be compared.

Bright Style in Dark Days Streamlined Moderne and the Depression

Hollywood glamour was one of the most important aspects of material culture during the inter-war years in America. Whether seen to be something to espouse and aspire to as part of the construction of personal identity or something that threatened core American values or avant-garde practice, it was highly significant. The new phenomenon of visiting the cinema was a popular activity, and the texts surrounding film viewing were consumed avidly as part of the landscape of material culture. For the first time in history America led the rest of the Western world in terms of what was considered glamorous for a mass consumer market. This chapter tracks the changing ideals of glamour in set and film costume design from the streamlined moderne of Grand Hotel (1932) to the frothy satin and lace of Camille (1936). The impact of the moderne on architecture, interior decoration, product and fashion design on both sides of the Atlantic is then explored against the backdrop of the Depression years.

The Actor And The Crew

During your time in the makeup or wardrobe trailers, you may encounter agitated young people with walkie-talkies and hurried looks on their faces. They will come into the trailer and bark into the walkie-talkie, bark at those at work, and probably bark at you, too. These are the production assistants, or PAs, as they are commonly called, a group of people who perform a variety of tasks on the production. The ones the actors come in contact with are the messenger escorts. They deliver information to whomever needs it The director wants you on set as soon as you're ready, The costume designer is coming and wants the actor playing Jojo to report to wardrobe first thing for a fitting, We need the actors on the set ASAP, etc. They also escort the actors from one place to another. They rarely introduce or identify themselves to you. Their demeanor can be upsetting to the organized calm of the makeup and wardrobe process.

USA Director Sam Wood

Producer Irving Thalberg screenplay George S. Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind, uncredited assistance by Bert Kalmar and Harry Ruby, with gagwriter Al Boasberg, from a screen story by James Kevin McGuiness photography Merritt B. Gerstad editor William Levanway sound recording director Douglas Shearer art director Cedric Gibbons music score Herbert Stothart costume designer Dolly Tree dances Chester Hale.

The Rocky Horror Picture Show

Producers Michael White with John Goldstone executive producer Lou Adler screenplay Jim Sharman and Richard O'Brien, from the play by O'Brien photography Peter Suschitzky editors Graeme Clifford art director Terry Ackland Snow design consultant Brian Thomson songs Richard O'Brien music director Richard Hartley special effects Wally Veevers costume designers Richard Pointing and Gillian Dods costume consultant Sue Blane.

The Picture Of Dorian Gray

Berman screenplay Albert Lewin from the novel by Oscar Wilde photography Harry Stradling editor Ferris Webster sound Douglas Shearer production designer Gordon Wiles art directors Cedric Gibbons, Hans Peters music Herbert Stothart costume designer Irene set decorator Edwin B. Willis paintings Henrique Medina (before) and Ivan Le Lorraine Albright (after).

The Philadelphia Story

Producer Joseph Mankiewicz screenplay Donald Ogden Stewart and Waldo Salt (uncredited), from the play by Philip Barry photography Joseph Ruttenberg editor Frank Sullivan sound Douglas Shearer set decorator Edwin Willis art directors Cedric Gibbons and Wade B. Rubottom music Franz Waxman costume designer Adrian.

The Passenger Italy FranceSpain Director Michelangelo Antonioni

Photography Luciano Tovoli editors Franco Arcalli and Michelangelo Antonioni sound Cyril Collik sound editors Sandro Peticca and Franca Silvi sound mixer Franco Ancillai production designer Osvaldo Desideri art director Piero Poletto costume designer Louise St. Jensward.

Sansho the Bailiff Japan

Producer Masaichi Nakata screenplay Yahiro Fuji and Yoshikata Yoda, from the novel by Ogai Mori photography Kazuo Miyagawa editor Mitsuji Miyata sound engineer Iwao Otani production designers Kisaku Ito with Uichiro Yamanoto and Nakajima Kozaburo music Tamekichi Mochizuki, Fumio Hayasaka, and Kanahichi Odera traditional music Shinichi costume designer Yoshio Ueno consultant on ancient architecture Giichi Fujiwara.

Rocco and His Brothers Italy France Director Luchino Visconti

Producer Goffredo Lombardo subject Luchino Visconti, Vasco Pratolini, and Suco Cecchi D'Amico screenplay Luchino Visconti, Suso Cocchi d'Amico, Pasquale Festa Campanile, Massimo Franciosa, and Enrico Medioli, from the book Il ponte della ghisolfa by Giovanni Testori assistant directors Jerry Macc and Lucio Orlandini photography Giuseppe Rotunno editor Mario Serandrei sound Giovanni Rossi art director Mario Garbuglia music Nino Rota costume designer Piero Tosi.

Raiders Of The Lost

Producer Frank Marshall executive producers George Lucas and Howard Kazanjian screenplay Lawrence Kasdan story George Lucas and Philip Kaufman photography Douglas Slocombe editor Michael Kahn sound effects supervisor Richard L. Anderson sound effects editors Steve H. Flick and Mark Mangini production designer Norman Reynolds art director Leslie Dilley music John Williams special effects supervisor Richard Edlund costume designer Deborah Nadoolman stunt co-ordinator Glenn Randall.

Mr Smith Goes To Washington

Producer Frank Capra screenplay Sidney Buchman, from a story by Lewis R. Foster photography Joseph Walker editors Gene Havlick and Al Clark sound engineer Ed Bernds art director Lionel Banks music score Dimitri Tiomkin musical director M. W. Stoloff costume designer (gowns) Kalloch montage effects Slavko Vorkapich.

France Japan Director Akira Kurosawa

Executive producer Katsumi Furukawa producers Serge Silberman, Masato Hara screenplay Akira Kurosawa, Hideo Oguni, Masato Ide photography Takao Saito, Masaharu Ueda, Asakazu Nakai sound recordists Fumio Yanoguchi, Shotaro Yoshida sound re-recordist Claude Villand production designers Yoshiro Muraki, Shinobu Muraki costume designer Emi Wada music Toru Takemitsu musical director Hiroyuki Iwaki. Awards Oscar for Best Costume Design, 1985. BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film, 1986.

Australia Director Gillian Armstrong

Producer Margaret Fink associate producer Jane Scott screenplay Eleanor Witcombe, from the novel by Miles Franklin assistant directors Mark Egerton, Mark Turnbull, Steve Andrews photography Don McAlpine camera operators Louis Irving, Peter Moss editor Nicholas Beauman sound editor Greg Bell sound recordist Don Connolly production designer Luciana Arrighi art director Neil Angwin costume designer Anna Senior music Nathan Waks.

Double Indemnity

Producer Joseph Sistrom screenplay Billy Wilder and Raymond Chandler, from the novel 3 of a Kind by James M. Cain photography John F. Sitz editor Doane Harrison sound Stanley Cooley art director Hal Pereira supervisor Hans Dreier set decoration Bertram Granger music Miklos Rozsa costume designer Edith Head.

The Band Wagon

Producer Arthur Freed screenplay Betty Comden and Adolph Green photography Harry Jackson editor Albert Akst production designers Edwin Willis and Keogh Gleason set designs for musical numbers Oliver Smith art directors Cedric Gibbons and Preston Ames music Howard Dietz and Arthur Schwartz music director Adolph Deutsch costume designer Mary Ann Nyberg dance direction Michael Kidd.

His Girl Friday

Producer Howard Hawks screenplay Charles Lederer, with uncredited assistance by Ben Hecht, from the play Front Page by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur photography Joseph Walker editor Gene Havlick art director Lionel Banks music Morris W. Stoloff costume designer (gowns) Kalloch.

Rio Bravo

Producer Howard Hawks screenplay Jules Furthman and Leigh Brackett, from a novelette by B. H. McCampbell photography Russell Harlan editor Folmar Blangsted sound Robert B. Lee art director Leo K. Kuter music director Dimitri Tiomkin songs Dimitri Tiomkin and Francis Webster costume designer Marjorie Best makeup Gordan Bau.

Aesthetics

A historical period's cosmetic oddities, or its lack of them, have to be plausibly recreated for a modern audience. The presentation can be faux-historical, as in Satyricon (Fellini Satyricon, 1969), which though set in ancient Rome, was conceived, on the director Federico Fellini's insistence, as dreamlike by the consummate costume designer, Piero Tosi (who did not create costumes for the film, only the makeup). Lois Burwell's and Peter Frampton's makeup for Braveheart (1995), set in about thirteenth-century Scotland, was accurate though it looked fantastical. Fantasy makeup, such as Beno t Lestang's for La Cit des enfants perdus (City of Lost Children, 1995) or John Caglione Jr.'s for Dick Tracy (1990), sets the mood for the film. Oppositely, Toni G's makeup for Charlize Theron as a hardened prostitute in Monster (2003) was a feat of realist metamorphosis that made her look like Aileen Wuornos, the convicted killer on whom the film was based.

Makeup

There are three kinds of makeup artists straight makeup, sometimes called street, which enhances an actor's features using cosmetics and corrective makeup character makeup, which transforms an actor through facial prosthesis and other devices and special effects (FX) makeup, employing mechanical devices such as robotic inserts. All three work closely with the director, cinematographer, and costume designer. Incorporating these three divisions, makeup's complex work can be loosely broken into the two categories of cosmetics and special effects. The former also radicalized the cosmetics industry. Often the two merge, but the makeup industry began with the need to accentuate the face and to deal with the drastic differences between stage and cinema.

Modeler

Once the animators are done, or even while they're still finishing up, the modeler comes in and brings lifelike touches such as skin and hair to the creation. The modeler sometimes even has to worry about clothes. For Stuart Little 2, the modeler worked with the costume designer to make sure the mouse was dressed appropriately.

Chinatown

Producer Robert Evans screenplay Robert Towne titles Wayne Fitzgerald assistant director Howard Koch, Jr. photography John A. Alonzo editor Sam O'Steen sound Larry Jost and Bud Grenzbach sound editor Robert Cornett production designer Richard Sylbert set designer Gabe and Robert Resh art director W. Stewart Campbell music score Jerry Goldsmith special effects Logan Frazee costume designer Anthea Sylbert.

Days Of Heaven

Producers Bert and Harold Schneider executive producer Jacob Brickman screenplay Terrence Malick photography Nestor Almendros with additional photography by Haskell Wexler editor Billy Weber sound mixers George Ronconi, Barry Thomas special sound effects James Cox art director James Fisk music Ennio Morricone and Leo Kottke special effects John Thomas and Mel Merrells costume designer Patricia Norris.

Black Narcissus

Streeter photographer Jack Cardiff associate photographer Joan Bridge camera operators Ted Scaife, Stan Sayers process shots W. Percy Day color control Natalie Kalmus editor Reginald Mills sound recordist Stanley Lambourne sound re-recordist Gordon K. McCallum production designer Alfred Junge assistant art director Arthur Lawson costume designer Hein Heckroth music Brian Easdale music performed by London Symphony Orchestra.

East Of Eden

Producer Elia Kazan screenplay Paul Osborn dialogue Guy Tomajean, from the novel by John Steinbeck photography Ted McCord editor Owen Marks sound engineer Stanley Jones art directors James Basevi and Malcolm Bert music Leonard Rosenman costume designer Anna Hill Johnstone.

Hallelujah

Producer King Vidor scenario Wanda Tuchock treatment Richard Schayer dialogue Ranson Rideout, from an original story by King Vidor titles for silent version Marian Ainslee photography Gordon Avil editors Anson Stephenson (silent), Hugh Wynn (sound) sound recordist Douglas Shearer art director Cedric Gibbons music traditional with 2 songs by Irving Berlin costume designer Henrietta Frazer.

Hard Days Night

Producers Walter Shenson and Denis O'Dell screenplay Alun Owen title design Robert Freeman photography Gilbert Taylor editors John Jympson and Pamela Tomlin sound recordists H. L. Bird and Stephen Dalby sound editor Gordon Daniel art director Ray Simm music director George Martin songs by John Lennon, Paul McCartney and George Harrison performed by The Beatles costume designer Julie Harris.

Its A Wonderful Life

Producer Frank Capra screenplay Frances Goodrich, Albert Hackett, and Frank Capra with additional scenes by Jo Swerling, from the story ''The Greatest Gift'' by Philip Doren Stern photography Joseph Walker and Joseph Biroc editor William Hornbeck sound Richard Van Hessen, Clem Portman, and John Aalberg art director Jack Okey music Dmitri Tiomkin special effects Russell A. Cully costume designer Edward Stevenson.

The Killers

Producer Mark Hellinger screenplay Anthony Veiller, from the short story by Ernest Hemingway photography Woody Bredell special photography David S. Horsely editor Arthur Hilton sound Bernard Brown and William Hedgecock art directors Jack Otterson and Martin Obzina music Miklos Rozsa costume designer Vera West.

The Wild Bunch

Sickner screenplay Walon Green and Sam Peckinpah, from an original story by Walon Green and Roy N. Sickner photography Lucien Ballard editor Louis Lombardo sound Robert Miller art director Edward Carrere music Jerry Fielding music supervisor Sonny Burke special effects Bud Hulburd costume designer Gordon Dawson.

The Star Wars Saga

Producer Gary Kurtz screenplay George Lucas photography Gilbert Taylor editors Paul Hirsch, Marcia Lucas, and Richard Chew sound Derek Ball, Don MacDougall, Bob Minkler, and Ray West, sound effects editor Benjamin Burtt, Jr. art directors John Barry, Norman Reynolds, and Leslie Dilley music John Williams special effects John Dykstra, John Stears, Richard Edlund, Grant McCune, and Robert Blalack costume designer John Mallo. Awards Oscars for Art Direction Set Direction, Sound, Best Original Score, Film Editing, Costume Design, and Visual Effects, 1977 Special Oscar to Ben Burtt, Jr. for sound effects, 1977.

The Naked City

Producers Mark Hellinger with Jules Buck screenplay Malvin Wald and Albert Maltz, from an unpublished story by Malvin Wald photography William Daniels editor Paul Weatherwax sound Leslie I. Carey and Vernon W. Kramer art director John F. DeCuir set decorators Russell Gausman and Oliver Emert music Miklos Rozsa and Frank Skinner music supervisor Milton Schwarzwald costume designer Grace Houston.

The Maltese Falcon

Wallis with Henry Blanke screenplay John Huston, from the novel by Dashiell Hammett photography Arthur Edeson editor Thomas Richards sound Oliver S. Garretson art director Robert Haas music Adolph Deutsch musical director Leo. F. Forbstein costume designer Orry-Kelly.

Clockwork Orange

Producers Stanley Kubrick with Max L. Raab and Si Litvinoff serving as executive producers screenplay Stanley Kubrick, from the novel by Anthony Burgess photography John Alcott editor Bill Butler sound John Jordan production designer John Barry art directors Russell Hagg and Peter Shields music Ludwig van Beethoven, Edward Elgar, Gioacchino Rossini, Terry Tucker, and Erika Eigen original electronic music Walter Carlos costume designer Milena Canonero make-up Fred Williamson, George Partleton, and Barbara Daly paintings and sculptures Herman Makking, Cornelius Makking, Liz Moore and Christiane Kubrick stunt arranger Roy Scammer.

American Beauty

Producers Alan Ball, Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks, and Stan Wlodkowski screenplay Alan Ball photography Conrad L. Hall assistant directors Tony Adler, Rosemary Cremona, Carey Dietrich, and Chris Edmonds editors Tariq Anwar and Chris Greenbury supervising sound editor Scott Martin Gershin art director David S. Lazan production designer Naomi Shohan costume designer Julie Weiss set designer Jan K. Bergstrom music Original score by Thomas Newman additional songs by Pete Townshend special effects CFC MVFX, Los Angeles.

Touch Of Evil

Producer Albert Zugsmith screenplay Orson Welles, from the novel Badge of Evil by Whit Masterson additional director Harry Keller photography Russell Metty editors Virgil M. Vogel and Aaron Stell sound Leslie I. Carey and Frank Wilkinson art directors Alexander Golitzen and Robert Clatworthy music Henry Mancini music director Joseph Gershenson costume designer Bill Thomas.

Key Costumer

If you can sew and want to meet celebrities, this may be the place for you. Key costumers are the backbone of the costume department. They are responsible for the day-to-day work on the set. The costume designer may be there the day the costume is established, but the keys have to maintain the piece once it has been seen. If the film is shooting for several weeks, and the actors are wearing the same things in every shot, this kind of maintenance can be extremely important.

La Confidential

Producers Curtis Hanson, Brian Helgeland, Dan Kolsrud, Arnon Milchan, Michael G. Nathanson, and David L. Wolper screenplay Brian Helgeland and Curtis Hanson, from the novel by James Ellroy photography Dante Spinotti assistant directors Jim Goldthwait, Heather Kritzer, Linda Montanti, and Drew Ann Rosenberg editor Peter Honess sound SoundStorm art director William Arnold production designer Jeannine Oppewall costume designer Ruth Myers music Jerry Goldsmith.

Angelas Ashes

Whenever you're doing a period recreation, the research materials are usually black-and-white photographs. So, whenever you do period replication, you find yourself kind of taken away from primary colors. You can't do it in black-and-white, because it's too easy to do that, and probably the people giving you the money wouldn't approve. But you try and make it monochromatic when you're shooting it in color. What you do is open with a very narrow color pallet, insomuch as everybody working on the film is looking through the same color area. That's the costume designer, the art director, the production designer, and the cinematographer. You all have the same goal, so you get a monochromatic feel, even though it's in color. We also used the Technicolor process, which takes out a great deal of the color by retaining more of the silver, and in the final print you get this dense kind of feel. And all those things are relevant to try and give it a feel that will replicate the period. Each...

Realism

Among Saleh's peers, each of whom suffered from the decline in state funding, Shadi Abdel Salam (d. 1986), originally a set and costume designer on numerous Egyptian films, heralded a new kind of art cinema with his sole feature, Al Mumiya (Night of the Counting Years 1969 ). This film was hailed as a renaissance in Egyptian cinema, but Salam has since left Egypt because he was unable to secure funding for other projects he died in1986. The demands of the market have dominated the type and level of artistry in Egyptian cinema, with few exceptions, one of whom is Youssef Chahine (b. 1926). The most prolific independent film director of the post-war period, a master of different genres, and the instigator of an auteurist and critical cinema in the Arab world, Chahine is probably the best known Egyptian figure abroad. This is due to his cultural blend of East and West, idiosyncratic style, international acclaim at Cannes and major film institutes, and critical feelings about the West,...

Blade Runner

Producer Michael Deeley screenplay Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, from the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Philip K. Dick photography Jordan Cronenweth editor Terry Rawlings sound mixer Bud Alper sound editor Peter Pennell dialogue editor Michael Hopkins production designer Lawrence G. Paull art director David Snyder music Vangelis special effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, and David Dryer costume designers Charles Knode and Michael Kaplan visual futurist Syd Mead.

An Agents Life

There are agents who handle actors and some who, more specifically, represent actors for certain types of work, such as television and cable, feature films, commercials or voice-overs. There are agents who just represent writers, and they're called literary agents. There are agents who represent musical talent, those who handle producers and directors and those who represent below-the-line crew such as cinematographers, editors, production sound mixers, costume designers, makeup artists, etc. And then there are agents who specialize in packaging. In fact, the larger agencies (such as William Morris, CAA and ICM) have entire packaging departments that can draw from pools of highly talented clients. Whether it's developing a film or TV concept in-house or getting behind a client's screenplay, they have the ability to package an agency-represented writer with other agency clients, such as a producer, director and cast. A project that's packaged with two or more of these elements is a...

Lone Star

Paul Miller, Maggie Renzi, John Sloss (executive), Jan Foster (associate) screenplay John Sayles cinematograper Stuart Dryburgh editor John Sayles music Mason Daring casting Avy Kaufman production design Dan Bishop art direction J. Kyler Black set decoration Dianna Freas costume design Shay Cunliffe.

Detour

Producer Leon Fromkess, Martin Mooney (assistant producer) screenplay Martin Goldsmith, Martin Mooney (uncredited) cinematographer Benjamin H. Kline editor George McGuire music Leo Erdody sound Max Hutchison art director William A. Calihan, Jr., Edward C. Jewell set decoration Glenn P. Thompson costume design Mona Barry.

Taiwan

Producer Chiu Shun-Ching, Hsu Li-Kong, Chung Hu-pin (executive), Wang Shih-Fang (associate) screenplay Tsai Ming-liang, Tsai Yi-chun, Yang Pi-ying cinematographer Liao Pen-jung editor Chen Sheng-Chang, Lei Chen-Ching production designer Tony Lan art direction Lee Pao-Lin set decoration Cheng Nien-Chiu, Kuo Mu-Shan costume design Yu Wang makeup Yen Pei-Wen.

Black Sunday

Producers Robert Evans, Alan Levine (associate), Robert L. Rosen (executive) music John Williams cinematograper John A. Alonzo editor Tom Rolfe casting Lynn Stalmaster sound Howard Beals, Gene S. Cantamessa, John Wilkinson special effects Logan Frazee, Gene Warren, Jr. stunts Everett Creach, Howard Curtis art direction Walter H. Tyler set decoration Jerry Wunderlich costume design Ray Summers makeup Sugar Blymer, Bob Dawn, Brad Wilder production manager Jerry Ziesmer.

Production Design

The production designer's primary, though by no means exclusive, responsibility is the design of the sets. Exact responsibility varies from one film industry to another. In the United States, for example, production design and costume design are usually two separate professions. In other major film industries, the two responsibilities are often held by a single person. Before designing anything, the designer develops a ''design concept,'' an overarching metaphor for the film's appearance that governs individual choices. This ''concept'' may or may not be established in conjunction with the director. Once settled upon, however, it structures all decisions made, helping the art staff to give an individual film visual distinction.

The Scarlet Empress

Screenplay Josef von Sternberg, adapted from a diary of Catherine the Great by Manuel Komroff photography Bert Glennon production designers Hans Dreier, Peter Balbusch, and Richard Kollorsz music arrangers John Leipold and W. Frank Harling additional music Josef von Sternberg special effects Gordon Jennings costume designer Travis Banton.

Gate of Hell Japan

Gate Hell Sanzo Wada

Producer Masaichi Nagata screenplay Teinosuke Kinugasa, from a 20th century play by Kan Kikuchi photography Kohei Sugiyama art director Kisaku Itoh music director Yasuchi Akutagawa costume designer Sanzo Wada color consultant Sanzo Wada. Awards Oscar for Best Costume Design-Color and Special Oscar for Best Foreign Film, 1954 New York Film Critics' Award, Best Foreign Film, 1954 Cannes Film Festival, Best Film, 1954.

Gone With The Wind

Selznick screenplay Sidney Howard, with structural innovations by Jo Swerling and some dialogue by Ben Hecht and John van Druten, from the novel by Margaret Mitchell uncredited directors George Cukor and Sam Wood photography Ernest Haller cameramen Lee Garmes, Joseph Ruttenberg, Ray Rennahan, and Wilfred Cline editors Hal C. Kern and James E. Newcom sound recordist Frank Maher production designer William Cameron Menzies art director Lyle Wheeler musical score Max Steiner special effects Jack Cosgrove and Lee Zavitz costume designer Walter Plunkett, Scarlett's hats by John Frederics consulting historian Wilbur G. Kurtz dance direction Frank Floyd and Eddie Prinz.

An American In Paris

Images American Paris Costumes

Producer Arthur Freed screenplay Alan Jay Lerner photography Al Gilks and John Alton (final ballet) editor Adrienne Fazan art directors Preston Ames and Cedric Gibbons set decorators Keogh Gleason and Edwin B. Willis music George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin music directors Johnny Green and Saul Chaplin costume designers Orry-Kelly, Walter Plunkett (Beaux-Arts Ball costumes), Irene Sharaff (final ballet costumes) choreography Gene Kelly. Awards Oscars for Best Picture, Story and Screenplay, Cinematography Color, Art Direction Color, Scoring, Costume Design Color, 1951 American Film Institute's ''100 Years, 100 Movies,'' 1998. Difficult critical questions arise regarding the complicated assigning of credit involved in evaluating such movies. First of all, An American in Paris is an example of ''producer cinema,'' being one of a list of musicals made by the famous Arthur Freed unit at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The Freed unit was also responsible for The Bandwagon, Singin' in the Rain, The...

Salvatore Giuliano

Producer Franco Cristaldi screenplay Francesco Rosi, Suso Cecchi D'Amico, Enzo Provenzale, and Franco Solinas, based on official court records and journalistic reports on the career of Salvatore Giuliano photography Gianni Di Venanzo editor Mario Serandrei sound Claudio Maielli art directors Sergio Canevari and Carlo Egidi music Piero Piccioni costume designer Maril Carteny.

King Kong

Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack with David O. Selznick as executive producer screenplay James Creelman and Ruth Rose, from a story by Merian C. Cooper and Edgar Wallace based on an idea conceived by Cooper photography Edward Linden, Vernon L. Walker, and J. O. Taylor optical photography Linwood C. Dunn and William Ulm editor Ted Cheesman sound recordist E. A. Wolcott sound effects Murray Spivack production technicians Mario Larrinaga and Byron L. Crabbe art directors Archie S. Marshek and Walter Daniels art direction supervisor Van Nest Polglase music Max Steiner chief technician Willis H. O'Brien special effects Harry Redmond Jr. Williams Matte supervision Frank Williams technical artwork Juan Larrinaga, Zachary Hoag, and Victor Delgado projection process Sydney Saunders costume designer Walter Plunkett King Kong modellist Marcel Delgado.

Costume

Costume design is as crucial to the creation of a film as direction, acting, art design, and cinematography. The audience, if it notes costume design at all, sees fashion or period dress, not realizing that a costume is never fashion, period or even clothes and that the designer must achieve these categories without revealing any tricks. The costume itself is a trick, crafted for a single film moment, and despite its brief appearance, can have taken twenty people two weeks to prepare. It may be built for a special purpose to bring light to the actor's face, show color, act as a symbol, or hide a body flaw. It may have to conform to a novel or an era, suit an auteur's mise-en-scene, endure strenuous stunts, function in extreme weather, or appear worn out or pristine. Equally, the clothes must satisfy the public's lust for hyperrealism and glamour, something Cecil B. DeMille recognized when he said that a film's success was made from sex, sets and costume.''

Trend Setting

Early costume designers, such as West and Adrian, recognized design as a great force in twentieth-century haute couture. Their work, crucial in the establishment of American style as a world competitor, was the first to outstrip the French, who dominated fashion commercially and artistically. By the 1910s, stars were photographed in cinema clothes for fashion magazines and Sears-Roebuck catalogues, and the word film was used as an advertising lure. But the public's desire for these clothes is ironic, as many are impossible to wear. Jean Harlow's form-fitting satin gowns were glued to her body and steamed off. Mae West was sewn into two identical The provenance of style setting was debated between Europe and America but, by the mid 1930s, the couturiere Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973) acceded, What Hollywood designs today, you will be wearing tomorrow'' (Mulvagh, p. 123). Though some of these firsts appeared simultaneously (Schiaparelli and Adrian both introduced padded shoulders), a...

Alexander Nevsky

Scenario Sergei Eisenstein and Pyotr Pavlenko collaborating director D. J. Vasiliev photography Edward Tisse editor Sergei Eisenstein sound B. Volsky and V. Popov production design Isaac Shpinel, Nikolai Soloviov, and K. Yeliseyev from Eisenstein's sketches music Sergei Prokofiev costume designers Isaac Shpinel, Nikolai Soloviov, and K. Yeliseyev from Eisenstein's sketches consultant on work with actors Elena Telesheva.

Visual Design

The wardrobe department is headed by the costume designer, who works with the director and the production designer to ensure the film has the desired look. The role of the wardrobe supervisor is to ensure that the outfits specified by the costume designer are created, hired, or purchased within the budget. If costumes must be made, they are created by a seamstress and cutter fitter. The wardrobe master or mistress and wardrobe assistants maintain the costumes during production, supervising washing and mending as well as ensuring that the costumes are available when and where they are required. A dresser may be employed to help the performers get in and out of their outfits.

Deco American Style

As the American designer of the Radio City Music Hall and visitor to the Paris Exposition, Donald Deskey, recalled in 1933 'Out of the chaotic condition caused by an unprecedented era of prosperity and the overpublicising of contemporary architecture and decoration, following the Exposition of Decorative Arts in Paris in 1925, there emerged a style' (Deskey 1933 266). Skyscrapers were a fitting motif for the new style in textiles being produced by American designers, for example Clayton Knight's Manhattan textile design of 1925-6. The multi-storey blocks also inspired the furniture designs of Paul T. Frankl, a German immigrant with a practice first in New York and then Los Angeles (Figure 9). An entire room designed by Frankl was exhibited by Macy's in its 1927 Art in Trade show. Frankl was inspired by the new speed of American city life, of the noise and random synchronism of Jazz music and dance. In his treatise on the skyscraper and modern design Form and Re-Form (1972 1930 ) he...

Brazil

Producer Arnon Milchan co-producer Patrick Cassavetti production coordinator Margaret Adams screenplay Terry Gilliam, Tom Stoppard, Charles McKeown 2nd unit director Julian Doyle assistant directors Guy Travers, Chris Thompson, Richard Coleman, Christopher Newman, Terence Fitch, Kevin Westley photography Roger Pratt model effects photography Roger Pratt, Julian Doyle, Tim Spence camera operator David Garfath video consultant Ira Curtis Coleman editor Julian Doyle sound editors Rodney Glenn, Barry McCormick sound recordists Bob Doyle, Eric Tomlinson, Andy Jackson sound re-recordist Paul Carr art directors John Beard, Keith Pain graphic artists David Scutt, Bernard Allum draughtsmen Tony Rimmington, Stephen Bream matte artist Ray Caple production designer Norman Garwood set dressing designer Maggie Gray costume designers Jams Acheson, Ray Scott, Martin Adams, Vin Burnham, Jamie Courtier, Martin Adams, Annie Hadley make-up Maggie Weston, Aaron Sherman, Elaine Carew, Sallie Evans, Sandra...

The African Queen

Producer Sam Spiegel screenplay James Agee and John Huston with Peter Viertel, from the novel by C. S. Forester photography Jack Cardiff editor Ralph Kemplen sound engineer John Mitchell art director John Hoesli music Allan Gray, executed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Norman del Mar special effects Cliff Richardson costume designer Doris Langley Moore.

Fireworks Japan

Producers Masayuki Mori, Yasushi Tsuge, Takio Yoshida screenplay Takeshi Kitano photography Hideo Yamamoto editors Takeshi Kitano, Yoshinori Oota art director Norishiro Isoda set decorator Tatsuo Ozeki original music Jo Hisaishi costume designer Masami Saito sound Senji Horiuchi.

The Reading

I call this a roundtable because of its egalitarian feel. The whole idea is to meet one another in an atmosphere devoid of pressure. If you have been cast in a role and are asked to come to an informal reading of the script, you are very lucky. This means you will have an opportunity to meet your director and fellow cast members in a relaxed setting. Some directors invite various crew members to readings as well, especially the director of photography, costume designer, and assistant directors. If the director is not the author, the writer might be present to fix anything that needs fixing in the script.

Having an Agent

As previously mentioned in Chapter 4 under a section called An Agent's Life, actors have agents (sometimes more than one), as do most established writers, producers and directors. There are also agents who specialize in representing below-the-line crew positions, such as production designers, directors of photography, editors, costume designers, production sound mixers, etc.

Written On The Wind

Producer Albert Zugsmith screenplay George Zuckerman, from the novel by Robert Wilder photography Russell Metty editor Russell Schoengarth art directors Alexander Golitzen, Robert Clatworthy, Russell A. Gausman, and Julia Heron music Frank Skinner and Joseph Gershenson special effects Clifford Stine costume designer Bill Thomas.

White Heat

Edelman screenplay Ivan Goff and Ben Roberts, from a story by Virginia Kellogg photography Sid Hickox editor Owen Marks sound Leslie G. Hewitt art director Edward Carrere music Max Steiner special effects Roy Davidson and H. F. Koenekamp costume designer Leah Rhodes.

Dress Making

Dress Making

Rock your personality in a dress you made yourself that reflects who you are, not what a department store thinks you want. Discover The Beginners Guide to Making Your Own Dress. You do not have to wear off the rack dresses any longer. You can make your own fashion statement on the world.

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