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Photographs and Stock Footage

Your sources for photographs and stock footage are fairly obvious. Depending on the film, your sources may be government archives (such as the British Imperial War Museum or the National Archives), local and press archives (such as Sherman Grinberg), film archives (such as Pathe), or television archives (such as the CIIS archive in New York and ITN in London). You might search through local libraries, private collections, family albums, and attics or look at old videos shot by the industry you are investigating. Bear in mind that you should look at the old films and photographs as both sources of information and possible visuals in the film. If your objective is the latter, then you should inquire fairly early about permission to use the materials. But more on that subject later.

Q Will digital photography make the Zone System obsolete

As of this edition of this book, all of this has changed. Both ink-jet printers and digital cameras have improved to the point that it is now possible to produce exquisite photographic images that are completely satisfying as fine prints. This is why we are now in the midst of what can fairly be called a revolution that rivals the emergence of the roll-film cameras years ago. Photographic film, paper, and chemistry manufacturers who fail to respond to these changes will soon disappear and many photographers find themselves grappling with adapting to a very different set of aesthetic and technical assumptions. On the other hand, it is not a question of digital processes precisely replacing the qualities of fine silver prints. There will always be distinctions that will be important to specialists. Digital processes offer the opportunity to produce work that has extraordinary qualities that, while different from silver-based work, is fully resolved in its own terms. The formal and...

Summary of Digital Photography Cardinal Rules

This chapter contains many principles suggested techniques and working methods that together will help you produce better photographs with your digital camera. Always use the lowest ISO possible with digital cameras. The ability to change ISO settings from one frame to the next is an important advantage of digital photography. Most photographers are familiar with photographic grain and some even use it to great aesthetic advantage. The same could be said of digital noise but if reducing it is your goal then this rule is the key.

The Limits of Digital Photography

Similar problems exist in the world of digital photography, but the causes and terms we use to describe them are different. Underexposed digital images aren't only dark and lack shadow detail, they also have dark tonal values that are contaminated with noise or random patterns of bright and colored pixels that degrade the quality of the image. This is especially true when you shoot digital photographs using higher ISO ratings like 800 or 1600. The term overdevelopment doesn't apply to digital camera chips, but the problems caused by attempting to photograph scenes with too much contrast are just as severe as with film.

Digital Camera Choices

The digital camera I used for the examples in this chapter is the Nikon D70, one of the first DSLRs to provide both professional-level features and quality at a consumer-oriented price. There are many other digital cameras that fall into this category, most notably the Canon EOS 20D but, once again, all of the principles I cite apply in very similar ways to cameras in this price and feature range. In general, point-and-shoot type cameras aren't capable of producing images that will work with these techniques.

Q How do I know what the Normal Development Time is for the film and developer I use

Even if you try to follow the manufacturer's instructions exactly, your times could still be different than those they recommend. The only way to determine the Normal, Expansion, and Contraction development times that are correct for your photography is to do a test with your camera and meter that takes all these factors into consideration. The following two chapters outline two testing methods for this purpose.

Consent if applicable

Don't panic every time you photograph someone without getting a release. First of all, as an artist you have considerable protection. It is only when you begin pursuing photography as a business that releases really become necessary. The laws vary from state to state, so it would be a good idea to check things out with a knowledgeable editor or lawyer if you plan to sell your photographs for publication. On a more technical note, it's important to know how publication will affect the quality of your photographs. An offset printing press can't generally print gray. Instead, it reduces the gray tones in a photograph to varying densities of black dots. The dots are close together in the dark areas and far apart in the light areas. This creates the impression of a continuous tone photograph (which is what your original is called). With color, the rules change a bit. The photograph is still reduced to dots, but this time the dots are in the 4 primary colors (yellow, magenta, blue and...

Safeguarding Your Resume and Headshots

To help prevent your photograph and resume from being used inappropriately, include a disclaimer such as the following Property of your name . For casting purposes only. Not intended for sale or commercial use. 5. When having headshots taken, ask the photographer to include language in the contract stating that it is a work for hire. Otherwise, you do not own the copyright to your photographs (even if the photographer gives you the negative).

Point of Departure f at

No v that you are familiar with your camera, and have begun to evaluate composition, it's time to start putting your knowledge to work by actually taking some photographs. In order to help you begin taking good photographs immediately, technical concerns will initially be kept to a minimum. At first, you will be doing little more than aiming your camera, focusing and shooting. As you proceed through the various exercises, however, you will gradually add on new techniques, learning new ways to express your own vision. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have a solid foundation of skill and the beginnings of a personal style. Later, as you continue to progress on your own, you'll be able to push your skill and style to the limit. But for now, we'll stick to the basics.

Directing Actors On The

One of the reasons it is important your camera and staging be worked out beforehand is that you can then give your actors the attention they need and deserve. If the director's main concern is with the camera, the actors can be made to feel like orphans. It is much wiser to make them feel the center of attention that the director needs them and is counting on them. And by this time the actors should know that they can count on the director.

Exercise How Light Meters Really Work

Readers with digital cameras can also do this exercise using their preview window to see the results. In choosing your test subjects, try to select walls that match your mental image of Zone IV for the dark wall and Zone VI for the light wall. This will be your first exercise in previsualization. It is very important that you find evenly textured surfaces and that you fill the frame of your camera with only those areas before you shoot. Be careful not to include your shadow in the image. If your camera is equipped with an automatic built-in meter, you will either have to set it to its manual setting or override the automatic function otherwise when you stop down one stop, the meter will automatically change the shutter speed to one step slower in order to maintain its Zone V exposure. Check your owner's manual if you are not clear on how this is done with your camera. See page 74 for a discussion of how to override automatic built-in light meters.

The Eyes Of The Actor

The tool kit of the actor contains the use of the body, the voice, the language, the memory, the imagination, the intelligence, and the life experience, all of which combine to make the instrument. If you deny the actor any one of these components, you are, in effect, putting a mute on the instrument or hobbling it. The two eyes of the actor are among the most important conveyers of thought, emotion, and or reaction. Yet so many directors choose to show us the actor in profile much of the time, and regrettably at some of the most important moments. Try this experiment Take a still photograph of one side of an actor's face. Then take another still photograph of the other side of the same actor's face. Lay them side by side. As it is extremely rare that the human face has perfect symmetry, you will see two surprisingly different expressions Which is the one you wanted to convey By limiting the audience access to only one eye, the director limits the actor's ability to fully communicate...

Exercise Documentary Five Minutes Sound

The primary goal here is to learn how to use your camera and editing equipment by gathering images and editing them together into a sustained five-minute narrative using indigenous dialogue and sound. But in order to maximize the experience, this exercise should not be regarded as merely technical. Use it to explore some aspect of the feature story you have begun to think about. Create a mood that seems to fit your story. Give us insight into a real character that resembles a character in your story. Capture an event you think you could use a wedding, a football game, a street fair. Be selective in your choice and composition of shots. Shoot at least 20 minutes of footage. Everyone should shoot the first three exercises themselves so that you will become familiar with the frame. One of the biggest obstacles to shooting in film lighting is all but gone when shooting in digital. You will find that the new digital cameras need very little light to shoot in, and I would certainly...

The Gift of Vision and Voice

Once filming starts, the director of photography adjusts the earlier determinations and makes final decisions on how the camera is going to move and what is going to be included in the shot. Robert says the best thing to learn is, Show just what you want to see. There is no substitute for actually looking for what to shoot. You want all your pictures to tell the story you are trying to tell. After you can see the shot, then you learn how to use the camera to make sure you get it. The more you do it, the more you learn. Robert has three Emmy awards to his credit, and he hasn't stopped learning yet. The still photographer is first and foremost a photographer, with all the background and training that goes along with that. Marie Pfieffer has been taking pictures since she stumbled into a photography elective in high school. Since then, Marie has amassed an impressive portfolio of images, both of her own design and from the various productions she's worked on. Part of Marie's job requires...

Arranging the Furniture

A well-designed photography classroom will of course contain the usual desks and chairs, though you may wish to cluster them together (especially if their tops are flat and of uniform height) to create additional surfaces for spreading out photographs or supplies and to encourage students to interact in smaller groups. Off to one side, it is a good idea to clear a space for cutting mats and mounting prints. This area will ideally include a good paper cutter, a mat cutter and dry-mount press (if available), plus a large table to work on. Some surrounding floor-space will also come in handy, since many tasks can be done on that level. The next major concern is preparing a suitable arrangement for critique sessions. The goal here is to devise an effective way of displaying photographs in full view of the entire class. This is often done by simply tacking photographs directly into the wall (assuming its surface is receptive and no one minds having it poked full of holes). Another method...

Early Motion Pictures

Beginning in the 1830s and continuing throughout the century, series photography generated early interest in the possibilities of motion pictures. Inventors and entrepreneurs quickly recognized the entertainment value of simulating the movement of photographs, such that by the middle of the nineteenth century a variety of peephole toys and coin machines were appearing in arcade parlors throughout the United States and Europe. These pre-cinematic mechanisms were crucial in the technological leap from still photography to motion pictures projected on big screens for paying audiences. One of the earliest toys was the Zoetrope, a handheld spinning wheel with a series of photographs on the inside, visible to the viewer by thin slits along the top. The Mutoscope, a coin machine found in arcades, enabled viewers to see a series of photo cards flip by at the turn of a crank.

If You Dont Own It Get Permission to Use It

If you didn't create your project idea yourself, it is owned by someone else. If you want to use it, you have to first get permission. This applies to almost every aspect of your project the talent, the script, the music, clips, images, photographs, products with brand names, props, and more. It is the job of the producer to legally protect every single component with some form of permission attached.

How did you get your start in filmmaking and documentary

I did some still photography to start with. I loved reading history books and things like George Orwell's Down and Out in Paris and London, sociological studies of different communities, that kind of thing. And my still photographs were that kind of stuff. Then, when I was at university, I did my first film, made with a little windup Bolex, which was set in the community in Liverpool and it was just a study of the community. So that was how I got into it. When I did my first film I met Sir Arthur Elton, who made a film called Housing Problems in the thirties, which was always heralded as the first cinema verite film. I guess, in a sense, it wasn't, but it was the first film with sync sound with normal people who were filmed in their homes. And I remember also loving the work of Fred Wiseman, which I saw at a later date when I was already at film school. I suppose it's more a universal interest in people, and documentary gives you that ability to find out about the world that you are a...

Local Clubs and Organizations

The first category is fairly straightforward. Many towns and cities have camera clubs whose members would be more than willing to offer advice, tutoring, slide presentations, photographs for critiques or display, or to host field trips, serve as judges or provide other valuable services. At the very least, they should be an excellent source of back issues of photography magazines. If you're unable to locate a local camera club, contact the Photographic Society of America, 3000 United Founders Boulevard, Suite 103. Oklahoma City, OK 73112, tel 405-843-1437. a wealth of old photographs of interest to your students which they might help restore by doing copy-photography and making new prints. (Once again, an exhibit is certainly possible for this, and the local newspaper might want to run some of them.) There may be a performing arts school that would be grateful for the assistance of student photographers. A bird-watchers' club might be a good source of ideas and information on nature...

Producers And The Production Office

Responsibility for commissioning and approving materials such as posters and trailers. The unit publicist is often present on the set and is responsible for arranging media interviews, collecting information for press notes, and selecting photographs to be issued to the press. The stills photographer is present on the set to take publicity pictures and may also take still pictures for use in the film, or photographs that act as records to assist continuity.

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

From this success Loewy launched his glittering design career his consultancy grew into an international organization, with offices in New York, London and Paris and with clients including Coca-Cola, the Greyhound Corporation and Studebaker. Loewy restyled the boxy Greyhound buses into the familiar teardrop shape, with horizontal strips impressed down the sides of the vehicle to symbolize speed (Figure 25). Loewy was the most publicity-aware of the new generation of designers, enjoying photo-opportunities and promoting himself. In 1934 he designed a model office with Lee Simonson for the exhibition Contemporary American Industrial Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in which he posed imperiously for photographs (Figure 26). Again, the edges of the room are sheathed in a smooth, streamlined form -this time made from white Formica - with horizontal metal bands running round the room, blue linoleum on the floor, recessed lighting and blueprints for a boat on the walls. The overall...

The Aesthetic Opportunities

To begin to understand the aesthetic opportunities of the nonlinear digital age, we should begin by stating that, to date, interactive technology has had a more profound impact on video games and on making available art and photographs for specific educational goals than upon mainstream film and video. Consequently, its impact has been relegated to special effects and animation. That is not to say that these special effects in Terminator 2 Judgement Day (1991) or in Jurassic Park (1993) were not spectacular in aiding the dynamism and credibility of the story. What it does mean, however, is that those stories, Terminator 2 and Jurassic Park, remained conventional screen stories, neither challenging old forms nor old ideas. The special effects simply made the films more sensational for their audiences.

The tale of the inevitable tragedy spectacle commodity and war

Ironically, The Power of Emotion contains so many stories that one would be hard-pressed to call it a narrative film. It is just as difficult to describe. It opens with a time-lapse segment of the Frankfurt skyline at dawn and proceeds to shots of corpses, a birth, a funeral, silent film segments, stereopti-con images, documentary footage, photographs, drawings, opera scenes, rehearsals, set changes, character interviews, parts of the opera house, and opera itself. These pieces are interspersed among brief stories in which, for example, a woman goes on trial for having shot her husband (introduced, like most sections in the film, with an intertitle, The Shot ) or a man is tried for having raped a comatose woman while saving her from a suicide attempt. Recurring characters include fortunetellers and matchmakers, opera stars and firefighters, prostitutes and pimps.

How did you get your start in film

The way I got into film altogether is very strange. It's kind of silly. I came from Israel. I came here to be a student and I ended up at UCLA. And they told me I had to get a major. I knew nothing about what to study, so I looked through the book and I decided to get a major in movies. I thought, That's great, my parents will be happy that I'm going to university and getting a degree, and I will go and sit and watch movies. Which I liked to do. I knew nothing about filmmaking, nothing. I took some still photographs when I was a teenager, but I knew nothing about film. And I got totally hooked. I think I was the only student in my class who wasn't connected to some kind of a Hollywood family.

But the script is written at that time

Have echoes of the past moment we're hoping to bring alive. We go into the studio before we've begun a day of editing and work with session musicians laying down twenty, maybe even thirty different versions of each of those tunes, doing it based on the integrity of the music. And then we come back and we have music beds that are as rich, as organic an archival resource as the still photographs or the first-person voices that we've also collected hundreds of and read by three or four people dozens of ways or by the different script notes.

Health And Safety Guidelines

Outside of that, the most likely risk to health and safety is carelessness while photographing. Any photographer with one eye glued to the viewfinder and the other shut tight is at best half-blind. It is not uncommon for one to be so intent on getting the composition just right that a ditch or step or cliff or passing truck is blithely ignored until too late. (Those jokes about one more step, one more step, splash have a serious side.) Students should be encouraged to learn good habits in this as in other aspects of photography. An advisable basic rule is look around with both eyes before you peek through the shutter. This is as helpful for good composition as it is for avoiding bruised and broken limbs scanning the environment without the camera gives a photographer a sense of bearings that will produce better photographs as well as prevent accidents. Under no circumstances should one walk in any direction without first checking to ensure that the coast is clear.

Departing from Trauma Dreaming in Motion

Shit Skin (writer director Nicholas Boseley) deals directly with the trau- z matic experience of the Stolen Generations. It is a return home film which g takes the form of an interrupted road trip to Central Australia, undertaken by r a grandmother, Nina, with her grandson, Luke, in the driver's seat. Alternat- f ing between Nina and Luke, Shit Skin deftly evokes the long-term impact of historical trauma on a family over four generations. The repetitive nature of traumatic experience becomes evident in flashbacks, delayed in time only to be unleashed by sensory experience in the present. Nina's involuntary memories of a ruptured childhood are provoked not only by photographs and household objects but also by the scent and touch and taste of place. Deliberately understating the melodramatic potential of Nina's belated return home (sixty-two years after being taken away) the film enables a laconic revisiting of the past, at the same time drawing Nina and Luke forward into a more...

Postmodernist Turned Modernist

Er-style Britain, but a British cinema, between America and Europe. Even as he works with digital technology, Greenaway's mock-Victorianism sits uneasily with the pop-energies of a Hockney, also experimenting with electronic images and a digital paint box.11 Greenaway's TV Dante is in better company with land artists such as Richard Long's or Hamish Fulton's visible and invisible walks, where space, place and trace make up a perfect geometry in not three but four dimensions, than to Hockney's laser-printed portrait-photographs (though Hockney's treatment of California suburban swimming pools is nothing if not a search for the genius loci). Greenaway has talked about how he once buried a hundred ball-bearings in precisely marked sites, calculated to coincide with the grid pattern of Ordinance Survey Maps.12 If this is the spirit of codecracking Bletchley, where land art and the computer first met on Alan Turing's operating table, Greenaway also has an eye for the pastoral's...

Visuals and Archive Material

The maker of film histories is doing a visual history. That is what is so confining and so challenging, and what in the end makes the filmmaker's task so different from that of the academic historian. And as a visual history, the materials at hand will be photographs, location shooting, archive material, and witnesses.

Techniques and Cautions

In feature films, the emphasis in location shooting is on cheapness, exoticism, and reasonable working conditions. Accuracy and authenticity are usually the last items mentioned. But authenticity is the key to docudrama, especially in regard to period and physical setting. In Strike, several hundred still photographs were used to show Poland and Gdansk in the early 1970s. These provided references not only for design, wardrobe, and makeup but also for casting the actors. In Ninety Days, Ruth First worked with the designer so that the feeling of the cell and the South African prison would be as accurate as possible.

Material Culture and Design History

The material culture approach was adopted beyond anthropology in America during the 1980s, in particular by curatorial staff at leading museums of American history including the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC and the Winterthur Museum, Delaware. History from Things Essays on Material Culture (ed. Lubar and Kingery), published in 1993 as a result of the international conference, 'History From Things The Use of Objects in Understanding the Past' held at the Smithsonian in 1989, helped to make sense of the rich collection of the Smithsonian, which did not strictly adhere to late twentieth-century notions of academic respectability, museum categorization or aesthetic quality. It was rather an important index of the way people lived, of their values and of their culture in its broadest sense. At the time of writing, interpretative exhibits at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History included A Material World, with a 1946 AMI Model A Jukebox and an aluminium sign...

Chapter Political Cinema

Wynn Thomas's comments appear in the unpaginated insert of photographs included in the above-cited companion volume. The comment that they were trying to create an environment people are going to like on an unconscious level occurs in the commentary included in the Criterion DVD version of the film.

Nihilism and Film Noir

Chase has given us the child of Martin Scorsese's Goodfellas (1990), the grandchild of Francis Ford Coppola's Godfather saga, and the descendant of those film noir classics that trail back to the earliest crime dramas. Tony Soprano reveals his passion for film noir classics when he is shown enjoying screenings of Public Enemy (William Wellman, 1931) and White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949). His mafia colleagues, especially Paulie Walnuts (Tony Sirico) and Big Pussy (Vincent Pastore), conjure images of neo-noir movies by frequently comparing their experiences to those of characters in the Godfather trilogy. Photographs of traditional film noir actors Humphrey Bogart and Edward G. Robinson, captured in gangster pose, flash briefly across the screen in the very first episode of the series, during a killing by Tony's nephew Christopher Moltisanti (Michael Imperioli).

From Neorealist Scriptwriting to Direction The Trilogy of Character in Luci del varieta Lo sceicco bianco and I

Tulsa Race Riot 1921

Same role in popular culture that soap operas fill today. They were produced by employing black-and-white photographs (not colored cartoon drawings), while the dialogue was contained within the traditional comic balloon. In Lo sceicco bianco, Fellini not only pokes gentle fun at the kind of unsophisticated people who take such publications seriously, but he also implicitly provides a hilarious parody of the film star Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), the original Latin lover on the silver screen whose brief but meteoric career included several films in which he played a sheik (The Sheik, 1921 Son of the Sheik, 1926). Fellini's sheik is a much less imposing figure, a character in a fotoromanzo played brilliantly by a young Alberto Sordi. Giulietta Masina plays a cameo role as a prostitute named Cabiria, a figure that Fellini will use as the central character in the later masterpiece entitled Le notti di Ca-biria, also starring Masina.

Stanley Kubrick b New York New York July d March

Bronx July 1976

With little patience for formal education, Kubrick spent most of his adolescence in the Bronx, New York, frequenting chess clubs and taking photographs for Look magazine. Using his savings from a Look photo-essay on boxing, Kubrick made his film debut, Day of the Fight (1951), a sixteen-minute documentary on boxer Walter Cartier. This early short demonstrates two of Kubrick's stylistic trademarks elaborately choreographed hand-held camera work and the use of available light. Kubrick's first independent features were Fear and Desire (1953), a psychosexual war thriller that he subsequently disowned, and the hard-boiled, occasionally surreal Killer's Kiss (1955).

Marlene Dietrich b Maria Magdalene von Losch Berlin Germany December d

Riva, Maria, ed. Marlene Dietrich Photographs and Memories From the Marlene Dietrich Collection of the Film Museum, Berlin. London Thames and Hudson, 2001. Spoto, David. Blue Angel The Life of Marlene Dietrich. New York Cooper Square Publishers, 2000.

From Storyboard to Celluloid

All of the above-mentioned still images appear in the animatic on the DVD, along with Doe's hands passing over, or deleting, passages from books on pregnancy and sexual disorders.22 That said, the final version of the title sequence shows not the woman in stockings, but a series of images that are so self-consciously disturbing as to be trite and, in sum, rather incoherent photographs of medical procedures (an autopsy, a lo-botomy), medical curiosities (a pair of severely disfigured hands), and medical subjects (a boy's face, a partially undressed boy perhaps standing in a doctor's office, a very small child lying on a bed or on the floor). The most direct inferences, then, are that Doe is a ghoulish, transsexual, bisexual paedophile, whereas the storyboards only suggest that he is heterosexual and mildly voyeuristic.

An Enlightened View of Immigration

American accents and a montage of American Depression photographs, Lars von Trier has been accused of anti-Americanism.12 Yet as Von Trier himself pointed out, the film was made under the impact of the 2001 Danish elections, when a right-wing anti-immigrant party won 24 percent of the popular vote, obliging the mainstream center parties to come to an agreement with the populist right. Thus, Dogville makes as much sense if read as an allegory or parable not so much of the stranger, but as a model of the ideal immigrant. Preternatu-rally good, resourceful, adaptable and skilled, she finds herself not only exploited while at the same time becoming the scapegoat and bogeyman, but the hosts - in this case the villagers - by always setting new conditions and making further distinctions around Grace's right to stay, effectively undermine their own ability to act with any moral authority. Von Trier seems to suggest that a community looking for the pragmatic consensus, in the end betrays...

The Influence of Graham Greene

Graham Greene's novel The Ministry of Fear was presented to the public in 1943 as a spy thriller. In 1944 it was released as a film directed by Fritz Lang with Ray Milland starring as Stephen Neale, a Londoner who inadvertently stumbles upon a nest of Nazi spies trying to smuggle important photographs out of England. of the fortuneteller at a local fete, he quickly responds to her fairly accurate description of his past by demanding, Don't tell me the past. Tell me the future. Thinking he is a Nazi agent because he has given the correct response, she tells him the proper weight for the prize cake, which contains the vital photographs. It is no accident that Neale is now identified with the Nazis he supposedly opposes.

Stretching the Histogram

Underexposed Negative Image

So far what we have is a static representation of the pixels in this digitized image. To understand how digital editing software tools use histograms to manipulate the contrast of digital photographs, and how all of this relates to digital exposure, begin by imagining that you are trying to reproduce a smooth, continuous gradation by drawing thin lines of tonal values on a strip of rubber. (If you think of each line as a pixel tonal level this becomes a very good analogy.) I mentioned earlier that black-and-white JPEG 8 bit digital images allow for pixels to be any of 256 different tones from black to white. But camera raw photographs can easily be converted into 16 bit images where each pixel can be any one of 65,536 levels of tone or color This means that you will have 256 times the number of pixel levels to work with and this makes avoiding banding much easier. See Appendix C for more on bit depth. The following illustration demonstrates the relationship this principle has to...

The Digital Photographic Process

Both film and digital photography share these steps and it's important to understand them. Experienced photographers take each of these steps very seriously and therefore get generally better results. 1. Digital cameras allow you to change the ISO for each frame that you shoot, which gives you greater flexibility and this is an enormous advantage. 2. Instead of film grain, using higher ISO speeds with digital cameras adds what's called noise or random pixels of either brightness and or color in the shadow areas of your image. For these reasons, the first cardinal rule for digital photography is Unless you want dark and noisy shadow areas for aesthetic reasons, always use the lowest ISO possible with digital cameras. Digital camera light meters behave in essentially the same way as those in film cameras. They both average the brightness of the reflected light they see to an exposure that prints as middle 18 gray or Zone V. * This is something you can test very easily with a digital...

Development Of The Motion Picture Camera

Numerous optical devices and toys developed in the nineteenth century took advantage of these perceptual phenomena to create the illusion of motion. The Thaumatrope, developed in 1825 by Dr. John Ayrton Paris (1785-1856), was a small disk with images printed on either side. When the disk was spun the images appeared to blend together into one. Other devices, such as the Phenakistiscope (1832) and the Zoetrope (1834), used a series of drawings that appeared to be in motion when spun quickly and viewed through small slits in the apparatus. By mid-century photographs were used in these toys, but because of the lengthy exposure times required, the actions had to be staged and each movement photographed individually. With the development of series photography by Eadweard Muybridge (18301904) in 1877, events could, for the first time, be captured on film spontaneously as they happened.

Expose for the Shadows and Develop for the Highlights

The Zone System method of negative contrast control is as simple as that. Once you appreciate the importance of properly exposing and developing your negatives, it simply becomes a matter of working with the system long enough for the principles to become familiar.Your first attempts at applying the Zone System to your photography might make you very aware of other weaknesses in your technique. No system, however logical or straightforward, can compensate for faulty equipment or carelessness. But, if you are persistent, you will eventually work out all the bugs and develop your own set of shortcuts. At that point, your work will begin to flow smoothly.

Bit Depth and Digital Exposure

It's often hard to believe that beautiful digital prints are ultimately created from numbers that could just as easily be printed out in undecipherable rows and columns. Nothing demonstrates this fact more clearly than the issues of bit depth and exposure with digital cameras. In digital photography the same role is played by something called the Histogram. Understanding Histograms This leads directly to the question of how bit depth is accounted for in digital photography. For most digital editing purposes, the minimum standard for quality is what is called an 8 bit image where each pixel can be any one of 256 tones from black to white. (See Appendix C for an explanation of what 8 bit means numerically.)

Color Management Profiles and Color Spaces

I didn't really appreciate how efficient and inspiring digital photography could be until I produced the first print after color managing my system. Before that I was never sure that my monitor was a reliable tool for editing and previewing my work. After color management digital printing finally began to make sense and felt like a creative process. Although the technical details behind color management are complex (and beyond the intentions of this book), the process itself is fairly simple to implement if you understand some of the basic concepts involved and know how to apply them to the various tools you'll be working with in digital photography. If you are looking for a comprehensive book on this subject, consult Appendix S for some excellent references. Many of the best books on this subject refer to the now classic illustration of why color management is important and why color profiles are the key to making digital photography consistent and efficient.We've all had the...

The Digital Linear Effect

The reason why all of this is important is because digital camera chips respond to light in a very simple and straightforward way that has important implications for digital photographers. Because of the digital linear effect, digital cameras don't produce a tonal gradation that looks like Figure 149 with middle gray in the middle where it feels natural to our eyes. Instead, digital cameras produce a gradation like Figure 150 where most of the scale is devoted to the lightest tonal values and very little is left for the darkest tones. Because of the Digital Linear Effect, the number of pixel levels that digital cameras assign to the light, middle, and dark values of the spectrum aren't equal Instead, digital camera sensors distribute pixel levels across the linear spectrum in a way that can be diagrammed like this One important function of raw conversion software is to remap the linear tonal gradation produced by digital camera to a gradation of tones that looks more natural to our...

Pixels Size Quality Resolution and Bit Depth

The representational power of digital photography begins with individual picture elements called pixels. If you enlarge any digital image enough you will see that the apparently continuous tonalities of the image are actually created from these tiny individual image tiles. There are three essential things you need to understand about pixels and each of these has important implications for the quality of digital photographs

Q How can I override my cameras automatic metering system

To use an exposure other than the one recommended by the meter, you will have to override these automatic functions using one of the following methods, depending on how your camera is designed (check your owner's manual). Manual Setting. If your camera has a manual mode, you can set both the aperture and shutter speed to the exposure of your choice. For example, if the meter recommends an exposure of f 11 at 1 30 for an area you wish to print as Zone III, you can simply change your setting to either f 22 at 1 30, or f 11 at 1 125. These exposures are equivalent and are both two stops darker than the meter's recommended setting (Zone V). Film Speed Adjustment. If your camera has no other way of overriding its automatic function, it is usually possible to change the meter's recommended exposure by resetting the ISO ASA. Remember that when ASA numbers double (for example, from ASA 400 to 800), the amount of exposure requires halves. Halving your ASA setting will increase the exposure by...

Changes In The Use Of Narration

Participated in the Allied bombing of Germany. Bar-Lev intercuts archival historical footage as well as family photographs of Weiner. Arnost Lustig, now a friend of Weiner's as well as a fellow Holocaust survivor, is the observer for the film. Into the Arms of Strangers tells the story of the Kindertransport and follows 10 children who participated. Their interviews as well as archival footage, home movies, and photographs provide the visuals for the film.

Zone System Testing Method

The ever-increasing dominance of digital photography isn't the only unsettling development that photographers have had to cope with in recent years. Until not very long ago film photographers could count on the stability and consistent quality of products from three of the West's most venerable names Kodak, Ilford, and Agfa.

The Migrations of Glamour

A glamorous face or dress can be attractive and alluring when seen from afar, but close up and in detail the inherent magic disappears and something more ordinary is revealed. Glamour of the Classical Hollywood period relied on creating a glowing image for the female star - the convention of three types of lighting, key, fill and back, established by the 1920s, created a virtual aura around the female stars (Dyer 1997 87). The white glow of the Caucasian, female film star is a central aspect of Hollywood glamour. The backlighting in particular eradicates shadows and separates out the star on screen from the background with a halo effect. This mode of lighting was also employed in the glamour photographs of female stars during the 1930s and 1940s (Heisner 1990 58). The use of light in the creation of glamour was

The Technological Revolution

Film and video, the two most technology-dependent art forms of the twentieth century, have witnessed a profound acceleration in change, the shift from analog to digital-driven technology. The implications are enormous. In pre-production, computer software is available for pre-visualization of scenes. Color and design opportunities, in essence computer animation, deepens the predictability of the potential elements of an image. During production, nonlinear editing allows for rapid assemblies that provide feedback on the questions Am I making the intended dramatic point in the scene Digital cameras will replace film- and electronic-based videotape as the originating source of the image. The digitization process allows any part of the image to be withdrawn, an additional element to be added if necessary. In post-production, it is possible for the editor to consolidate in his role, sound editing, picture editing, sound mixing, special effects, and printing, at least if the release form is...

Semiology And French Cultural Theory

For Barthes, analysis of popular culture using Saussure's methods uncovered the hidden or obscured meanings that lie beneath the everyday, commonsense notions of popular culture. Using semiology, Barthes conducted detailed textual analysis to deconstruct cultural products. His aim in this project was to reveal the workings of ideology through what he termed myth. Barthes's concept of myth parallels the Marxist concept of false consciousness.'' It is a form of naturalized language or discourse that hides itself in the notion of the commonsense. Doing so helps to maintain the status quo or consensus within a culture about socially acceptable norms of behavior and values (dominant ideology). Barthes analyzed a range of cultural products, including magazine articles, photographs, and films in order to uncover myths concerning class, ethnicity, and cultural imperialism.

Native Americans In Movies

Every new country founded in the western hemisphere, in the United States and Canada the term Indians became a hegemonic designation implying that they were all the same in regards to culture, behavior, language, and social organization. The view of Indians as savage and uncivilized was repeated in early films and crystallized the image of Indians as dangerous and unacceptable to the normative lives of European immigrants whose lives appeared in films to be more valuable than those of the indigenous people they were colonizing. Mainstream films featuring Indians have been glacially slow in changing any part of this running narrative of conquest. Native Americans today seek to rectify and balance the onesided, stock image of Indians as ignorant, distrustful, and undesirable through continued work in the film industry.

Imitating Historiography

The implications of Abe Lincoln in Illinois as a photographic document continued outside the boundaries of the film narrative. A short history of Lincoln's life from 1830 to 1865, published in 1940, roughly follows the chronological format of Sherwood's play. The slim biography is illustrated not with Lincoln's photographic portraits by Mathew Brady and others but with motion picture stills from Abe Lincoln in Illinois.72 The photographs show Raymond Massey sitting with his hands on his thighs or reading at his desk in poses reminiscent of Brady's photographs. The combination of a written history of Lincoln's early life and stills from Sherwood and Cromwell's film implies not only that Massey's performance as Lincoln was interchangeable with the real Lincoln but also that Sherwood's play performs the same function as a traditional biography. This was nothing new. Fifteen years earlier, when producer A. L. Rockett released his production of The Dramatic Life of Abraham Lincoln, Grosset...

Ontology and physical portrayal

As an aside, we need to note that the photograph can be'viewed within two different ontological frameworks 'essentialist realism' and 'phenomenalist naturalism'. Bazin's ontology of the photographic image is limited to 'phenomenalist naturalism', in which the photograph reproduces the singularity and contingency of the surface appearances of reality. By contrast, some photographs, such as Muybridge's multiple photographs and Marey's chronophotographs, represent more than the eye can see. That is, they decentre the eye, or improve upon it. They therefore conform to 'essentialist realism', since they represent dimensions of reality (the stages of a horse's gallop, for example) that the eye cannot see.

The Adobe Camera Raw Advantage

The process of converting a digital image from its latent state, as it exists after exposure on your camera's storage media, to the edited version in Photoshop is extremely complex and a detailed discussion of this process is beyond the range of this book. Note Scanners can't currently produce raw-formatted files that can be opened and edited using the Adobe Camera Raw utility. This is because scanners are creating digital images from sources that have already been through the conversion process either as the negative or slide you are scanning, or the print made from that film. This means that the .nef files produced by Nikon film scanners aren't the same as the raw files captured by Nikon digital cameras. Every manufacturer of digital cameras offers proprietary software specifically designed to convert their raw files. Nikon Capture NX and the Canon RAW Image converter are examples of this kind of software.

Measuring Light Levels

If you have ever taken pictures, you are probably familiar with what a light meter does. It measures the available light, then tells you what settings to use on your camera. In some consumer cameras, it doesn't bother you with this information it just goes ahead and sets the camera for you.

Swinging London Hollywood and

Article that Paul Reilly wrote for Architectural Review in 1967. Reilly was Director of the COID at the time, and acknowledged that the old style values of the classic modern movement had been usurped by a new, young, pop aesthetic. 'Carnaby Street and King's Road, Chelsea, with their meagre buildings, ephemeral graphics and idiosyncratic fashions, are the world-wide symbols of a new, emancipated, classless generation' (p. 256). America looked to Britain for leadership in terms of youth culture. Time magazine featured 'London - The Swinging City' as its main feature and cover story in April 1966. This revolution in taste and style was partly played out through film. The Beatles had three number one hits in Britain in 1963, and toured America in the following year. They had originally dressed in the conventional attire of the rocker, with black leather bike jackets and T-shirts. However, their new manager, Brian Epstein, smartened the band up in 1962. Made by show business tailor...

Galleries and Exhibits

If none of the restaurants in your community currently include photographs in their decor, perhaps you can persuade them to start using the Any gallery or other exhibit that includes a substantial number of photographs is a fabulous opportunity for students to be exposed to the work of other photographers. Plan a field trip and follow it up with a critique session, encouraging students to voice their responses to the work they have seen. Better still, you might be able to arrange for a private viewing (at a time when the gallery or exhibit is officially closed or expecting low attendance) and do the critique right then and there. (This is of course preferable to having to remember what the photographs looked like.) Perhaps the photographer s) featured in the exhibit would be willing to meet with your students and explain the work on display, both in terms of artistic intent and technical considerations. When visiting a gallery or exhibit with your class, don't forget to raise...

Special Considerations

Some lenses and filters will also fluoresce under ultraviolet radiation. Hold the lens or filter close to the ultraviolet lamp to look for fluorescence. Fluorescence of the lens or filter will cause a general veiling or fog in your pictures. In severe cases, the fog completely obscures the image. If a lens or filter fluoresces, you can still use it for fluorescence photography if you put the recommended ultraviolet-absorbing filter over the camera lens or the filter that fluoresces. It also helps to position the ultraviolet lamp or use a matte box to prevent the ultraviolet radiation from striking the lens or filter.

The Beginnings Of Photography

David Brewster Stereoscope

In 1851 the brothers William and Frederick Langenheim, noted Philadelphia photographers, projected their photographic slides, initially called hyalo-types, at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London. Their exhibition featured hand-colored images of notable landmarks and locations from around the United States. In the 1860s projected photographic or steropticon slides enjoyed particular commercial and critical success in New York City. As with earlier demonstrations, the slides featured photographs of landscapes, architecture, landmarks, and works of art from all over the world. Other steropticon shows featured images from the Civil War, including photographs of battlefields and military personnel from the Army of the Potomac. Reviewers marveled at the realism and detail of these images the reality effect of painted magic lantern slides paled in comparison. Indeed, the introduction of photographic slides endowed the projected image with such unprecedented with which a photographic...

Examples Zone System Applications

The idea for this appendix was inspired by my favorite Ansel Adams' book, Examples The Making of 40 Photographs. In this classic, Ansel describes in great detail, and with thoughtful autobiographical comments, how he created many of his greatest images. His book allows one to begin to understand the complexities of his creative process and the role the Zone System played in making his photography masterful.

Dealing with High Contrast Subjects

Because of the limited dynamic range of current digital photo sensors, there are more special techniques and proposed software solutions to the problem of dealing with high-contrast subjects than almost any other issue in digital photography. For this feature to work, your highlight values can't be more than one quarter to one stop beyond the range of the histogram and there has to be room to darken your shadow values without losing valuable image information. In other words, this is a remedy for overexposed photographs that aren't too far beyond the dynamic range of your sensor.

Custom Camera Profiles

With professional-level digital cameras, it's possible to use the manufacturer's software to apply special profiles to your images that internally modify the contrast of each photograph as you shoot. These profiles have the effect of either increasing or decreasing the image's contrast in subtle and non-destructive ways. You can even use special software to create custom profiles that you can upload into your camera for use in unusually flat or contrasty situations. One reason for my strong recommendation to use Adobe's Camera Raw application is that it provides one of the most practical software solutions available for the problems associated with high-contrast digital photography. First of all, when you open a raw digital image with the Adobe Camera Raw software it totally disregards your camera's internal profiles and instead applies its own unique and highly sophisticated software solutions. Because Adobe's Camera Raw utility is working with the completely linear, untranslated...

Digital Exposing for the Highlights

Since it's so easy to preview digital photographs using the camera's little LCD window, one practical solution would be to take a quick reference meter reading of your subject and note where the histogram falls on the scale from right to left. As I mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, digital camera previews are generated based upon assumptions about how you will eventually want to use the image. One of those assumptions is that you're shooting for JPEG images that are compressed. If you are shooting in raw format, which you should be, this means that the histogram the camera creates won't precisely match the one you will eventually be working with. This issue also applies to the flashing out of gamma highlight warnings that are a function of many digital SLR cameras. When your preview is set to this function it can give you the alarming impression that your highlights are blown out when, if you are shooting in raw format, they may be recoverable. This will be the perfect...

Word about Structure and Understanding

This chapter has two related objectives. The first is to provide readers with a clear and simple method for obtaining the best possible quality in their photographs. Many people new to digital photography quickly discover that they can obtain perfectly adequate results using the automatic metering systems provided by camera manufacturers to simplify the shooting process. The second consequence of relying on automatic systems is that they prevent you from engaging with and really understanding the details of important photographic techniques. This is especially true with digital photography where there are layers of technical concepts that will be new to most photographers. Most serious photographers will find that the time spent learning more about their systems is worth the effort.

Architecture Environment

Goal Before you start shooting, ask yourself some questions about the relation between the building (or buildings) and environment. Are they in harmony with each other Do they clash Does one have a negative effect on the other Do you like one and dislike the other Do you like or dislike them both Use your camera to help you answer these questions. Decide what you'd like to say about what you see, and say it with your photographs.

Works Created by the US Government

Example Jolene wants to use photographs from NASA's Hubble telescope as a background to her music video. She may do so without seeking NASA's permission because NASA is a federal agency and its images are generally not copyrighted. She must, however, be careful when using those images for commercial purposes, so as not to give the appearance that NASA is endorsing the particular product or service. Restrictions on endorsement fall outside of copyright law and must be analyzed under right of publicity, trademark law, or particular federal statutes that may prohibit the appearance of commercial endorsement by a federal agency.

Optimizing Digital Image Resolution

But in this sense, bit depth and resolution can be considered Core Digital Values because the only time it's possible to establish these qualities is when the image is captured, either by a digital camera or a scanner. This is because bit depth and resolution are functions of the amount of memory your scanner or digital camera commits to actually gathering visual information from your subject, and once the subject is out of sight this is no longer possible.

Emergence Of The Genre

By the middle years of the twentieth century's second decade the cinema had turned from an artisanal mode of production to an industrial one with greater industrial and technological standardization. The opportunities for the creation of complex narratives were in place, and biopics such as Joan the Woman (1917), Madame Dubarry (1919), and Anna Boleyn (1920) became part of the cinematic landscape. What technological, economic, and formal changes meant for the biopic is seen in the lengthy Joan the Woman (125 minutes) by Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959). The film's creation of the historical context relied on huge panoramas based on replicas taken from paintings, sketches, lithographs, and photographs of villages, towers, castles, and cathedrals such as Rheims Cathedral, as well as on the use of weapons purchased from museums. Starring the opera diva Geraldine Farrar, the film was enhanced by handtinted shots and the use of double-exposure effects to convey her visions, and contrasts...

Ultraviolet Photography

There are two distinctly different techniques for taking photographs using ultraviolet radiation, and since they are often confused with each other, both will be described. In the first technique, called reflected-ultraviolet photography, the photograph is made by invisible ultraviolet radiation reflected from an object. This method is similar to conventional photography in which you photograph light reflected from the subject. To take pictures by reflected ultraviolet, most conventional films can be used, but the camera lens must be covered with a filter, such as the Wratten ISA, that transmits the invisible ultraviolet and allows no visible light to reach the film. This is true ultraviolet photography it is used principally to show details otherwise invisible in scientific and technical photography. Reflected-ultraviolet photography has almost no application for motion picture purposes if you have questions about reflected ultraviolet photography information is given in the book...

Specific Goals Of The Sound Edit

A second example is Edward Zwick's Glory (1989). We have many photographs of the Civil War, but we have no sense of the sounds of that conflict. In this film, Zwick created an emotionally powerful portrait of war's violence and its opportunity for dignity and self-sacrifice. Glory tells the story of the 54th Regiment, which was the first black Union regiment to fight during the Civil War.

Bit Depth

Here is how bit depth is notated in digital photography One important consideration related to bit depth is that jpeg images are only 8 bit, but if you shoot your images in your camera's raw format, the images will have 12 bits per channel. For this reason, unless you are sure that you'll never need to make large or high-quality prints of your image, you should observe the following rule Always set your camera to Raw, (the high bit format) when you shoot. Note Not all digital cameras offer the option to shoot in raw format. This is a good reason to carefully check the camera's specifications before making a purchase.


Screenwriting involves all writing for the screen. Given the history of the screen, such a category covers both fiction and documentary films since the early 1900s in the United States and throughout the world as well as work for television, video, and, in recent years, the Internet. In the beginning of film, there were no screenplays. In fact, one does not need a screenplay to make a movie. Technically, one simply needs a camera and film or a digital camera, and certainly since the first days of moving images down to Reality TV'' in recent times, there are those who specialize in using nonscripted approaches to film. But the moment fiction or narrative cinema lasting more than a few minutes began to become common, there came the realization that, as for the stage, so for film, actors and directors needed to know the story, the dialogue, and the action for the tales being told.

Photographing Motion

The next step in the development toward moving photographic images required applying the principle of the persistence of vision to the display of a series of photographs depicting the phases of a single motion. This possibility was successfully pursued by the English-born American photographer Eadweard Muybridge (18301904), who became the first photographer to take pictures of subjects in motion. Muybridge's photographs of galloping horses depicted phases of movement normally imperceptible to the human eye and therefore deviated significantly from traditional representations of a horse's gait used by painters for centuries. To emphasize this contrast, Muybridge presented his images alongside artists' depictions of equine motion. Whereas Muybridge's first experiments in series photography aimed to decompose motion to allow otherwise imperceptible phases of movement to become visible to the eye, he next turned to the reconstitution of recorded movement through a mechanism called the...

Doing It Right

Every time you photograph a subject, try to take several shots of it from several completely different angles. Use your camera to explore the subject, to learn about it, to discover how it interacts with other objects, with light, with space. Never allow yourself to take just one shot and call it quits. Who knows what you might have missed Though it is important to reserve time to devote to your photography assignments, try to keep them in mind at other times as well. When you're out walking, shopping in town, travelling anytime you're doing anything keep your eyes open for photographic possibilities. Even if you don't have a camera with you, or never go back to make use of those possibilities, it's good practice to look for them. Photography is essentially a way of seeing, a way of sorting through all the images that rush past you every day and noticing the special ones. The more you train yourself to see in this way, the better you'll do when you set out to capture some of those...


Goal Capture something of the character of the landscape you photograph. Is it lush, wild, domesticated, barren, pleasant, forbidding, calm, awesome Take time to find out, and then express your conclusions in your photographs. Tips Don't just go out and point your camera at the view and call it a landscape because it has land and trees and sky in it. Make the composition work. Look for visual harmonies recurring patterns in trees, rocks, the contours of the land, water, clouds.

Slide Presentations

You might want to make your own equivalent of a rock video by illustrating a favorite song. This is especially effective if the song is about some issue you care about (love songs can be tricky). You might illustrate a piece of jazz, folk, classical or contemporary instrumental music. You might combine music and narration, perhaps using poetry to suggest the themes of your photographs. You might even team up with a musician With any of these approaches, don't feel tied to a literal expression. Instead, try to combine sounds and images that evoke the same mood. You might select a piece of music that suggests a certain environment to you (a forest, mountains, a river, city streets, etc.) and shoot a series of photographs of that environment. Finally, be a critical editor. There are few things as dull as a slide show full of photographs that got away overexposed, underexposed, poorly focused, poorly composed shots. If a slide isn't technically good,

Company Web Site

I know all about not having a budget to jump out there and do a big marketing campaign, Jamey empathizes. If you've got your domain name and you can make a very simple Web site just to get something going, that's fine. But down the road, there's going to be a point where somebody will look at your Web site and know they saw four other sites that look exactly alike. It's the same with using too much stock photography or clip art. Don't use clip art and stock photography if you want to look unique, which you do

Blurred Movement

Tips Set your camera at f 16 and 1 15 to start .Once you get going, experiment with shutter speeds as low-as 1 8. You'll find the assignment easiest on a gray, overcast day, since you don't want too much light. Alternatively, you might use a neutral density filter, which cuts down the amount of light entering the camera. 1 Aim your camera so your subject is moving into the frame. Begin following your subject's movement and then release the shutter. Keep moving with the subject as the shutter opens and closes. This will produce a blurred background with your subject more or less frozen. 2 Mount your camera on a tripod or find some other way to hold it very steady. Aim so your subject is moving into the frame and release the shutter. This will produce a steady background with your subject moving across the frame as a blur. 3 Attach a zoom lens to your camera, then mount it on a tripod or find some other way to hold it steady. Focus on the subject with the zoom at its maximum...


The most basic outputs are RCA plugs for video and audio. RCA plugs are like the ones on the back of your tape deck or CD player. There should be a yellow one for video and a red or white one (both, if your camera is stereo) for audio. In addition to these, your camera may have an output called S-video. This is a slightly higher quality output that can be used if you have a VCR or television that has an S-video plug. Video information is divided into two pieces chroma (what color it is) and luminance (how bright it is). In a standard video signal, known as composite video, these two pieces of information are combined and shoved down the same line, causing some loss in definition. In S-video, the chroma and luminance are separated out and sent on different wires, helping to maintain their quality. While we're on the subject, component video, known as RGB video, separates the red, blue, and green signals out onto separate wires. This is what computer monitors use, and that's why you...

Using A Light Meter

Hand-held meters read both reflected and incident light. For the reflected light reading, you aim the meter's lens at your subject, just as you would with a built-in meter. For the incident reading, you place a translucent cover over the meter's lens, stand near your subject and aim the meter toward your camera or toward the light source. If you're shooting outdoors in even light (either all sunny or all cloudy, for example), you can obtain an allpurpose average reading by taking an Hand-held meters have one additional advantage. If you attempt to take any photographs in very low light (at night, for example), you may discover that your camera's light meter doesn't work at all shutter speeds. It may shut off when you get down to 1 8 of a second, perhaps, or 2 seconds. A decent hand-held meter, by contrast, will give you a reading for shutter speeds of 4 minutes or more (depending on the ISO of your film). None of this means that a light meter is a bad thing. A light meter is a great...

Depth Of Field

Let's say you're photographing an apple. Rays of light from the sun are constantly bouncing off that apple in all directions. When you click the shutter of your camera, you allow some of those rays to travel through the lens to the film inside the camera. The rays of light react with the film to produce an image of the apple composed of a series of points or dots of light. Ideally, a point of light striking the apple would reproduce as an identical point of light on the film. In reality, it is more of a circle. If this circle is 1 200 of an inch in diameter, it will appear to be a sharply focused point to the human eye. If most of the circles that make up the image of an apple are larger than that, the image will appear fuzzy.


You have now constructed a mat frame with roughly the same proportions as your camera's viewfinder. Hold the frame an arm's length away, with the dark side toward you, and look through it. Wherever you happen to look, you'll have some kind of composition within the frame. Evaluate it. Is the composition interesting Is it well-balanced What kind of dynamics does it have This exercise is, in a sense, a photographer's warm-up exercise. Its purpose is to loosen up your photographic muscles before you actually go out to shoot photographs. By exercising with just a frame, you may find that you notice things that you might miss with all the complications of a real camera. This is likely to be true whether you've already used a camera for years, or are just getting started. It's a good exercise to come back to at regular intervals, just to freshen up your eye so keep the template handy and use it often.

On Location

Your first problem on location is usually not what to film (that has already been decided, in most cases) but how to film the sequence. Where should your camera go What should it frame Should the camera pan with the people coming out of the building, or should it get them in a fixed frame with a close-up lens You will be settling all these decisions with your cameraperson and clearly defining what you want from the shot. Sometimes he or she will choose the frame sometimes you will. Most of the time you will be standing close enough to the cameraperson to whisper instructions and to have an accurate sense of what the camera is doing. Both you and the cameraperson will he looking for the best way to express the scene, but you have to be the guide, because you know much better than anyone else exactly how the scene will be used in the finished film. You also know more than the cameraperson does about the mood you are looking for. Discussing this matter will help, and you should also...


Set your camera to the exposure you have chosen and shoot the picture. One general problem with both and fully semi-automatic cameras is that whichever method the meter uses, you're still locked into using the exposure chosen by the camera. In many cases, this exposure will be adequate, but it prevents you from being able to adapt the exposure to suit your own interpretations. In general, as you become more involved with the process of taking better photographs, you will find that any system that limits your choices will be less desirable.

Black White Film

Sphere are important because shadows are illuminated only by light scattered by particles suspended in the air, except where supplementary lighting or reflectors are used. Thus, where the atmosphere is very dry and clear, objects that do not receive the direct light of the sun appear, both to the eye and to the camera lens, to be in deeper-than-normal shadow. In regions like the southwestern United States or central Mexico, for example, the brightness range of average outdoor subjects is much greater than it is in less clear climates. In photographing people, this effect and the high position of the sun combine to put the eyes in deep shadow and even sometimes give the effect of backlighting. Therefore, it is best to avoid taking pictures, particularly close-ups of people, when the sun is overhead if you must take close-ups of people, use reflectors or booster lights to soften the shadows.

Text Image

Assignment Combine one or more photographs with words a poem, song, quotation, excerpt from a book, handwritten note, etc. Goal Photography and the written word have enjoyed a long partnership, especially in magazines and advertising. Photographs may illustrate a text, or text may be employed to clarify or comment on a photographic image. The goal of this exercise is to explore the various ways in which these two forms of expression can be used together to produce a meaningful combined effect. make a very effective exhibit.) Or you might want to work together to illustrate a long poem, a song, a short-story, or a portion of a book you all admire. Alternatively, you might collaborate individually with students in a writing course matching your photographs with their poetry, for example.

Local Newspapers

Any local newspaper (or other periodical publication) is a potential gold mine of opportunities for photography students. To begin with, you might arrange for a tour of a newspaper's production facilities, enabling students to observe firsthand how photographs are converted to the printed page. A tour might also include an introduction to the wire-service computer, showing how photographs from around the world are received and edited for local use. In addition, a photo-editor or staff photographer might be invited to explain the process of illustrating local stories and discuss how newspapers approach lighting, contrast, composition, etc. One extension of this idea would be for students to accompany a staff photographer to the scene of an actual news event. (Even something as tame as a town council meeting could be highly educational and quite exciting.) It may also be possible to interact with a local paper on a continuing basis, providing students with an opportunity to get their...

Archival Footage

There are dozens ofexcellent archival footage houses that research, gather, and distribute footage that has an historical context. Let's say that you're doing a documentary on the history of the Manhattan skyline, and you want to contrast the modern skyline footage you found through a stock footage house with the New York skyline ofone hundred years ago. An archival researcher can provide old photographs, etchings, and a range of images shot in 35- or 16-mm film. They can also provide you with still photographs, magazine covers, newsreels, and a range ofin-depth material that adds extra texture to your project. The process of finding and buying rights to this historical footage follows a similar process as stock footage, and the pricing scales are negotiated with the same considerations. Often the rights for the images may be available, but the rights for the music under the footage need to be negotiated separately.

Stock Footage

Similar to stock music, stock footage includes photographs, film, video, images, and even clip art that has been catalogued and archived for sale. It can be licensed and purchased, royalty-free, from organizations that specialize in stock footage. This footage is often shot in high-quality video or film, and can be an inexpensive alternative to aerial shots, time-lapse footage, or historically archived shots. Stock footage can also provide a background for blue-screen backgrounds, used in creating virtual sets. You will find resources about stock music and stock footage in the Web site section of the CD included in this book.

Texture and Detail

To relate zones more closely to the real world, I will define each zone in terms of the way it should look in a normal print. As much as possible, I will refer to familiar objects that typically appear in photographs as certain zones. These descriptions will help you visualize zones for later use. Of course, you will not always want a given object to appear as a given zone. For example, in one portrait you may want brown hair to be Zone III and in another Zone IV. Keep in mind that offset reproductions can only approximate the tonality of real photographic prints.

Processing Tips

Before you risk ruining a roll of actual photographs, practice loading the tank with a blank roll until you're sure you have it down pat. There's nothing quite like the panic caused by discovering that a roll of precious film is not loading correctly. With practice, you can avoid that ex

Dont Fake It

Also, please do not ever try to fake charm. A young actor came to see me one day to audition for a new contract role. When I say young, I mean he was in his early twenties and a bit new to the process. When I greeted him in the waiting room, he gave me a very big and firm handshake, one that I would describe as larger than normal. I remember trying not to think too much about it. When we got to my office, he made several comments about how nice my office was, asking about photographs that I had of my family on my desk. This bothered me because I felt like asking about my personal things and about people close to me may have been crossing some sort of professional line. I realize I have those on my

Of The Stripteasers

Known as The Fabulous 4D Girl', Tempest Storm (b. 1928) was born Annie Blanche Banks and was one of the last classic burlesque stars. She ran away from an abusive home and started out as a chorus girl before moving into the strip world in the late 40s. Known for her luxuriant figure and flaming red hair, Russ Meyer's photographs helped her become a huge pin-up star. Tempest is rumoured to have had affairs with John F. Kennedy and Elvis Presley, and at one point, she had her breasts insured for 50,000.

The Look

Purely practically, from a photographer's viewpoint, she has a wide face that is best narrowed by an astute combination of pose and lighting. Also, in those photographs where she is not looking upwards, generally vlightly quizzically, her cheeks look rather long 'the look' was definitely her best angle. Our best guess here i that the camera was slightly tilted and that Ms Bacall was also leaning some what. We are puzzled by what appears to be a blob of retouching on the rope to the right of the head we can only assume that there was an unwanted hot spot that was (clumsily) bleached out in the hope that everyone, captivated by that face, would fail to notice.

Hanging a Show

Before you make your selection, decide where the show will be hung and calculate how many prints will fit well in the space available. They should be at least a foot apart, preferably further. Generally, it's a good idea to hang the photographs in a single row at average eye level. If you do hang all the prints at one level, be sure it is exactly the same level. This may require considerable adjustment, so leave yourself plenty of time for it.

Dan Burkholder

There was a time in my own image making when I used the Zone System more traditionally. That was way back when I used a view camera and spot meter to place my shadows and measure highlights to determine times for film development. Times have changed for me and the way I make photographs. For nearly seven years I've been shooting nothing but 35 mm and then scanning the negatives to work them over in Photoshop. I then generate an enlarged digital negative that I contact print on hand-coated platinum palladium.What hasn't changed is the need to make tonal decisions

Blank Film

Both problems are fairly easy to discover and avoid. Each time you advance the film, the rewind knob should turn slightly. If it doesn't, crank it counter-clockwise until the film in the canister is tightly wound. Release the shutter and advance the film again. If the rewind knob still doesn't turn, you have a problem. Take the camera into a darkroom or use a light-tight changing bag to remove the film in total darkness. (If you don't, you'll probably lose any photographs you've taken so far.)

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Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presented in this book isĀ  accurate. However, the reader should understand that the information provided does not constitute legal, medical or professional advice of any kind.

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