The significant changes occurring to film form during this period operated in concert with other forces of transformation so that by 1915, numerous developments pointed toward the institutionalization of cinema. By 1915, the MPPC had been dissolved by court order. The move toward increased consolidation inaugurated by the struggle between the Independents and the MPPC (the latter dissolved by court order in 1915) continued apace: corporate entities that would become pivotal in the studio era, such as Universal and Paramount, were founded during this period. The move of the American film industry to Hollywood was already underway, as was the establishment of a star system, with figures such as Mary Pickford (1892-1979) and Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) acquiring the substantial fame and the power that came with it. Feature-length films had begun to dislodge the primacy of the single reeler, while large-scale picture palaces usurped the role of nickelodeons within the exhibition landscape. Movies had moved noticeably closer to the status of mass entertainment, and the increased social responsibility that attends such a shift produced a new phase in the medium's development, a clear departure from the hallmarks of the period that we label retrospectively the era of early cinema.
see also Film History; Narrative; Pre-Cinema; Silent Cinema further reading
Abel, Richard. The Cine Goes to Town: French Cinema, 1896— 1914. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
--, ed. Silent Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University
Bordwell, David, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson. The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
Bowser, Eileen. The Transformation of Cinema, 1907—1915. New
York: Scribner, 1990. Burch, Noël. Life to Those Shadows. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Elsaesser, Thomas, ed. Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative. London: British Film Institute, 1990.
Fell, John L., ed. Film Before Griffith. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1983. Gaudreault, André. ''Temporality and Narrativity in Early Cinema.'' In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983: 311-329.
Grieveson, Lee, and Peter Kramer. The Silent Cinema Reader.
New York: Routledge, 2004. Gunning, Tom. D. W. Griffith and the Origins of American Narrative Film: The Early Years at Biograph. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Keil, Charlie. Early American Cinema in Transition: Story, Style, and Filmmaking, 1907—1913. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001.
Keil, Charlie, and Shelley Stamp, eds. American Cinema's Transitional Era: Audiences, Institutions, Practices. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Musser, Charles. The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907. New York: Scribner, 1990.
Popple, Simon, and Joe Kember. Early Cinema: From
Factory Gate to Dream Factory. London: Wallflower Press, 2004.
Salt, Barry. Film Style and Technology: History and Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Starword, 1992.
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