Complete English Grammar Rules
Motion-control has become an inseparable part of film grammar. Inexpensive solid-state digital electronics, a technology born of the space race in the late '60s, made it possible to accurately record and play back motion with sufficient reliability to achieve the robotic camera systems nec
Known for the use of semiology as a method to analyze cinema. In Film Language (1968), Metz argued that cinema is structured like a language. Adopting Saussure's models, Metz made the distinction between langue, a language system, and language, a less clearly defined system of recognizable conventions. Metz contends that film cannot be regarded as comprising a langue, in the sense of having a strict grammar and syntax equivalent to that of the written or spoken word. Unlike the written word, film's basic unit, which Metz argues is the shot, is neither symbolic nor arbitrary but iconic therefore, it is laden with specific meaning. Metz suggests that film is a language in which each shot used in a sequence works like a unit in a linguistic statement. In his theoretical model, known as the grande syntagmatique,'' Metz argues that individual cinematic texts construct their own meaning systems rather than share a unified grammar.
Both spoken and written languages are made up of signs. The social science of linguistics developed in the late nineteenth century as a means of studying language systems. Methods were developed for studying the sounds (phonetics) of a language, its grammar, its vocabulary, its historical development, and its relation to other languages. What was new was the systematic nature of the subject, which many writers treated as a kind of science. The second application of semiology was more ambitious. One of the main questions which concerned such theorists was whether and how film could be described as a 'language' - indeed, one of the unresolved questions remained whether linguistics is a branch of semiology or whether semiology is a kind of linguistics. By the 1960s it had already become common to speak of close ups, camera angles and different kinds of editing as part of the 'language' of film (as we have done at some points in this book), but what interested Christian Metz in particular...
In this chapter, I discuss three film versions of Hamlet - Campbell Scott and Eric Simonson's 2000 release, Michael Almereyda's cinematic undertaking of the same year, and Stephen Cavanagh's 2005 Derry Film Initiative screen reading of Shakespeare's play. First shown on the Odyssey cable channel, Scott and Simonson's Hamlet is a made-for-television production set in the late nineteenth century and inspired by the heritage industry in contrast, Almereyda's work represents a millennial, modern New York scene and is defined by its appeal to the art-house market. The Derry Film Initiative is a grassroots, collaborative organisation directed towards the development of a film industry in the north-west of Ireland, and its Hamlet appears as a raw, visceral feature urgently attuned to, and making extensive use of, politicised, present-day Londonderry locations. Differences notwithstanding, these films come together in being absorbed by, and endeavouring to tease out the implications of,...
In doing them, don't concern yourself with grammar, spelling, or punctuation. To do so may inhibit the flow of images, associations, and vague, floating ideas that are the raw material from which good stories are made. If the work is being done in a classroom, students might read the exercises aloud if they choose, but in our experience, the exercises work best when there is no analysis or criticism afterward. Assignments, of course, are another matter. If you are doing the exercises on your own, you might want to read them aloud to a friend or friends often, reading work to an audience enables you to find things in it you might not otherwise have been aware of. Just explain that it's better if there is no discussion of the material at the time.
Each person develops his or her own style of Journal writing. Since it is a private space, it must make sense only to you. I teach a lot of artists and animators acting, and they often cover their books with scribbling and drawings. It works for them no one else has to understand it. As in the Observation Exercise, the Journal work is not a literary exercise. The sentences don't have to be complete spelling and grammar are not important. What is important is the information that you are saving for yourself.
As the established cinema had its own codes and conventions, grammar and syntax, the young filmmakers of the new independent cinema had to create their own language. In a short span of time, a large number of cinematic techniques, mainly associated with art-house filmmaking in Europe and Japan, were imported to American cinema. These included improvisational acting, repeated actions, camera zooms, jump-cuts, freeze frames, telephoto shooting, hand-held camerawork, split screen, more frequent use of extreme close ups and extreme long shots, image-sound mismatches and many others. As film style in mainstream American cinema had been obeying the rules of classicism and, for that reason, had largely remained unobtrusive, subordinate to the needs of a causally driven narrative, the sudden appearance of these new cinematic techniques and their infusion with existing staples of Hollywood style changed dramatically the 'look' of American films.
Then, make sure you're using white 8K x 11, three-holed paper, a proper script cover and brads in the top and bottom holes to bind your screenplay together (don't use three-ring notebooks or spiral bindings). And check your spelling and grammar, and then recheck it. If your screenplay isn't submitted in the proper format, presented correctly or deemed professional, it could very well be tossed before one single word is read.
Your narration may be grammatical and follow the normal rules of writing, but it doesn't necessarily have to be so. Your writing does not stand by itself. It is meant to accompany pictures, and the only important thing is the effect of that final combination. Standard English and fine grammar it ain't. But it certainly works.
My maternal grandmother, Sarah Johnson, was born in 1911 and shared a similar enthusiasm for Hollywood - aiming to look like Clara Bow during the 1920s and convinced she looked like Olivia de Havilland in the 1930s (Figures 2 and 3). She passed the examination to attend grammar school, but her parents could not afford to let her go - instead she travelled to Manchester to be a housemaid. She then met my maternal grandfather, Tom Carr, one year her senior, who worked in the mining industry as a colliery blacksmith, looking after the pit ponies. He then worked for Vickers-Armstrong in their armaments factory on the river Tyne. However, an accident left his back permanently damaged. Whilst in hospital he passed the long hours drawing sketches of his favourite pastime - fox-hunting, which he had taken part in since he was a child.9 After the war he was able to enter King's College School of Art in Newcastle upon Tyne on the strength of his artistic talent.10 He was taught by the leading...
In basic textbooks of film aesthetics, such as Louis Giannetti's Understanding Movies, or David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson's Film Art, many of the illustrations used to highlight variables of cinematography have been drawn from dialogue scenes, yet the speech simultaneous with those images is rarely referred to and virtually never quoted. The implication thus conveyed is that the underlying cinematic grammar remains the same regardless of the presence (or absence) of dialogue. However, I wonder if most of our knowledge about visual choices hasn't subconsciously taken dialogue into consideration all along when we see a character with a shadow dramatically bifurcating his or her face, do we read tortured spirit from the visuals alone, or did we learn about the character's self-division from surrounding dialogue
Like the cover letter, a strong prospectus demands the reader's attention and reflects your professionalism. It uses simple fonts and limited tasteful graphics plenty of white space on the page attention to spelling, grammar, punctuation and the right choice of words. However, unlike the cover letter, don't personalize your written pitch. Avoid using the phrases I think or I want to accomplish. Write it in the present tense, for example, the project is an exciting exploration of college life. Some producers print their proposals in the landscape format, rather than in portrait. This is an approach that is easier to hold if you want to show your proposal while you're pitching it. Look for creative ways of infusing the pitch with your ideas, vision, and passion without overworking it.
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