Edward D Wood Jr b Poughskeepie New York October d Hollywood California December

Often described as the worst director in history, Wood's following has exploded since his death. For years, a small group of Ed Wood cultists treasured the two films that were commercially available Glen or Glenda (1953) and Plan 9 From Outer Space (1959) without knowing much about the man himself. This all changed with the publication in 1992 of Rudolph Grey's reverent biography Nightmare of Ecstasy The Life and Art of Edward D. Wood, Jr. and the release of Tim Burton's runaway success Ed Wood...

B Leonidas Chaney Colorado Springs Colorado April d August

Known as the man of a thousand faces,'' Lon Chaney was the first major star of the horror genre. As the child of deaf-mute parents, Chaney learned the expressive possibilities of pantomime, a skill he brought to the silent screen in a series of bizarre characters, often featuring some variation of grotesque distortion. After his beginnings as a comedian and dancer in the theater, Chaney went to Hollywood in 1912. He appeared in a steady stream of films from 1914 on, playing villains in formula...

Myth And History

Traditionally, the word ''myth'' refers to a society's shared stories, usually involving Gods and mythic heroes, that explain the nature of the universe and the relation of the individual to it. Such mythic narratives embody and express a society's rituals, institutions, and values. In the twentieth century, genre films, with their repetitions and variations of a few basic plots, were our mass-mediated mythic tales. Comparable to myths, genre movies may be understood as secular stories that...

The Gendered Gaze

The study of gendered representations in the cinema began in the early 1970s with Molly Haskell's From Reverence to Rape the Treatment of Women in the Movies (1974). Haskell looks at images of women in movies made from the 1920s to the 1970s (the 1980s are included in the second edition), mainly but not exclusively in Hollywood. The book's scope is ambitious, identifying major themes in American cinema such as ''The flight from women and the fight against them in their role as entrappers and...

Film Exhibition And Theater Ownership

The first moving picture exhibitors were itinerant showmen who exploited the novelty of projected moving pictures by using the same film program for a series of brief engagements in different locations. They typically purchased outright the short films they screened at theaters, churches, and public halls. As early as 1903, film exchanges that owned and rented moving pictures emerged in Boston, Chicago, and New York City, creating a separation between exhibition and distribution and helping to...

Milos Forman b Cslav Czechoslovakia February

Milos Forman is one of the major directors of the Czech New Wave. He studied screenwriting at the Prague Film School (FAMU), and made his debut as writer director with Konkurs (Talent Competition) and Cerny Petr (Black Peter) in 1963. In collaboration with his colleagues Ivan Passer and Jaroslav Papousek, who subsequently became directors themselves, he developed a style of semi-improvised film making that used non-professional actors and focused on everyday life. This apparently accidental...

Film As An Art And The Humanistic Tradition

The rise of film studies within the university has typically sought to justify itself less on the grounds of film as a commodity to be consumed with the guidance of critics and reviewers and more on the grounds of film as an art form or cultural object to be understood for its formal qualities and social implications. Film studies took root in the academy in the wake of the enormous interest in European art cinema generated during the postwar period by filmmakers such as Roberto Rossellini...

Laura Mulvey b Oxford England August

Laura Mulvey could not have anticipated the widespread impact of her short polemical essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,'' published in 1975 in the British journal Screen. The essay's psychoanalytic formulation of a male gaze,'' and its condemnation of classical Hollywood cinema's patriarchal bias, immediately provoked interest, debate, and in some quarters dismay. Those who appreciated Mulvey's theories went on, as did Mulvey herself in her extensive writings, to deepen, adjust, and...

Documentary

Documentary exploits the camera's affinity for recording the surface of things, what the realist film theorist Siegfried Kracauer called the affinity of film as a photographic medium for capturing life in the raw.'' Even before the invention of motion pictures, photographers of the nineteenth century, such as Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), with his animal locomotion'' series, demonstrated the extent to which the camera might reveal facts and details of the world to us that we could not...

Barbara Hammer b Hollywood California

Barbara Hammer is by far the most prolific lesbian filmmaker, having made over sixty films and videos since the late 1960s. Hammer's films are excellent examples of New Queer Cinema practice. They cross borders (between documentary, fiction, and experimental filmmaking), and focus on the complexities of human sexuality especially the ways in which those sexualities have been socially constructed across time and place. Hammer's films explore love, sex, identity, humor, community, relationships,...

Youssef Chahine b Alexandria Egypt January

Born in 1926 to a middle-class Catholic family of Lebanese and Greek origins, Youssef Chahine's formative years were spent in the cultural melting pot of Alexandria, living under British occupation. There he was exposed to a polyphonic culture of Eastern and Western flavors, surrounded by English, Italian, French, Greek, and Arabic languages, and living in a religiously tolerant environment where Muslim, Christian, and Jew coexisted. These elements, along with Egypt's changing politics since...

Andy Warhol b Andrew Warhola Forest City Pennsylvania August d February

Probably the best-known American artist of the twentieth century, Andy Warhol studied commercial art at Carnegie Mellon University. In 1949 he moved to New York City and carved out a career as an advertising artist. In the early 1960s Warhol became a pioneer of pop art by creating paintings that showcased the most ubiquitous icons of American popular culture Campbell's Soup cans, Brillo boxes, celebrities such as Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe. With his paintings and silkscreens in high...

Glenda Jackson b Birkenhead England

Glenda Jackson received her training at the Royal Academy for Dramatic Art and commenced a stage career in 1957. Her first major stage success was her performance as Charlotte Corday in Marat Sade, a 1964 production by Peter Brook's Theatre of Cruelty she recreated the role in the 1967 film version of the play. Jackson's intensity in her roles in the films of Ken Russell, which at the time pushed boundaries in popular cinema, brought her attention and admiration. She won her first Academy Award...

The Expressive Functions Of Editing

Editors join shots using a variety of optical transitions. These serve narrative, dramatic, and emotionally expressive functions. The most common transitions are the cut (which creates an instantaneous change from one shot to the next), the fade (during which one shot fades completely to black before the next shot fades in from black), and the dissolve (which overlaps the outgoing and incoming shots). Cuts are the most frequent transitions, and typically indicate an uninterrupted flow of...

Further Reading

Tomas Gutierrez Alea The Dialectics of a Filmmaker. New York Routledge, 2002. recognizing film as a medium for education and seeking to provide an ideological alternative to the powerful media machine of Hollywood. In 1960 the magazine Cine Cubano was founded, sponsored by ICAIC, and it remains one of the primary sources of film criticism and analysis by Cuban authors, chronicling the emerging history as it unfolds. Initially, great emphasis was placed on developing a visual...

Georges Mlis b Paris France December d January

Famed for his elaborately staged fantasy films and whimsical trick films, Georges M li s has often been described as the antithesis of the Lumi re brothers, his fictional flights of fancy viewed as the inverse of their slice-of-life actualites. Nonetheless, one can overstate M li s's contribution to the development of film narrative for example, his famed substitution splice'' operates according to the logic of trickery rather than continuity and demonstrates how his early career as a magician...

Marlene Dietrich b Maria Magdalene von Losch Berlin Germany December d

Marlene Dietrich Destry Rides Again

Appearing in over a dozen films by such renowned directors of the day as Maurice Tourneur, Curtis Bernhardt, and Alexander Korda, Marlene Dietrich achieved international stardom when, as the dance-hall girl Lola Lola, she stole Der Blaue Engel The Blue Angel, 1930 from star Emil Jannings. In the film's final scene she scans the cabaret audience with a knowing smile and a provocative stance that established the outline of the iconic star she was to play all her life. In 1930 she followed Josef...

B Eleanora Derenkowsky Kiev Russia April d October

One of the most important women in American experimental cinema, Maya Deren emigrated with her parents in 1922 to the United States, where Eleanora developed a keen interest in the arts that launched her into a varied early career, including a stint touring with Katherine Dunham's dance company. In 1941, while with the company in Los Angeles, she met and married filmmaker Alexander Hammid. In 1943 Deren adopted the first name Maya Hindu for illusion and made Meshes of the Afternoon, a...

Sergei Eisenstein b Riga Russian Empire now Latvia January d February

Sergei Eisenstein is a wholly unique figure in cinema history. He was a filmmaker and a theoretician of cinema who made films and wrote voluminously about their structure and the nature of cinema. Both his filmmaking and his writing which fills several volumes have been tremendously influential. Frustrated by the creative limitations of his work in the theater, Eisenstein turned to cinema and in 1925 completed his first feature, Stachka Strike , which depicted the plight of oppressed workers....

Experimental Film

Experimental films are very different from feature-length Hollywood fiction films. In Mothlight 1963 , Stan Brakhage 1933-2003 completely avoids normal filmmaking he doesn't even use a camera by sprinkling seeds, grass, dead moths, and bee parts directly onto the film stock the result is a three-minute rhythmic dance between nature and the projector mechanism. There are many types of experimental film, but despite their diversity, it is possible to pin down tendencies that help make...

National Identity And Dialectical Cinema

Many notable fiction films, too, were completed during the exciting first decade under the ICAIC, forming the basis for a ''Nuevo Cine Cubano,'' or ''New Cuban Cinema.'' Among these were Alea's La Muerte de un bur crata Death of a Bureaucrat, 1966 and Memorias del subdesarrollo Memories of Underdevelopment, 1968 . Death ofa Bureaucrat firmly established the Cuban audience's penchant for social satire. Outsiders are often surprised to see the extent to which state-sponsored films such as Death...

Marcus Loew b New York New York May d September

Marcus Loew, the creator of MGM and one of the most successful figures in the motion picture industry during the silent era, was, first and foremost, an exhibitor. I don't sell tickets to movies,'' he is said to have declared, I sell tickets to theaters.'' Born to immigrant parents on New York's Lower East Side, Loew moved into commercial entertainment after working in the garment industry. In 1904, he co-founded the People's Vaudeville Company, which soon expanded its holdings to include...

B Denis Abramovich Kaufman Bialystok Poland January d February

Entuziazm Simfoniya Donbassa 1931 Film

Dziga Vertov was instrumental in using the cinema for the purposes of social education after the Russian Revolution. He not only chronicled the revolution as it happened, but approached the production of newsreels in terms of interaction with the proletariat. His brother Mikhail also became an important documentary filmmaker, while a third brother, Boris, became an important cinematographer for Jean Vigo and others. At the outbreak of World War I, the Kaufmans, an educated Jewish family, moved...

Das Kabinett Des Dr. Caligari

One of the most famous German film actors, Emil Jannings is the one most closely associated with German expressionist acting, although he was never connected to expressionist theater. He became a household name in Hollywood in the late 1920s, and was a key figure in the Nazi cinema. Jannings's breakthrough role was in Ernst Lubitsch's Madame Dubarry 1919 , in which he played Pola Negri's doomed lover, Louis XV. Overweight and hardly an image of beauty, Jannings nevertheless conveyed a strong...

Wong Kar Wei b Shanghai China

Among the Hong Kong New Wave filmmakers, Wong Kar Wei is perhaps the most celebrated by critics. He is a winner of many awards, including a best director award at the Cannes Film Festival for Chun guang zha xie Happy Together, 1997 . Wong's films are usually narrated by characters' internal monologues, which creates a seemingly haphazard, fragmented postmodern style. They reflect modern living, urban alienation, lost opportunities, transient love relationships, and acute melancholy. At the age...

German Expressionism

According to Rudolf Kurtz 1884-1960 , one of the earliest historical commentators on the movement called expressionism, the semantic instability of Expressionismus was already inherent in its first usage by a group of visual artists in imperial Germany prior to World War I. Those painters, associated with the German modern art groups Der blaue Reiter ''the Blue Rider,'' Munich and Die Brucke ''the Bridge,'' Berlin Dresden , coined the term in opposition to French impressionism, rejecting the...

Hong Kong Newwave

The Hong Kong New Wave burst onto the international film scene in 1979. During the late 1970s the film industry in Hong Kong suffered a serious decline in audience numbers, largely due to the popularization of television. Most studios were desperate to find solutions Maggie Cheung and Tony Leung in Wong Kar Wei's international hit, Hua yang nain hua In the Mood for Love, 2000 . everett collection. reproduced by permission. Maggie Cheung and Tony Leung in Wong Kar Wei's international hit, Hua...

B Steven Jay Rechnitz Brooklyn New York September d December

Regarded in the industry as a consummate deal maker, Steven J. Ross's greatest coup was orchestrating the merger of his company Warner Communications with Time, Inc., in 1989 to create Time Warner, the world's largest media and entertainment company. Anticipating the need to strengthen Warner Communications' distribution capabilities as Hollywood entered an era of globalization, Ross brokered a 14 billion deal that combined his company's record labels, book division, cable television systems,...

Stanley Kubrick b New York New York July d March

Bronx July 1976

Renowned for the icy, near-clinical elegance with which he represents human folly, obsession, and perversion, Stanley Kubrick produced thirteen feature films spanning most of the major genres, many of which are regarded as canonical. His work exhibits a near-metaphysical preoccupation with geometrical design that often finds expression within narrative situations featuring passionate characters who flail and crash against the boundaries of a rigorously formal ized world. With little patience...

Dubbing And Subtitling

Dubbing and subtitling are two major types of screen translation, the two most used in the global distribution and consumption of filmic media. Since their arrival with the introduction of sound to cinema, both have been seen as compromised methods of translating dialogue because they interfere in different ways with the original text, sound track, or image. Since the early 1930s, most countries have tended to favor either one mode or the other. While there are many forms of language versioning...

The Special Period And After

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba entered what was termed the ''Special Period,'' characterized by economic hardship, shortages, and a crisis of identity as Cuba's economic and political future was called into question. One of the outstanding films of 1991, the highly controversial black comedy Alicia en el Pueblo de Maravillas Alice in Wondertown by Daniel Diaz Torres b. 1948 , explored the tensions of the period using a surrealistic fantasy world as a backdrop, and taking the Cuban...

Pressing Issues For Hollywood Unions And Guilds

Some of the biggest headaches facing Hollywood unions and guilds are the proliferation of nonunion production, the relocation of production sites all over the country and the world runaway production , and the growing strength of the entertainment conglomerates that own the Hollywood majors. The issue of nonunion production begins in the film capital itself. While film and television production around Los Angeles seems to ebb and flow depending upon a number of different factors, there has been...

THE s

The 1960s deserves its own subsection primarily because of Andy Warhol, who began making 16mm long-take, quotidian extravaganzas in 1963, and whose popularity throughout the decade brought visibility to experimental films as a whole. In addition, the rise of a leftist counterculture during the decade and the increased distribution of nonmainstream movies led to an exponential increase in the number of artists who made avant-garde films during this time. Among the most important filmmakers of...

Rudolph Valentino b Rodolpho Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filibert Gugliemi di Valentina dAntonguola Castellaneta Italy May

In his short career as a leading man, Rudolph Valentino was one of the great idols of the silent era and also one of its most controversial, splitting the audience along gender lines between women who adored him and men who loathed him. After stints of begging, dishwashing, and taxi dancing, Valentino went to Hollywood, where he got his big break in 1921 when he was cast as the lead in Rex Ingram's Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, the box-office hit that made him a star. At screenings of The...

Classical Exploitation Movies

From the late teens through the late 1950s classical exploitation films operated in the shadow of the classical Hollywood cinema. The men that made and distributed exploitation films were sometimes called the Forty Thieves,'' and several came from carnival backgrounds. Some companies were fly-by-night outfits that produced a film or two and then disappeared. However, many individuals and companies were around for years Samuel Cummins 1895-1967 operated as Public Welfare Pictures and Jewel...

Giorgio Armani b Piacenza Italy July

The Italian designer Giorgio Armani, known for his classic designs, neutral tones, and unstructured suits, has made a significant intervention into film history. Armani is arguably best known for the Hollywood stars he has dressed for the Academy Awards for example, Jodie Foster and Michelle Pfeiffer . However, his costumes for Richard Gere's character Julian in American Gigolo 1980 helped to alter the way in which mainstream cinema perceived and represented masculinity. The most cited scene in...

Promotion

Early promotional efforts included colorful posters and banners that added to the already striking effect of what by the mid-1910s had become a standard feature of the movie theater, the electrically illuminated marquee, which announced the current show. To complement newspaper advertising, exhibitors relied on a range of ballyhoo, all designed to attract attention to the program and, more generally, to the theater itself trucks with promotional displays, billboards, signs on streetcars, poster...

Hollywood Today

The rise of New Queer Cinema did not go unnoticed by Hollywood, and they briefly tried unsuccessfully to market a few films that explored more open parameters of sexuality, such as Three of Hearts 1993 and Threesome 1994 . For the most part, when dealing with queer characters which it still rarely does , Hollywood still prefers its previously succesful formulas and comfortable stereotypes. Queer gender-bending traits are still used to signify villainy even in Disney films like The Lion King...

The Contemporary Scene

According to many critics, the experimental film world went through a period of flagging energy and diminished creativity during the 1980s. Among the reasons, according to Paul Arthur, were the skyrocketing costs of 16mm processing, cutbacks in government and private-foundation funding, and the economic and aesthetic challenges posed by video. By the 1990s, however, it was clear that the movement had undergone a resurgence. Older figures such as Brakhage, Mekas, and Jacobs remained active, and...

The Sound Film

Gustav Machaty 1901-1963 was the most ambitious art director of the period, and attracted attention with his Expressionist-influenced adaptation of Tolstoy's Kreutzerova sonata The Kreutzer Sonata, 1926 . He enjoyed a big success with Erotikon 1929 , which was consolidated by his first two sound films, Ze soboty na nedSeli From Saturday to Sunday, 1931 and, especially, Extase Ecstasy, 1932 , winner of the Best Direction Prize at the Venice Film Festival in 1934, which introduced Hedy Kiesler...

New Queer Cinema

The production of foreign, experimental, and documentary films that centered on queer issues eventually helped spark the production of gay and lesbian independent feature film production in America. The first batch of these films, including Buddies 1985 , Parting Glances 1986 , and Desert Hearts 1985 , used realistic storytelling conventions to explore coming out, romance, and AIDS. Then, in 1991, a new crop of gay and lesbian films made waves at several international festivals. These films...

Movies And Trash

Perhaps the first movies to develop cult followings were B movies those quickly made, cheaply produced films that had their heyday in Hollywood's ''Golden Age.'' B movies began to proliferate in the mid-1930s, when distributors felt that ''double features'' might stand a chance of luring increasingly frugal Depression audiences back to the theaters. Their strategy worked audiences of devoted moviegoers thrilled to cheap B movie fare like The Mummy's Hand 1940 , The Face Behind the Mask 1941 ,...

Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger Michael Powell b Bekesbourne Kent England September d February Emeric Pressburger

As Britain's most famous producing-directing team, Powell and Pressburger divided critical opinion between those who demanded social realism within cinema and those who supported an auteurist vision. With the rise of auteur theory in journals such as the UK-based Movie, the work of Powell and Pressburger received a more positive critical reevaluation. At the box office, the duo's fantastical, mystical tales enjoyed great success. A pair of propaganda films, 49th Parallel 1941 and One of Our...

Todd Haynes b Los Angeles California January

One of the most successful writer-directors of the New Queer Cinema, Todd Haynes was raised in California and studied semiotics and other aspects of cultural theory at Brown University, where he began to make short films. Haynes's work, like most New Queer Cinema, explores the cinematic representation of queer desires by foregrounding both history and film form. The first Haynes film to garner widespread attention was Superstar The Karen Carpenter Story 1987 , a 45-minute biopic that explored...

Three Types Of Experimental Film

In the late 1960s experimental film headed in a new aesthetic direction. In an article published in Film Culture in 1969, critic P. Adams Sitney defined the structuralist film as a ''tight nexus of content, a shape designed to explore the facets of the material'' Film Culture Reader, p. 327 , which becomes clear when these films are compared with previous avant-garde traditions. In the films of lyricists such as Brakhage and Baillie, rhythm is dependent on what is being photographed, or on the...

The Silent

An estimated 460 films were made in Hungary during the silent period, almost all considered lost. Recent rediscoveries and restorations, however, have brought a few representative works to light. Hungarian film exhibition began with screenings of films by Louis Lumi re and Georges M li s in Budapest cafes. The Urania Scientific Society is credited with the first Hungarian-made film, A Tancz The Dance , in 1901. The National Association of Hungarian Cinematographers had been formed by 1909, and...

John Grierson And The Documentary Movement

Parallel to the developments in feature filmmaking, another influential response to American dominance of British cinema emerged. The British documentary movement, led by the Scot, John Grierson 1898-1972 , offered a distinctive riposte to Hollywood by focusing on fact and public information. While studying in the United States under a Rockefeller fellowship from 1923 to 1927, Grierson developed his interest in mass communication, in which he perceived the potential to educate the public and...

Roger Corman b Roger William Corman Detroit Michigan April

Womens Prison Caged Womens

Roger Corman has been a major force in exploitation filmmaking for half a century. His career spans an era from the earliest days of American International Pictures AIP in the mid-1950s through the exploitation golden age to the rise of home video. While in his teens Corman moved with his family to Los Angeles, where he developed an interest in the motion picture industry. Following a stint in the Navy, he completed his engineering degree at Stanford, then broke into the film business by...

Gauge And Speed

Amature Film Gauges

Film stock is available in a number of gauges, or widths. Wider gauges project a sharper image, while smaller gauges tend to be grainier. A number of experimental widths have been used in filmmaking throughout the history of cinema, but the most common gauges still in use today are 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Super 8 mm, and 70 mm. Thirty-five mm, the gauge used in Edison's Kinetograph, quickly became the common width for filmmakers around the world. The Lumi re Brothers Auguste 1862-1954 and Louis...

The Metahistorical Film

Certain films can be called metahistorical because they offer embedded or explicit critiques of the way history is conventionally represented. Courage Under Fire, for example, employs multiple flashbacks from different points of view to piece together a disputed account of a female air force officer's death. Walker Alex Cox, 1987 brings present-day objects from consumer culture into its collage-like narrative of the nineteenth-century adventurer William Walker, who declared himself emperor of...

Recent Holocaust Films

With all the controversy surrounding Holocaust dramas, it is no wonder that a Holocaust comedy whose second half is set in a concentration camp, Roberto Benigni's b. 1952 La Vita e bella Life is Beautiful, 1997 , evoked bitter criticism. The film has been likened to the satire in Charlie Chaplin's The Great Dictator 1940 , although the context through which Chaplin's deflation of Hitler earned its acclaim differs. A scene early in the film in which the hero, Guido Benigni , comically disrupts a...

Observational Documentary

Inspired by the powerful immediacy of actual combat footage and the emergence of Italian neorealism toward the end of the war, Hollywood feature films began absorbing the influence of documentary. Both The Naked City Jules Dassin, 1948 and On the Waterfront Elia Kazan, 1954 , for example, used actual locations in New York City to enhance their dramatic realism, and independent filmmakers such as Morris Engel 19182005 with Little Fugitive 1953 and Weddings and Babies 1958 , and John Cassavetes,...

The Classical Hollywood Baseline

Classical and pre-classical Hollywood films those produced between the 1910s and the 1950s had little interest in dramatizing homosexual lives or homosexual issues. The very structure of Hollywood narrative form was and is heterosexist it almost always contains a male-female romance, regardless of story line or genre. If and when homosexual characters appeared in Hollywood films prior to the sexual revolution, they were almost always relegated to walk-on parts or small supporting roles. One...

Miklos Jancso b Vacs Hungary September

Jancso grew up in the Hungarian countryside and developed there an interest in folk art that exercised a strong influence on his films. He studied law and ethnography at the University of Kolozsvar and, after a period as a Soviet prisoner-of-war toward the end of World War II, he graduated from the Academy of Theater and Film Art in 1950. His earliest films were documentaries that conformed to the official requirements of the period, and this was also largely true of his first two features....

B Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe Bielefeld Germany December d March

Murnau took his professional name from a town in southern Bavaria favored by noted artists in the early part of the twentieth century. He earned a reputation as a creative genius who contributed to the German film industry's international ascendancy, but also as a director unable to manage the shift to Hollywood and all that such a move entailed. After World War I, he became an apprentice to the theater director Max Reinhardt in Berlin. He directed his first film, Der Knabe in Blau The Boy in...

Midnight Movies

Many films now considered ''cult movies'' came to achieve this status through repeat screenings at independent repertory cinemas, usually very late at night. Such films were cheaper for theaters to hire than current releases, often since their ownership had fallen into public domain. It became traditional, during the 1950s and 60s, to begin showing these films at midnight, when audience attendance was lower, and sensibilities often less discriminating. However, the first movie to be...

Stan Brakhage b Kansas City Missouri January d March

Stan Brakhage

The most prolific and influential experimental filmmaker in US film history, Stan Brakhage also wrote insightfully about his own films and the work of other filmmakers. The most oft-quoted passage in experimental film criticism is the opening of Brakhage's text Metaphors on Vision 1963 Imagine an eye unruled by man-made laws of perspective, an eye unprejudiced by compositional logic, an eye which does not respond to the name of everything but which must know each object encountered in life...

Fandom As A Social Activity

Unlike the individual fan, whose peer group or colleagues may coincidentally include like-minded film lovers, organized fandom involves fans specifically seeking out those who share their tastes, thereby becoming involved in a range of social, cultural, and media activities that take this shared fandom as their starting point. Film fandom can involve participating in online discussion and posting to sites such as the Internet Movie Database imdb.com , joining film clubs or groups, or producing...

Wartime And Postwar Cinema

The Japanese bombed Shanghai in 1932, disrupting film production. By 1937 the film industry in China dispersed from Shanghai to Chungking the wartime capital and Hong Kong. Between 1933 and 1941 four hundred Cantonese films were made in Hong Kong, many with patriotic themes. When the Japanese occupied Hong Kong in 1941 production abruptly ceased, though the screening of films, mostly American, continued. By 1943 the occupying Japanese formed a coalition and began to make pro-Japan films without...