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The Films of David Cronenberg

He entered the University of Toronto science faculty, but, after a year, switched to English language and literature, graduating in 1967. While at the university, he became interested in film and produced two shorts in 16 mm, Transfer and From the Drain. His first films in 35 mm were Stereo and Crimes of the Future, both shot in the late 1960s. In these works, Cronenberg established some of the themes and preoccupations that would characterize much of his later work.

Completion Agreement Standard Terms

Any distribution expenses, including costs incurred in meeting censorship or exhibitor requirements, or to make foreign language versions of the Film (dubbed, subtitled or otherwise) or any other versions other than the original English language version (unless included in the Budget). The Producer agrees not to expend Budget Funds or Completion Funds for the payment of Non-Budget Costs, and to pay all such Non-Budget costs from other funds.

Chapter Italian Neorealism

For the following summary of the history and style of Italian neorealism I have drawn upon a number of sources, including Peter Bondanella, Italian Cinema From Neorealism to the Present (New York Ungar, 1983), Bert Cardullo, What is Neorealism A Critical English Language Bibliography of Italian Cinematic Neorealism (Lanham, Md. University Press of America, 1991), David A. Cook, A History of Narrative Film (New York W. W. Norton, 1996), Pam Cook, ed., The Cinema Book A Complete Guide to Understanding the Movies (New York Pantheon, 1985), and Pierre Leprohon, The Italian Cinema, trans. Robert Greaves and Oliver Stalleybrass (New York Praeger, 1972).

Les Szekely Secrets Out Productions Cleveland OH

Les Szekely is a film and video producer director writer editor, as well as an actor and music composer. He has worked in both Hollywood and Cleveland, and is the founder of Secret's Out Productions, an independent production company. Les was a segment producer director writer for such shows as America's Funniest Home Videos, America's Funniest People (ABC), and On the Television (Nickelodeon Network). He won a National ACE Award and an Emmy Award for writing directing co-producing, Yes, This Is Comedy, a Mad TV-type sketch comedy show. As a filmmaker, Les wrote and directed Vampire Time Travelers, I Know What You Did in English Class, Night of the Living Date, and The Not-So-Grim Reaper. In addition, he co-produced Amazon Warrior and Merchants of Death, and starred in Bloodstream, Vampire Night, and Monsters.com. Most of these films are in worldwide distribution. Currently, Les hosts a radio talk show called B+ Moviemaking, which focuses on the art of making...

Remaking as textual category

Its earlier version, but (generally) pays adaptation fees to the copyright holder of the original film upon which it is based (in this example, Luc Besson's Nikita, 1990).86 Indeed, some producers of (foreign) originals, realising the direct financial gains to be made, are actively involved in the production of US remakes.87 For example, following an unsuccessful attempt to repackage a dubbed version of Les Visiteurs (1993) for an English language, multiplex audience, director Jean-Marie Poir extended the franchise (which included the sequel, Les Couloirs du temps Les Visiteurs II, 1998) through a 2001 French American remaking, Just Visiting (directed under the pseudonym Jean-Marie Gaubert).88

Remaking as industrial category

As in some approaches to film genre, remakes can be understood as industrial products, located in 'the material conditions of commercial filmmaking, where plots are copied and formulas forever reiterated'.16 For film producers, remakes are consistently thought to provide suitable models, and something of a financial guarantee, for the development of studio-based projects. In a commercial context, remakes are 'pre-sold' to their audience because viewers are assumed to have some prior experience, or at least possess a 'narrative image',17 of the original story - an earlier film, literary or other property - before engaging in its particular retelling.18 Remakes of cult movies such as King Kong (Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack, 1933 John Guillermin, 1976 Peter Jackson, 2005), Godzilla (Ishiro Honda, 1954 Roland Emmerich, 1998) and Planet of the Apes (Franklin J. Schaffner, 1968 Tim Burton, 2001) are revived through massive production budgets as cultural juggernauts, with strong...

Founders At Cbs Murrow and Godfrey

Murrow's biographers describe the roots of his verbal power in the story-telling traditions he absorbed growing up in Guildford County, North Carolina.8 The oral tradition was strong on both sides of the Murrow family. By many accounts, the person who had the most to do with molding Murrow's character and his ability as a speaker was his mother, Ethel Lamb Murrow, a strong-minded woman who instilled in her three sons a compulsion for hard work and a respect for the sounds and rhythms of the English language. ''At home, the boys had to read aloud from the Bible, a chapter every night. a first encounter with formal speech in the strong, rhythmic measures of the King James Version of the Bible.''9 Murrow's speech, like his mother's, never lost its Southern intonation and Spenserian quality. It was the kind of English that was spoken in Elizabethan times and that still survives in isolated cultural pockets of the South. The exact choice of words and their precise use, inverted phrases...

The Migrations of Glamour

The concept of glamour, of a particular look or style being the source of envy, aspiration and desire, only entered common usage during the twentieth century. A relatively new addition to the English language, its meaning in the eighteenth century was linked with magic, enchantment, necromancy or a sorcerer's spell. One of the earliest recorded uses was in 1721 in a Scottish verse 'When devils, wizards or jugglers deceive the sight, they are said to cast glamour o'er the eyes of the spectator' (Oxford English Dictionary 1933). The term was linked with the power of the occult, something with such a fascinating and attractive power that it could not be real (Tapert 1998). In Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (1962) the word is categorized with beauty, prestige and '. . . spell, charm, glamour, enchantment, cantrip, hoodoo, curse, evil eye, jinx, influence bewitchment, fascination' (1962 395). Linked primarily with feminine allure, narcissism and the rise of mass...

Spectacles and Spectres

Since its introduction into the English language from Old French in the fourteenth century, the word 'spectacle' (derived from Latin) has retained its original meaning of 'a show'. But not any old show. The term implies some organisation of the visual field that is out of the ordinary. Many of the debates and different conceptualisations of the term 'spectacle' turn on this relationship to, and conceptualisation of, the everyday or the norm. In the debased and overused lexicon of marketing today, the extraordinary qualities of a visual display are routinely promised as a means of filling our leisure time (and extracting our disposable income). In this conception, spectacle offers something wondrous and (often technologically) novel, dependent on an existing standard of 'ordinariness' to differentiate its own spectacular qualities while also returning us after the spectacle to that norm which has somehow been both marked by the 'rupture' of the spectacle and unchanged by it. The...

The First Decades Of Sound

Among the more skillful, versatile, and productive directors was Gustaf Molander (1888-1973), who had gained professional experience as a scriptwriter for Sjostrom and Stiller. Two Molander films, Swedenhielms (Swedenhielms Family, 1935), a comedy that exemplifies supposedly typical traits of the Swedish aristocracy, and Intermezzo (1936), a melodrama about an extramarital affair between a concert violinist and his accompanist, featured Gosta Ekman (1890-1938), the reigning matinee idol of the day, and a fresh discovery, Ingrid Bergman (1915-1982). The latter made several more films with Molander before leaving for Hollywood, the English-language remake of Intermezzo, titled Intermezzo A Love Story (1939), and an international career. During World War II, Molander skirted censorship restrictions aimed at preserving Sweden's neutrality by directing three films that condemned Nazi oppression. His sixty-two films over a four-decade period include three scripted by Ingmar Bergman.

Postcommunist Blues To The Present

Some degree of international success in this period was achieved by such films as Az en XX. szazadom (My Twentieth Century, Ildiko Enyedi, 1989), Gyerekgyilkossagok (Child Murders, Ildiko Szabo, 1993), Woyzeck (Janos Szasz, 1994), Szenvedely (Passion, Gyorgy Feh6r, 1998), Bolse Vita (Ibolya Fekete, 1996), and Csinibaba (Dollybirds, Peater Timaar, 1997), but the overall bleak and pessimistic tone of many of these films gives them little popular appeal. Istvan Szabo's Canadian co-production Sunshine (A Napfeny ize, 1999), an English-language film, won and was nominated for several European and American

F R Leavis And Questions Of Value

One cannot discuss criticism, its function within society, its essential aims and nature, without reference to the work of F. R. Leavis (1895-1978), perhaps the most important critic in the English language in any medium since the mid-twentieth century. Although his work today is extremely unpopular (insofar as it is even read), and despite the fact that he showed no interest in the cinema whatever, anyone who aspires to be a critic of any of the arts should be familiar with his work, which entails also being familiar with the major figures of English literature.

Early Canon Formation

The history of canon formation is a history of changing attitudes toward what is valuable in cinema. Early film theorists and historians who sought to establish cinema as a legitimate and unique art form had a vested interest in crowning the medium's masterpieces. Rudolph Arnheim and other theorists of the silent era argued that the most accomplished films moved beyond the recording capabilities of the medium, utilizing those tools specific to cinema, such as editing and cinematography, to represent the diegetic world in a stylized fashion. The drive to distinguish cinema from other art forms by emphasizing its transformative properties encouraged writers to describe film history as a journey toward artistic maturity marked by the development of expressive narrative and stylistic techniques. For example, in The Film Till Now (1930), the most influential of the early English-language film histories, Paul Rotha (1907-1984) identifies the 1920s as the height of film artistry,...

B London England February

Robin Wood is one of the most influential film critics to write in the English language. Brilliantly insightful and infuriatingly opinionated, Wood has spoken for a minority of critics in his attempt to bridge the gap between politically engaged criticism and questions of human value. Educated at Cambridge University in the early 1950s, Wood has taught film studies at universities in England and Canada, ultimately making his home in Toronto, where he has worked with an editorial collective to publish the journal CineAction since 1985.

Structure Of The Book

A note on one or two conventions and other choices about usage which we have adopted for this text. English language titles are given first (except where the meaning of the foreign title should be evident), as well as the original titles in most cases directors and dates are

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It bombed in the US and was re-released in October 1984 in the 229-minute version. It grossed a measly 5.3 million in the US, 2.5million from the awful initial version. In the UK it was cut by 16 seconds for violence by the British censors and rated a certificate 18, the replacement for the old X certificate (abolished in 1982). A video release in 1986 removed a further ten seconds. America was a disaster and is Leone's least profitable film. For the US network TV showing there was a 192-minute version prepared English-language DVD versions run at 222 minutes. In fact, the slated, chronologically edited print was the first version of the film I saw, in Liverpool in December 1989. It was far better than I was expecting from reviews, then raving about the 227-minute version. Even though some of the continuity is somewhat jumpy, it is still an absorbing, visually beautiful film. In Italy C'era una Volta in America was first screened in the Barberini cinema in Rome. It was distributed in...

The Conversation

Awards British Academy Awards (BAFTA) for Best Editing (Murch, Chew) and Best Soundtrack (Rochester, Boxer, Evoe, Murch), 1974 Cannes Film Festival Best Film, 1974 National Board of Review Awards for Best English-Language Film, Best Director, and Best Actor (Hackman), 1974 National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Director, 1974.


This feature requires some 40 megabytes of magnetic computer storage for every frame of 35mm film. One frame would use the entire hard-disk capacity of many popular personal computers. It's enough data to write some 8-10 million words in the English language. Remember, both the scanner and recorder can handle one frame of film in approximately three seconds.

Editors Note

Non-English language film titles are given in the original language or a transliteration of it, unless they are better known internationally by their English title. The country or countries where the film originated is provided along with the year it was registered and the director.

Academic Journals

Screen (begun in 1969), founded by the Society for Education in Film and Television, was noted by the mid-1970s for its important articles on realism, formalism and poststructuralism, theories of ideology, aesthetics, and approaches to semiotics and pyschoanalysis. The journal, which published the first English-language translations of key texts by important theorists including Christian Metz, Roland Barthes, and Bertolt Brecht, inspired publications such as The Australian Journal of Screen Theory (1976-1985) and indeed gave rise to the term ''screen theory.'' Cahiers du Cinema was the other major journal to have had a lasting impact on film studies. Established in 1951 by Andre Bazin, this French journal (available additionally in English for just twelve issues from 1966 to 1967), was responsible for publishing not just debates regarding the politique des auteurs, but crucial discussions on film editing and mise-en-scene. Its writers included Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard, and...

Scott Henderson

Expresses a desire for independence throughout the film in her choice of college, in her relationships with her peers and in her musical taste. Her social critique focuses on mainstream culture's patriarchal character. This is shown in a scene in an English class, where she challenges being given an assignment on Hemingway as an indication of the patriarchal nature of the course of study. It is also evident in Kat's home life, in which her overbearing father insists on her attending a college close to home, because he fears losing his daughter. The father's efforts to control his daughters' dating habits are the impetus for the narrative and serve to heighten the significance of the film's examination of the problem of patriarchal control. Kat's identification with women's rock music and rock performance is therefore bound up in these concerns. The first time she is seen at home, and in a scene in which her troubled relationship with her father is introduced, Kat is reading Sylvia...

The Sicilian Factor

Assimilation into American life came slowly for both sides of the family. In the film, Catherine tells about her father's taking an interpreter with him to his naturalization hearing because after thirty years in America, he still had little confidence in his English. The immigration officer expressed some dismay at his failure to learn the language of his adopted country after so many years. Martin the patriarch may not have been proficient, but he did know enough to realize that he had been insulted, and he was able to reply in the idiomatic English he had learned on the construction sites. For him, at any rate, in the closed world of Elizabeth Street and the even more closed world of his own apartment, the English language was superfluous.

What Is At Stake

This study focuses on English-language narrative cinema, primarily American but including a few British films. I suspect that many of my findings are applicable to all narrative features, but I will not make generalizations about other national cinemas without knowing the language as well as a native speaker. Not the least of the deleterious consequences of the traditional disregard of dialogue's importance is that film scholars have cavalierly assumed they could analyze films in languages they don't know.t

Jewish New York

Baruch Lumet's career provides a perfect example of the immigrant's movement from the ethnic neighborhood to the mainstream. Trained at the Warsaw Academy of Dramatic and Musical Arts, he debuted on the Polish stage in 1918, spent a brief time in London, and then moved to Philadelphia.2 At first he sought his livelihood in the thriving cultural world of Yiddish theater. By 1926, he began to work for Maurice Schwartz's Yiddish Art Theater in New York and soon after, the family took up residence on the Lower East Side. His was a familiar voice on Yiddish radio. Before many years had passed, Baruch Lumet had English-language roles on Broadway, toured Mexico and Canada, and after World War II became a pioneer in the new medium of television. He appeared in several of his son's films, most notably as Mendel, the dying father of Nazerman's mistress, in The Pawnbroker (1965). From 1953 to 1970 he served as director of the Dallas Institute of Performing Arts. He died in 1992. Sidney Lumet...

Arabs In Hollywood

The extent to which this stereotypical image of Arabs and the Arab world has influenced Western attitudes toward Arab cinema itself, even among film scholars, is a subject for further discussion. At a minimum, Arab cinema continues to be largely relegated to the margins of English-language film studies whatever scholarly work on Arab cinema does exist is disproportionate to this cinema's influence in the Arab world itself and in major areas of Africa and East Asia. Yet, since the 1990s, Western interest in films originating in Arab countries has increased. More than ever before, Arab films are making the rounds of film festivals and repertory or art cinemas in Europe and North America. Recently, the Palestinian filmmaker Hany Abu-Assad's (b. 1961) film Paradise Now (2005) won major festival awards including the Golden Globes (2006) and the Berlin festival (2005). The film was also nominated for Best Foreign Film at the American Academy Awards (2006). Along with this wider exposure,...

Film Noir

In 1946, French film critics coined the term film noir, meaning black or dark film, to describe a newly emergent quality in wartime Hollywood films. At that time, the term signified an unexpected strain of maturity in contemporary American film, marking the end of a creatively ossified era and the beginning of a bold new one. By the time the term achieved wide English language usage in the 1960s, however, it had come to mean dark Hollywood films of the past films whose era and style were no longer current. Despite such a slippage in definition, film noir remains arguably the most protean and influential of American film forms. It has demonstrated a limitless capacity for reinvention, has undergone major cycles of redefinition, and has analogues not only in other national cinemas but also in radio, television, theater, fiction, graphic novels, comic books, advertising, and graphic design. The term has moved beyond the domain of film discourse and has been used to describe narratives in...

Art Film Market

Largely shut out of the American market since the 1920s, foreign films did not really reach US theaters until after World War II. Before the war, foreign films played only in New York and in a few other major cities. After the war, they played in a growing number of art film theaters around the country and created a subindustry known as the art film market, which was devoted to the acquisition, distribution, and exhibition of foreign-language and English-language films produced abroad. Waves of imported feature films from Italy, France, Sweden, Britain, and Japan entered the country, represented by such classics as Roma, citta aperta (Open City, Roberto Rossellini, 1945), Les vacances de Monsieur Hulot (Mr. Hulot's Holiday, Jacques Tati, 1953), Det Sjunde inseglet (The Seventh Seal, Ingmar Bergman, 1957), Hamlet (Laurence Olivier, 1948), and Rashomon (Akira The art film market declined after 1969, as American films with adult themes targeted at the youth market, such as In the Heat of...

Guide To The Work

Within the main entries, the first mention of a film title is the film's original language title followed parenthetically by the American release title, the name of the director (if it is not mentioned in the text), and the year of the film's release. A title that has no English release title is translated parenthetically but not italicized. In subsequent mentions of non-English language titles within the same entry, the most well-known title is used. Also upon first mention, the names of historically important figures are followed parenthetically by the dates of birth and death.

Becoming Mr Cleaver

I may be John Carpenter at night but I'm Ward Cleaver during the day, jokes Les. The last film I did, I Know What You Did in English Class, is a film that took me the longest to make. Before that I'd shoot something, edit nonstop, twenty-four hours a day for a couple months. You can ask my lovely wife about the many dates we did not go on because of that. Once the kids came, a lightening bolt hit me and I encourage any filmmaker to get caught up in that spark. I almost missed my daughter's second birthday party because we were shooting a film and my wife said, 'Honey, I love you, but are you out of your mind Think about what you're doing.' I listened to her and thought about it and said, 'You know, you're absolutely right.' So I left shoot early. From that point on I've been the same ever since. Over the years, Les has made a number of low-budget comedic horrors, such as Vampire Time Travelers, The Not So Grim Reaper, Night of the Living Date, and I Know What You Did in English...

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