The Animal Star System

Since the development of the star system, cinema has presented four types of screen actors, animal or human screen icons, performers who are so universally recognized and loved that their identities entirely transcend the star system as well as individual films or genres of films and who come to stand for film itself stars, relatively few in number and broadly known beyond any one film for the particular personalities they continually display in principal protagonists' roles character or bit...

Oscar Micheaux b Metropolis Illinois January d March

One of the most renowned African American directors, Oscar Micheaux produced and directed forty-three films over three decades. Though he was not the first African American director or the first to head an African American motion picture company, he was the first to direct a feature-length film. Born in a small town in southern Illinois to a schoolteacher mother and an agriculturist father, the influence of his parentage can be seen in themes that would emerge in his films the importance of...

Beginnings And Landmarks

Domestic film production activity in several Arab countries other than Egypt remained limited and sporadic until they gained their independence in the period between the early 1940s and the early 1960s. During the colonial period, film production was mostly attributable to the initiative of ambitious young artists and entrepreneurs who were enthused about cinema and the possibility of making quick profits. In 1928 Al Mutaham al bari (The Innocent Victim) became the first Syrian feature-length...

Edgar G Ulmer b Olmiitz Austria Hungary September d September

Few names are as closely associated with the B movie as Edgar G. Ulmer. After studying architecture and working in the theater and cinema in Europe (notably for F. W. Murnau), Ulmer settled in the United States. He directed films in a variety of low-budget forms, including exploitation movies (Damaged Lives, 1933), Yiddish films (Green Fields, 1933), and dozens of Bs. One of Ulmer's earliest efforts, The Black Cat (1934), is considered one of his best. Although the movie boasted Universal's...

Coproduction Today

The basic strategies for co-productions have changed little in more recent decades what has changed are the increasingly complicated subsidy and funding structures initiated and drawn upon and the scale of international players now engaged in the business. A decline in treaty co-productions in the 1970s was due not to deliberate strategy but to the intrusion of television onto the scene. In the 1980s television became an important financier of co-productions, both nationally and...

Arabs In Hollywood

Before considering Arab cinema itself, it is useful to note a critical dynamic that has consistently marred Arab people's relationship with film their image in Western cinemas. Many Arabs and Arab filmmakers view the portrayal of the Arab world in the West as a major obstacle to screening, publicizing, and appreciating a fundamentally vibrant Arab film culture. Vilifying and stereotyping Arabs has been a standard practice since the early years of cinema. Hollywood in particular has played a...

Kenji Mizoguchi b Tokyo Japan May d August

One of the most acclaimed directors of world cinema, Kenji Mizoguchi created elegant, precisely staged long takes in films that examined the circumscribed choices of women in Japanese society. His tightly controlled camera movement, recessed foregrounds, and depth staging served to subordinate characters to the overall composition, positioning the viewer as an observer to highly emotional yet distanced subject matter. Having directed more than forty silent-era films, during the 1930s Mizoguchi...

Discussing Class During The Cold

The post-World War II period also saw discussion of class reframed by the simmering tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. While the Soviet Union espoused socialist rhetoric criticizing the class divisions of Western capitalism, life in the USSR and its sphere of influence was itself often severely stratified between the haves and the have-nots. Anyone who dared to acknowledge such economic disparity was in danger of investigation, imprisonment, torture, and or death. Such...

Rearprojection And Other Challenges

Few problems confront cinematography more vexingly than the rear-projection plate. The plate, a strip of film projected onto a screen behind actors in a soundstage (alternately called a stereo when it contains nothing but a landscape), is shot by a special effects team, almost always in advance of principal cinematography. During the 1950s at Paramount, where the rear-projection process was worked out most intensively by Farciot Edouart (1895-1980), special cinematographic techniques were...

Crew Size And Onscreen Credits

Most films require a wide range of expertise and thus call for fairly extensive crews. The size of a film crew varies according to the budget, just as its composition depends on the requirements of the specific film. For example, an action thriller may require a large number of stuntmen, whereas an intimate drama would need few if any. Historical blockbusters depend on sizable camera crews and extensive wardrobe departments. For instance, the historical saga Ben-Hur (1925) called for...

Postcolonial Cinema Worldwide

Just as there is a great degree of continuity both economically and culturally between the colonial and postcolonial periods, so have certain industrial precedents and representational conventions persisted, even in the wake of the myriad decolonization struggles and countercul-tural political movements of the mid- and late-twentieth century. First, Hollywood's domination of the international film market, the origins of which can be traced to World War I, became more pronounced after 1947, when...

Art Cinema And Audience

In addition to different textual qualities, art films were characteristically screened in venues other than the commercial cinema circuits. The 1920s saw the development of a range of different and separate exhibition venues, for example, cinema clubs, film societies, and dedicated Delphine Seyrig and Giorgio Albertazzi in Alain Resnais's Last Year at Marienbad (1961). everett collection. reproduced by permission. repertory cinemas. France was central to this trend with the cin club movement,...

Workingclass Entertainment

Many of the early motion picture pioneers were influenced by the great strides of invention occurring during the Industrial Revolution. While such inventions were touted as bringing easier and more comfortable lives to humankind, profit potential also helped drive many of these developments. New machines helped streamline production, churning out more items in less time for less cost (unless one counts the loss of hearing, limbs, and or lives in factories that had no safety codes). Inventors...

Postcohn Columbia Into The New Hollywood

Columbia's run of profitable years, which extended back to its founding in 1924, finally ended in 1958, the year of Harry Cohn's death. By then Columbia had sustained its contract system, centralized management, and studio production setup (still at Gower Gulch) longer than most of its competitors, but its recent success had been primarily a function of Cohn's willingness to take risks and embrace change. At the time of Harry Cohn's death, which came two years after the demise of his brother...

The Costume Designers Relationship With The Film Crew And Cast

The costume designer liaises with the actor, director, cinematographer, art director, hair and make-up stylists, and even the writer and stunt coordinator. On the set daily and or nightly, until shooting wraps, for fittings, alterations, accidents, or additions, the costume designer is involved from a film's earliest pre-production and must do exhaustive research, even for a modern movie, regarding location, climate, class, age, taste, and fads. But, the designer must be always inventive....

Richard Leacock b London England S July

Richard Leacock was raised on his father's banana plantation in the Canary Islands. When he started attending boarding school in England, he wanted to find a way to let his schoolmates know what life was like on the plantation, and so at the age of fourteen he made his first film, Canary Island Bananas (1935), to show them what it was like to be there. For the bulk of his professional life, Leacock has been motivated by the desire to let people know what it is like ''to be there.'' He has long...

Jeanmarie Teno b Famleng Cameroon

The Paris-based Cameroonian director Jean-Marie Teno is known for his provocative interrogations of political and social issues in postcolonial Cameroon. Using narrative and aesthetic strategies that combine elements of fiction and documentary to create innovative new structures, he belongs to the new generation of African filmmakers who are experimenting with new forms and styles. Teno studied filmmaking at the University of Valenciennes in France. After graduating in 1981, he worked as a film...

The Color Effect And Color Film

By the late 1940s Hollywood was confronting several threats to box office sales the new medium of television, the effects of the Paramount Decree (the popular name for the Supreme Court antitrust decision that led to the dismantling of the studio system), and the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings into an alleged Communist Party presence in Hollywood. Technicolor and other color technologies became vital selling tools, providing viewers with an optical experience that could not be...

Jan Svankmajer b Prague Czechoslovakia September

Jan Svankmajer studied sculpture, painting, engraving, and the writings of the surrealist artists at the College of Applied Arts in Prague in the early 1950s, eventually entering the famed Prague Academy of Performing Arts in 1954 to study puppetry and filmmaking. These multidisciplinary skills earned Svankmajer a place as director and designer at the Czech State Puppet Theatre in 1958 and secured him work with the Semafor Mask Theatre in 1960. His first films Posledni trik pana Schwarcewalldea...

Atom Egoyan b Cairo Egypt July

Born in Egypt to Armenian parents and raised in Victoria, British Columbia, Atom Egoyan began making short films while a student at the University of Toronto. Along with his fellow Torontonian David Cronenberg, Egoyan has emerged as an internationally successful auteur. He has won numerous awards, including four at the prestigious Cannes Film Festival and seven at the Toronto International Film Festival. The German director Wim Wenders was so impressed with Egoyan's Family Viewing (1987) that,...

Carlos Diegues b Maceio Alagoas Brazil

Carlos Caca Diegues is a leading figure of Brazilian cinema. One of the first filmmakers to define Cinema Novo in 1962 as part of a larger cultural movement transforming Brazilian society, he was also one of the first to declare its dilution into Brazilian cinema. A staunch supporter of auteur cinema, Diegues believed that Cinema Novo's social commitment and political criticism would be possible only through unqualified artistic freedom, cinematic heterodoxy, and cultural pluralism. This...

From Short Subjects To Feature Films

While the films produced by Sessue Hayakawa in the 1910s and 1920s are tenuously related to Asian American film production a half-century later, other filmmakers have a more direct relation by virtue of their subject matter and perspective, as well as their independent productions. The prehistory of Asian American cinema includes A Filipino a in America (1938), a 16mm film produced by the University of Southern California student Doroteo Ines the 8mm ''home movies'' shot by David Tatsuno in the...

B Tenafly New Jersey November

Prominent American character actor, a frequent presence in films of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, Ed Harris is a slight, wiry fair-haired man with liquid grey eyes and a resonant baritone voice. He may be as well-known to moviegoers as the biggest stars, occasionally playing leads but usually taking well-chosen supporting parts. In many of his films Harris has but a handful of scenes, yet his character is the one viewers often remember. Harris is a chameleon, convincing as a Nazi assassin in one...

B Max Oppenheimer Saarbrcken Germany May d March

From the 1930s through the 1950s, Max Ophuls directed over twenty films in five countries, establishing himself as one of the preeminent visual stylists of his generation. His films are marked by the systematic use of a continuously moving camera that emphasizes the fleeting nature of his characters' romantic dreams. Although Die Verkaufte Braut (The Bartered Bride, 1932) contains Ophuls's initial use of elaborate camera movements and deep-space staging, Liebelei (Flirtation, 1933) is commonly...

Stopmotion Animation

Three-dimensional stop-motion animation has two distinct histories. The first is the largely European tradition of short stop-motion films made by individual artists and stop-motion series made principally for children's television. The second, predominantly Hollywood tradition, is the invisible history of stop-motion animation as a branch of special effects for feature-length films. This is complicated further by the fact that 3D stop-motion animation also has two principal approaches, using...

Arnold Schwarzenegger b Thal Styria Austria July

A bodybuilder, entrepreneur, and movie star, Arnold Schwarzenegger is associated with the box-office prominence of spectacular action cinema through the 1980s and into the 1990s. Schwarzenegger achieved fame first as a bodybuilder, appearing in the documentary Pumping Iron (1977). From his early leading roles in comic book, fantasy muscle movies, notably Conan the Barbarian (1982) and Conan the Destroyer (1984), Schwarzenegger demonstrated a capacity for physical acting. His key success came...

Raymond Chandler b Chicago Illinois July d La Jolla California March

Educated in England, Raymond Chandler worked as an accountant and in a bank on returning to America before turning to writing pulp fiction in the 1930s. The success of his first novel, The Big Sleep (1939), brought him an invitation to Hollywood. His involvement with film had two aspects as screenwriter and as author of six novels adapted for the screen, some of them more than once. After a rewarding experience collaborating with Billy Wilder on the script of Double Indemnity (1944), Chandler...

American Comic Books On Film

The relationship between comics and film has been explored further by filmmakers inspired not by newspaper strips but by comic books. Since the end of World War II, American comic books have been dominated by the superhero genre, and the last decades of the twentieth century saw an explosion of superhero-related movies as major summer releases, beginning in 1978 with the version of Superman by Richard Donner (b. 1930), starring Christoper Reeve, and its assorted sequels. The superhero...

Thomas Alva Edison b Milan Ohio February d October

In his early years Thomas Edison worked as a telegraph operator, and his first inventions were related to electrical telegraphy. By the time he introduced his motion picture camera, the Kinetograph, and viewer, the Kinetoscope, to the public in 1894, he had already achieved nearly mythic status. Several of his inventions, including the lightbulb (1879) and the phonograph (1877), were immensely successful and had firmly established him as the foremost American inventor of his time. The public,...

Art Cinema

The term art cinema'' is one of the most familiar in film studies, marking out simultaneously specific filmmakers, specific films, specific kinds of cinemas, and, for some writers, specific kinds of audiences. The filmmakers implied by the term are such European auteurs as Michelangelo Antonioni (b. 1912), Federico Fellini (1920-1993), Jean-Luc Godard (b. 1930), and Ingmar Bergman (b. 1918) the films include L'Avventura (1960), 8V2 (1963), A bout de souffle (Breathless, 1960) and Det Sjunde...

Martin Scorsese b Queens New York November

Born in Queens, Martin Scorsese grew up in Manhattan's Little Italy, just a few steps from the Bowery. After seriously considering a vocation to the priesthood, he went to film school instead, completing his Bachelor of Arts degree at New York University in 1964. His shoestring first feature, Who s That Knocking at My Door (1968), caught the attention of Roger Corman, the legendary producer of exploitation films, who offered him the chance to direct Boxcar Bertha (1972). With Mean Streets...

Contemporary Challenges To The Canon

By the end of the 1960s, some theorists and academics began questioning the tendency of auteur critics to consider the aesthetic value of films outside of any economic, historical, or ideological context. The adoption within film scholarship of theories drawn from structuralism, semiotics, Marxism, and psychoanalysis made problematic notions of authorship and conventional critical assessments. The rise of a modernist European art cinema and a vibrant American avant-garde encouraged some...

The Triumph Of The Director As Auteur

Outside of academic and other serious film writing and teaching, auteurism in relatively uncritical form has been much more obviously triumphant. Perhaps because it was always more critical and evaluative than theoretical, early auteurism was very readily assimilated into film journalism, relatively untroubled by later debates about the theoretical basis of authorship. In serious and even popular film journalism it is now generally and quite routinely taken for granted that directors are...

Development Of The Motion Picture Camera

The motion in motion pictures is created by an optical illusion. What is recorded by the camera and subse quently projected on the screen is actually a series of still images that the human brain interprets as continuous movement due to the perceptual features known as persistence of vision and the phi phenomenon. With persistence of vision, images are retained by the brain for a fraction of a second longer than they remain in the field of vision. In a projected film, still images alternate...

An Enduring Ambivalence

Structural analyses of crime fiction also shed light on the interrelations among other popular film formulas. Commentators from Herbert Ruhm to John McCarty trace the crime film's lineage to the western, but Ruhm considers the hard-boiled dick and McCarty the gangster to be the gunslinger's heir. Both are correct their dis agreement indicates the extent to which gangsters and private eyes resemble each other, just as heroic police officers, whose loyalty to their organization ought to make them...

Further Reading

The Films of Mike Leigh Embracing the World. Cambridge, UK, and New York Cambridge University Press, 2000. Jones, Edward Trostle. All or Nothing The Cinema of Mike Leigh. New York Peter Lang, 2004. Movshovitz, Howie, ed. Mike Leigh Interviews. Jackson University Press of Mississippi, 2000. neorealist film seemed equally important, instead of Hollywood's use of close-ups and shallow focus to force attention on the glamorous lead actors. The international acclaim that these films...

Beginnings And First Generation

The phenomenon of film was introduced to China in 1896, but the Chinese did not shoot their first film, Ding jun shan Dingjun Mountain until 1905. What followed in the next couple of decades, termed the First Generation,'' was film approached from an operatic stage perspective, with fixed-camera shooting, step-by-step descriptions of ordinary plots, and dominance of story over the performances of actors and actresses. Although by the end of the period late 1920s about one hundred directors were...

Development And Evolution

By the early 1960s, many countries south of the Sahara had gained independence from the nations that had colonized them. However, political independence did not mean that Africans suddenly possessed the infrastruc ture to produce films. Furthermore, the exhibition and distribution of films south of the Sahara continued to be controlled by foreign companies, a practice that had begun as early as 1926 with the establishment of the Compagnie Africaine Cin matographique Industrielle Ousmane...

B Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht Augsburg Germany February d August

Bertolt Brecht is a central figure in twentieth-century theater. A playwright who moved into directing to have an influence in the production of his own work, Brecht's first plays reflected the influence of dadaism and expressionism. He began directing in 1924 and had his first success in 1928 with The Threepenny Opera. Active in German theater until Hitler's rise to power in 1933, Brecht spent the next fifteen years in exile. During this period Brecht wrote the plays for which he is best...

Ousmane Sembene b Ziguinchor Senegal January

Senegalese writer and director Ousmane Sembene is a pioneer of African cinema south of the Sahara. He has been highly influential in shaping the evolution of African film practices over forty years, including a style of filmmaking known as African cinematic realism. After working as an apprentice mechanic and bricklayer in Dakar and as a dockworker in Marseille, Sembene published three novels Le docker noir translated as The Black Docker, 1987, 1956 , O pays, mon beau people O my country, my...

Sidney Poitier b Miami Florida February

Sidney Pokier remains the most highly recognized African American actor in the history of American cinema. His triumphs on stage, television, and in film countered the typically demeaning stereotypes of African Americans. The first African American superstar, he entered Quigley's Top Moneymaker's Poll'' in 1967, and ascended to number one the following year, beating the popular icons Steve McQueen, Paul Newman, and John Wayne. His dramatic characterizations brought dignity, complexity, and...

Alternative Methods

The term ''alternative methods'' merely begs the question alternative to what Within the context of animation, the methods discussed below essentially operate as alternatives to the trends in industrial production contexts, largely resisting the dominant aesthetics of contemporary CGI in feature work, traditional puppet and model animation, and orthodox cel or drawn material. There is also a resistance to the ''Disney style,'' both visually and thematically, and inevitably a more personal or...

American Films About Children Before World War Ii

As Kathy Merlock Jackson pointed out in her pioneering study of children in film, movies have tended to present two divergent images of children the wild ones who need to be tamed, and the innocents who need to be protected. In Hollywood movies before World War II, and especially before the 1930s, the prevalent image of children tended toward the innocents. However, child actors did not receive star billing before Jackie Coogan appeared in The Kid in 1921, and thus films were rarely centered...

Filmmaking In Quebec

Canada is officially a bilingual country and recognizes the province of Quebec as a ''distinct society.'' Quebecois cinema faced some of the same obstacles as English-Canadian cinema, but its development was also hindered by the Catholic Church, which through the 1950s was the major cultural force in Quebec culture. Although separated from the rest of Canada by language and culture, Quebec eventually developed its own distinctive cinema as part of a belated embrace of modernity. In the 1920s...

List of Articles

Action and adventure films Yvonne Tasker africa south of the sahara Sheila Petty african american cinema Frances K. Gateward auteur theory and authorship Jim Hillier canon and canonicity Lisa Dombrowski Catherine L. Benamou and Andreea Marinescu collaboration John C. Tibbetts and Jim Welsh colonialism and postcolonialism Corinn Columpar Michael T. Martin and Marilyn Yaquinto gay, lesbian, and queer cinema Harry M. Benshoff mgm metro-goldwyn-mayer Thomas Schatz native americans and cinema...

International History Of Costume Design

While it is sometimes difficult to be sure of costume design information because the silent-film period gave designers no screen credits and, during the 1950s, the studios disposed of many records, four elements can be said to form the foundation of film costume design as it is in the early twenty-first century the establishment of its own studio department the freedom given to designers to create extravagantly the influx of, and competition with, international influence and the recognition of...

The La Rebellion

As these veterans of the cinema created socially significant feature films that were aesthetically grounded in African American and in some cases African cultural forms, a new group of filmmakers would emerge, trained in university film schools located primarily in Los Angeles. Their educations in graduate programs went beyond technical training. Their ''coming-of age'' coincided with the push for ethnic studies programs on campuses around the country, nationalist movements in the Asian Pacific...

Visual Design

The production designer deals with one of the most important jobs in a film. He or she is responsible for planning its entire look, from individual sets to overall color schemes. Normally one of the first to be involved in the production, the designer delegates specific tasks to other members of the crew, who are in turn responsible for creating designs on a more detailed level or for supervising or executing the work needed to transform the designs into reality. Set building is the...

Good Cinematography

While an intrinsic part of the viewer's evaluation of a film is often an assessment of the cinematography Good cinematography '' it is actually very difficult to tell when a cinematographer has made an astounding accomplishment in his or her work. This is so largely because cinematographic results generally look wonderful to the untrained eye. In most situations, the professional cine-matographer and gaffers, using a full range of lighting equipment, dollies and cranes, and camera mounts, can...

Moving Image Archives And History

The professionalization of moving image archives has been accompanied by changes in film studies, which have precipitated a new consciousness not only in media historians but also in the archivists themselves. While the previous generation of film historians perceived film history in a teleological fashion, as a progressive evolution toward film art, the new film historians have been much more interested in contextualizing film and television history in the broader arena of cultural studies and...

Trend Setting

Early costume designers, such as West and Adrian, recognized design as a great force in twentieth-century haute couture. Their work, crucial in the establishment of American style as a world competitor, was the first to outstrip the French, who dominated fashion commercially and artistically. By the 1910s, stars were photographed in cinema clothes for fashion magazines and Sears-Roebuck catalogues, and the word film was used as an advertising lure. But the public's desire for these clothes is...

Cartoons

Phenakistascope

Cartoons both amuse and engage they are able to point out the foibles and complexities of humankind in direct, illuminating, and original ways. From humble beginnings, the cartoon has progressed to address social, cultural, and religious taboos in provocative and amusing ways. It is the most subversive of mainstream arts. Though often intrinsically bound up with the Disney tradition, the cartoon has a variety of histories worldwide, and diverse practices reflecting the cultures of the nations...

The Golden

In 1923 the Fleischers made the groundbreaking four-reel educational film, Einstein's Theory of Relativity. In the face of increased competition from the technically adept Fleischer Studio, Disney created the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, Steamboat Willie 1928 , introducing animation's first cartoon superstar, Mickey Mouse. Nine years later, Disney made Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 , the first full-length, sound-synchronized, Technicolor animated film, along the way making the...

Early Child Stars

Early Hollywood Child Stars

Throughout early film history, children were central to some movies, such as the title characters in Jack and the Beanstalk Edwin S. Porter, 1902 and The Adventures of Dollie D.W. Griffith, 1908 , and in such parables as The Land Beyond the Sunset 1912 . Yet as the Hollywood star system developed in the 1910s, many children's roles were filled by established adult actors like Mary Pickford 1892-1979 , who played the title role of a ten-year-old in The Poor Little Rich Girl 1917 at the age of...

Ken G Hall And Cinesound Australias Hollywood Studio

At the nadir of the Depression in 1931, the controlling shareholder of Australasian Films forced the company into liquidation. Immediately, the managing director, Stuart Doyle, formed a new company, Greater Union Theatres, and the following year he created Australia's most financially successful studio, Cinesound Productions, under the supervision of Ken G. Hall 1901-1994 . Beginning with On Our Selection, Hall produced, directed, and was often the writer of seventeen films between 1932 and...

National Cinemas

Told You Egbert Adjesu

Although Burkina Faso formerly Upper Volta is one of the poorest countries south of the Sahara, its authorities made an early decision to support their national cinema. Cinema houses were nationalized in 1970 and the Burkinab distribution company SONACIB Soci t Nationale du Cin ma Burkinab was established with th goal of supporting national filmmakers by taxing foreign films shown locally and then redirecting those funds into local production. This system paved the way for the first Burkinab...

Norman McLAREN b Stirling Scotland April d January

Norman McLaren was one of the most innovative and influential figures in animation. Throughout his life McLaren worked in any number of techniques, including painting, drawing, and scratching directly onto film pixellation the frame-by-frame animation of staged live-action movement stop-motion chalk drawing multiple compositing hand-drawn soundtracks cut-outs and 3D object animation. Beyond the implicit influence of his work, he also nurtured other artists, and maintained a pacifist, left-wing,...

Wayne Wang b Hong Kong January

Named after John Wayne, Wang studied painting at the California College of Arts and Crafts, where he also studied film history and production. Wang worked as a director for a television comedy in Hong Kong in the 1970s before returning to the San Francisco Bay area, working as an administrator for a Chinatown community organization and assisting in the production of children's television programming aimed at Chinese American children. Chan Is Missing 1981 , Wang's breakthrough feature, was...

Romantic Comedy

Whereas romantic and screwball comedy both have fun with the courtship process, romantic comedy is serious about love itself, and screwball comedy treats it as a joke. Consequently, at the heart of many romantic comedies are the painful realities that come from opening one's self to love. The men Tom Hanks and David Duchovny are devastated by the deaths of their beloved wives at the beginnings of Sleepless in Seattle 1993 and Return to Me 2000 , respectively. In Love Affair 1939 and its two...

Ken Russell b Southampton England July

Ken Russell has had a multifaceted career as a dancer, photographer, actor, and producer-director at the BBC, where he was responsible for a series of artist biographies including Elgar 1962 , Bartok 1964 , and The Debussy Film 1965 . French Dressing 1963 and Billion Dollar Brain 1967 were his first films, but it was Women in Love 1969 that marked his coming out as a controversial British filmmaker. Based on D. H. Lawrence's novel and starring Alan Bates, Glenda Jackson, and Oliver Reed, it...

The Costumes Construction And Purpose

A costume can be built made , purchased, altered, or rented. Often a designer will employ all four methods. A designer always uses a crew. Some crew members, such as pattern cutters, seamstresses, and tailors, are essential to any project. Others are film-specific, such as specialists in beads, embroidery, lace, feathers, leather, plastic, rubber, straw, elastic, or netting shirt, shoe, hat, and accessory makers as well as blacksmiths, armorers, jewelers, weavers, knitters, dyers, or furriers....

The Canadian New Wave

Since the 1980s, a generation of new filmmakers has emerged in Canada who together have taken Canadian films in different directions from the downbeat realism that characterized the first wave of Canadian feature films in the 1960s and 1970s. Many of these directors, including Jerry Cicoretti b. 1956 , David Cronenberg, Atom Egoyan b. 1960 , Bruce MacDonald b. 1959 , Don McKellar b. 1963 , Kevin McMahon, Jeremy Podeswa b. 1962 , and Patricia Rozema b. 1958 , are located in Toronto. The city is...

Chinese Crime Films

China is one of the world's leading producers of feature films, yet, except for a handful of recent works by Zhang Yimou b. 1951 and Chen Kaige b. 1952 , Chinese cinema is virtually unknown in the rest of the world. Language has restricted Chinese movies' mobility, especially since most of them are not subtitled, but so have the country's longtime planned economy and socialist politics, and government censorship of works deemed critical and not suitable for foreign screening. In 2004 the...

Tracey Moffatt b Brisbane Australia November I

Although the visual artist Tracey Moffatt is far more prolific as a photographer than a filmmaker, the singularity of her vision has won over many moviegoers both in and outside of her native Australia. Her cinematic corpus is characterized formally by a hyperrealist aesthetic, while thematically it examines the ways Australia's colonial past informs the present, particularly that of various individuals who attempt to relate to one another despite their differences. This is an issue in which...

David Cronenberg b Toronto Ontario Canada March

The Canadian director, screenwriter, and actor David Cronenberg has been one of the most important directors of the horror film renaissance that began in the 1970s. His explorations of biological terror and sexual dread have provided a strikingly original approach to the genre. Beginning his career with a series of effectively creepy horror films, Cronenberg moved from exploitation to art cinema and achieved international acclaim with several challenging and unconventional films Dead Ringers...

Contemporary Hollywood

Although character actors as a group are associated with the studio period, they are also valued in the New Hollywood. In the more naturalistic context of film acting since the 1960s, the ordinariness of character actors is their stock in trade, belying though it does their idiosyncrasy and frequently their range. In one evening at the movies in September 1979 Charles Durning b. 1923 was seen in Starting Over, a film then being sneak-previewed in North Dallas Forty, the theater's regular...

The Classical Studio

The star system that developed in the early decades of the film industry prized certain highly photogenic men and women of great physical beauty and charisma. Yet early on, the public also took to its heart actors who were not so much personalities as chameleons capable of creating a range of characters. In the 1920s, Lon Chaney, ''The Man with the Thousand Faces,'' intrigued audiences just as much as Greta Garbo or Rudolph Valentino. The public also embraced actors who looked like people they...

Integrating Performance And Other Cinematic Elements

The central place of narrative means that in most films, actors adjust the quality and energy of their gestures, voices, and actions to communicate their characters' shifting desires and dynamic relationships with other characters. At each moment of the film, actors' perfor mances are keyed to the narrative, which provides the musical score for the film's rising and falling action. The scale and quality of actors' physical and vocal expressions are also keyed to the film's style or genre. For...

Childrens Films

Children's films may be divided into two categories those made expressly for a child audience, and those made about children regardless of audience. This distinction is important, as many of the most popular films that feature child actors, like The Exorcist 1973 and The Sixth Sense 1999 , are clearly not meant to be seen by children. Yet it is in such films that the film industry represents children, reflecting society's own notions of childhood. Quite often, the very definition of childhood...

Character Actors

In the casting hierarchy of most films leading men and leading ladies are at the top, followed by actors who populate the cast by colorfully but realistically embodying a range of characters. In films and television virtually all actors below the rank of star and above bit players are supporting actors, although not necessarily all are character actors. The term is ambiguous to many it is an honor to be called a character actor, as it suggests fully developed skills that enable the actor to...

International Films About Children

Hollywood has often presented an image of children that international audiences could easily appreciate, with an emphasis on universal themes such as the thrill of mischief, the hilarity of misadventure, and the need for love. Films about children made outside the United States have not usually enjoyed the same exposure, since other film markets have not maintained stables of child actors and have rarely been able to produce series of films for their respective child audiences. With the...

Themes

Since the late 1980s the anxieties associated with, on the one hand, the stagnation of the pan-Arab project of national self-determination, and on the other, the wave of religious fundamentalism, have been reflected in Arab cinema. Cinema in the region is increasingly reaching toward a national identity struggling to affirm its heterogeneity and to find a new role in the fight for social and national liberation. In Egypt, the film production center of the Arab world, the wave of Islamic...

Howard Hawks b Goshen Indiana May d December

As well as racing cars and planes, the young Howard Hawks also worked vacations in the property department of Hollywood's Famous Players-Lasky studios. After serving as an army pilot in World War I and working in the aircraft industry, Hawks returned to Hollywood in the early 1920s as a cutter, assistant director, story editor, and casting director before writing screenplays and selling the story The Road to Glory 1926 to Fox on condition that he also direct. Thereafter, Hawks worked for over...

Camera Lighting Electrical And Production Sound Departments

The camera crew is headed by the director of photography, who works closely with the director. Together they select the camera s and film stock and plan the camera angles and movements. The director of photography also takes responsibility for selecting camera lenses and designing the lighting. The director of photography may also operate the camera, but normally this task is delegated to a camera operator. For multicamera shooting, several operators are needed, and these may be credited with...

Cannibalism And Tropicalism

The year 1968 fragmented the artistic milieu and nurtured the emergence of new aesthetic strategies of resistance cannibalism, Tropicalism, and the aesthetics of garbage dominated the third phase of Cinema Novo. Cannibalism, inspired by the modernist movement of the 1920s, was a nationalist strategy of cultural anti-imperialism, according to which the culture imposed by the First World should be devoured, digested, and recycled according to local needs. ''Cannibalism is an exemplary mode of...

Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film

An imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation Detroit New York San Francisco New Haven, Conn. Waterville, Maine London Tom Burns, Jim Craddock, Elizabeth Cranston, Kristen A. Dorsch, Dana Ferguson, Allison Marion, Kathleen D. Meek, Kathleen Lopez Nolan, Kevin Nothnagel, Marie Toft, Yolanda Williams Dean Dauphinais, Mary Grimes, Lezlie Light, Michael Logusz, Christine O'Bryan 2007 Schirmer Reference, an imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson and Star...

B William Harrison Hays Sullivan Indiana November d March

Dubbed by Variety as the czar of all the Rushes,'' William Harrison Hays is best remembered for overseeing the creation of the Production Code that would informally bear his name. However, Hays's responsibilities and influence extended far beyond a censorial arena. His centrality in manufacturing positive public relations for the Hollywood film industry, maintaining political contacts through four presidential administrations, and consolidating control of international distribution channels...

Presentational And Representational Acting

Acting styles also exist on a continuum, with extreme presentational styles at one end and extreme representational styles at the other. The distinction between the two is not clear-cut. Viewers' knowledge, experience, and expectations help to determine whether or not a particular performance will be seen as presentational or representational. Moreover, the two styles appear in different films made during the same period, and are often found in the same film. Gradations of presentational and...

Films For Children After Disney

The remarkable success of Snow White one of the highest-grossing films of its era demonstrated that films with a particular appeal to children were a viable source of revenue for the studios. Animated features continued for some time to be the primary genre aimed at children. Thus followed further Disney productions such as Pinocchio 1940 , Dumbo 1941 , and Bambi 1942 , all of which dealt specifically with issues of childhood development. Meanwhile, MGM had initiated a live-action series of...

Feature Film Industry Begins

The NFB has been drastically downsized since the 1980s, the result of a series of government funding cutbacks, to the point that it has little presence in Canadian culture. Nevertheless, the board's documentary emphasis has left an indelible influence on feature filmmaking in Canada. In the absence of a commercial film industry, the NFB has allowed many filmmakers who would later become the country's most important directors to hone their craft on government-sponsored films. The two films that...

Definition Of Terms

The fact that cinema was invented during the height of Western imperialist expansion and developed most aggressively in those countries with the greatest political reach, such as France, Britain, and Germany, makes it impossible to discuss the development of the medium without taking into account its ties to the age of empire. Thus a number of film historians and film theorists have dedicated themselves to exploring several key issues on the one hand, how film has functioned in the past as a...

Race Movies

Hollywood rarely, if ever, offered depictions of African American life and culture with humanity, and as a response, many African American entrepreneurs ventured into filmmaking to correct the negative images. Pioneers included Bill Foster 1884- , founder of the first black film production company, the Foster Photoplay Company, established in Chicago in 1910 Noble Johnson 1881-1978 , the Hollywood character actor who, along with his brother George, led the Lincoln Motion Picture Company in Los...

THE Bs Of Poverty Row

Smaller company Bs were dominated by three companies with a significant output during the 1930s and 1940s Monogram, Republic, and Producers Releasing Corporation PRC . Although a number of low-end studios existed at the end of the silent era, the transition to sound, coupled with the Great Depression, caused most of them to fall by the wayside. In 1929 W. Ray Johnston and Trem Carr transformed their Rayart Pictures into Monogram, with a production studio and a nationwide distribution system....

Chilean Renaissance

In the 1950s and 1960s the film journals Cine Foro and Ercilla began to appear, and a new generation of filmmakers emerged, spurred by the founding of the Grupo de Cine Experimental at the University of Chile by Sergio Bravo and Pedro Chaskel 1957 and the Cine Club of Vi a del Mar 1962 . By the time the Dutch-born Joris Ivens n George Henri Anton Ivens, 1898-1989 who excelled at both poetic and political forms of documentary arrived in Chile in 1962 he had documented political struggles in...

Arab Cinema

The Arab world constitutes twenty-two states spanning an area from the Atlantic Ocean in the West to the Arabian Gulf in the East, and from the Taurus mountains in the North to the Equator in the South. It has a multireligious and multiethnic population of nearly 300 million. As a mass art form, film was introduced in the main population centers of the region within the first two years of its invention in 1895. Over the following century, only seven Arab states established a significant or...

Henri Langlois b Smryna Izmir Turkey November d Paris France January

The cofounder of the Cin math que Fran aise in Paris, Henri Langlois belonged to the first generation of film archivists, most of whom were dedicated cinephiles rather than trained archivists. Over a forty-year period he amassed one of the largest cinema collections in the world, but unfortunately a significant percentage decomposed due to poor storage conditions. In 1934, already mad about movies, Langlois started a film club, the Cercle du Cin ma, with his friend, the filmmaker Georges...

Brazil

Despite its scant international visibility, Latin American cinema has a long and complex history bound to international aesthetic movements and local social conditions, global economics particularly the control of distribution by transnational conglomerates and the building of national cultures. These particular dialectics between center and periphery intensify cinema's intrinsic tension between its industrial base and its aesthetic presumptions as well as its dual, contradictory nature as an...

The Economics Of B Movies

It took some time for the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression to have an effect on the motion picture business in the United States, but when the economic tailspin hit, it hit hard. Between 1930 and 1933 attendance dropped by almost one-third, forcing exhibitors to scramble to hang onto as many ticket buyers as possible. Price cuts and gimmicks like ''dish night'' created a sense of value and brought some moviegoers back to the box office. Theaters in parsimonious New England...

Lynn Stalmaster b Omaha Nebraska

A pioneer of the profession, Lynn Stalmaster is credited with helping cast 228 films and 150 television series and television movies in his fifty years as an independent casting director. A former actor and a graduate of the University of California at Los Angeles UCLA , he began by casting television episodes. The volume of work involved in casting weekly episodes with just a few days notice moved him to open his own casting office. Stalmaster convinced the producers of the hit western...

Films For Children Before Disney

The nickelodeons of the early movie industry showcased films that appealed to all ages and populations rather than specifically to children. Moral guardians of the early 1900s were concerned about children attending movies on their own because it could be an inducement to skip school or become familiar with unruly characters, both onscreen and in theaters. Although children did appear in many films of the early film era, their roles were almost exclusively as accessories to adult activities,...

New Jack Cinema

The end of the 1970s saw a great diminution of films by African American directors. This was particularly the case in Hollywood, for the industry had committed to the blockbuster model of filmmaking, more or less abandoning the production of low-to-middle budget films the range in which most African American movies were placed. Many of the established directors moved to television, while still others worked on direct-to-video releases. A few directors capitalized on the newly developing youth...

Parody

Parodies replicate the familiar elements of a given genre, auteur, or specific work, and at the same time subject it to a fresh comic twist. These spoofing variations are demonstrated best by Mel Brooks b. 1926 his Blazing Saddles 1974 is a takeoff on westerns High Anxiety 1977 tweaks the mystery-thrillers of Alfred Hitchcock 1899-1980 and Young Frankenstein 1974 warmly kids Universal's horror films of the 1930s. Parody is often confused with satire, which aggressively attacks the flaws and...

Elia Suleiman b Nazareth Israel

With only six films to his credit to date, the Palestinian director, writer, producer, and actor Elia Suleiman already has won the attention of film critics around the world. Suleiman left his hometown of Nazareth in Israel to live and study film in New York City where he spent nearly twelve years in a self-imposed exile. Two of his feature films, Chronicle of a Disappearance 1997 and Yadon ilaheyya Divine Intervention, 2002 , garnered eight major awards in international film festivals Chicago,...

The First Black Renaissance

The decade of the 1970s represents a unique period in American film history it was the first time since the race movies of the silent era that such a high volume of black-themed films played in commercial theaters, many of them helmed by African American directors. The reception of the early works by Parks, Van Peebles, and Davis, by both critics and popular audiences, resulted in a new acceptance of African American talent in Hollywood, both in front of and behind the camera. Films moved...

Theatrical Adaptations

Film historians have noted the close links between theatrical melodrama of the late nineteenth century and the techniques and narrative structure of early film in content and elaborate lighting and stage effects. The obvious similarities between a play and a film in overall length, use of sets, the apparent realism of character and dialogue have obscured the very real differences. Stage dialogue can sound artificial and tedious when transferred directly to the more naturalistic medium of film,...