Further Reading

Astaire, Fred. Steps in Time. New York: Perennial Library, 1987.

Croce, Arlene. The Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers Book.

New York: Vintage Books, 1977. Gallafent, Edward. Astaire & Rogers. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Barbara Cohen-Stratyner ballet, modern, and jazz dance training. The modern dancer Louis Falco (1942-1993) staged the famous ''improvised'' sequences, in which the characters groove at lunchtime and spill onto the street. Dance (social and modern) has frequently been used as a language of self-expression in such popular films as Flashdance (1983) about a welder who wants to dance; Voices (1979), about a deaf woman who wants to dance; and Footloose (1984), about a teen who wants his town to dance.

In the 1980s Music Television (MTV), and following it, VH1 and Black Entertainment Television (BET), popularized music videos as an integral part of promoting recorded popular music. Many were filmed and spliced performances, relying heavily on editing, but

FredAstaire and Ginger Rogers in Swing Time (George Stevens, 1936). everett collection. reproduced by permission.

some were staged and choreographed. Some refer clearly to film choreography, such as Madonna's ''Material Girl'' (1984) music video, an adaptation of Cole's staging of ''Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend'' from Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, complete with human chandelier. Memorable music videos as dance include the robotic, stylized ''Video Killed the Radio Star,'' and Michael Jackson's (b. 1958) take on a West Side Story-like gang war in ''Beat It'' (1982). Jackson's ''moon walk'' excited his teen fans and reminded their elders of the African American tap greats who developed such eccentric steps. Other directors worked with seemingly spontaneous dance steps, adapted from break dancing, voguing, and hip-hop, including Prince's ''Purple Rain'' (1984). The recognizable editing style associated with music videos, fast cross-cutting between the performance and dance scenes, has spread to influence feature films as well as television.

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