Corrigan, Timothy. The Films of Werner Herzog. London:
Routledge, 1986. Doll, Suzi, and Gene Walsh, eds. Images at the Horizon: A Workshop with Werner Herzog. Chicago: Facets Multimedia, 2002.
Stan Jones soil. Many of these issues are reflected in Deutschland im Herbst (Germany in Autumn, 1978), a collaborative project between several directors to depict the impact on German society of terrorism and the state's response to it.
When a more conservative government was elected in 1982, the subsidy system ceased to favor art cinema, even as the new technologies shaping video and TV continued to reduce cinema audiences. Mainline filmmaking enjoyed a boost with Wolfgang Petersen's
(b. 1941) film Das Boot (The Boat, 1981), a melancholy antiwar story of a doomed U-boat toward the end of World War II. The film's international success and the director's subsequent hit Die unendliche Geschichte (The Never-Ending Story, 1984) launched Petersen on the well-trodden trail to Hollywood. In the 1990s Roland Emmerich (b. 1955) followed him, becoming a top US director, with Universal Soldier (1992) and Independence Day (1996). Other filmmakers found support through
closer collaboration with TV and, revisiting staple genres, the music industry.
Renewed public interpretation of the Third Reich was also reflected in filmmaking, as in Die weisse Rose (The White Rose, 1982) by Michael Verhoeven (b. 1938), which depicted the courage of an actual student resistance group in Munich. He revisited the Third Reich in 1990 with a controversial film, Das schreckliche Mädchen (The Nasty Girl, 1990), which used a mixture of techniques to focus on the difficulties experienced by a schoolgirl investigating her hometown under the Nazis. Sansibar oder der letzte Grund (Sansibar, or the True Reason, 1987) by Bernhard Wicki (1919-2000) explores difficult questions of guilt and responsibility through the allegory of an artwork rescued from the Nazis by a Communist and a Jewish woman. The most celebrated historical revision was Edgar Reitz's (b. 1932) Heimat— Eine deutsche Chronik (Homeland: A German Chronicle, 1984), an epic depiction of a village in central Germany from the 1920s to the 1950s that was made for both TV and cinema release. Reitz's sequel, Die Zweite Heimat— Chronik einer Jugend (The Second Homeland: Chronicle of a Youth), thirteen episodes shot from 1988 to 1992, continued the story into the 1960s. Both gained attention abroad and caused much debate in Germany as to the cinematic depiction of memory and its relevance for German identity. (Heimat 3 was aired on German TV in
2004.) The particular parochialism of the state of Bavaria appears in the work of Herbert Achternbusch (b. 1938), such as Servus Bayern (Bye-bye, Bavaria!, 1977). In the United States Percy Adlon (b. 1935) adapted this story in Out of Rosenheim (Bagdad Cafe, 1987), which teamed the Bavarian actress Marianne Sagebrecht (b. 1945) with the American actor Jack Palance and achieved enormous international success. However, the most successful West German filmmaker of the 1980s was a newcomer, Doris Dorrie (b. 1955), whose comedy Manner... (Men..., 1985) combined a feminist viewpoint with borrowings from Hollywood genres in an international hit that set the stage for the more entertainment-oriented filmmaking of the 1990s.
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