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Passion Blog Pro Review

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Passion Blog Pro Review Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Video Course
Author: Demetris Papadopoulos
Official Website: passionblogpro.com
Price: $47.00

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My Passion Blog Pro Review Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this ebook, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I bought a copy myself to figure out what all the fuss was about.

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Approaching Investors

Investors need to know at the offset that filmmaking is a gamble so your proposal should include a risk statement. An investor may be an entrepreneur willing to take a high level of financial risk if he or she believes in your project, the quality of the script, and the director and talent but of course does not want to simply throw money away. Having a realistic, reasonable budget and a marketing and distribution plan are keys to enticing investors. Well-researched comparisons to other films in the same budget and genre can also be a useful tool, as long as the comparisons are realistic.

Paramount And The Emergence Of The Hollywood Studio System

Paramount Pictures was created in 1916 through the merger of two prominent film production companies, the Famous Players Film Company and the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, and a nationwide film distributor, Paramount. Famous Players was created in 1912 by Adolph Zukor, a Hungarian immigrant who started in the penny arcade and nickelodeon business in New York in the early 1900s. Based in New York City, Famous Players enjoyed early success producing and distributing multi-reel ( feature-length ) films and developing a star-driven market strategy, and soon the fledgling company was competing with the likes of Fox and Universal. Meanwhile, three young filmmaking entrepreneurs, Jesse Lasky (1880-1958), Samuel Goldfish (1882-1974) (later Goldwyn), and Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959), launched a production company in Hollywood in 1913 and scored

Early Motion Pictures

Beginning in the 1830s and continuing throughout the century, series photography generated early interest in the possibilities of motion pictures. Inventors and entrepreneurs quickly recognized the entertainment value of simulating the movement of photographs, such that by the middle of the nineteenth century a variety of peephole toys and coin machines were appearing in arcade parlors throughout the United States and Europe. These pre-cinematic mechanisms were crucial in the technological leap from still photography to motion pictures projected on big screens for paying audiences. One of the earliest toys was the Zoetrope, a handheld spinning wheel with a series of photographs on the inside, visible to the viewer by thin slits along the top. The Mutoscope, a coin machine found in arcades, enabled viewers to see a series of photo cards flip by at the turn of a crank. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931), inventor and entrepreneur, was in many ways an unlikely but important figure in the...

Titles and Job Descriptions of TV Producers

Unlike other areas in television, such as writing, directing, or acting, the producer is seldom covered by a union because the producer is generally in charge of the project. Although the Producers Guild of America offers various benefits to an experienced producer, its parameters aren't currently comparable to those in the traditional unions. It is only in the recent past that universities and independent film and television schools have offered courses in the arts and skills of producing. Producing has historically attracted the entrepreneurs and the rebels, motivating people who tend to think outside the box to venture into the real world and do it.

Exploitation In The Video

Lloyd Kaufman and Michael Herz's Troma, Fred Olen Ray's American Independent Productions, and Corman's Corcorde-New Horizons initially concentrated on theatrical releases. But by the late 1980s video and cable television proved to be greener pastures and theatrical releases became token efforts. Full Moon Entertainment, Tempe Entertainment, Seduction Cinema, and other companies were formed specifically to make films for the direct-to-video market. Most of these companies depended on the loyalty of the fans of low-budget genre films, whether horror, science fiction, splatter, or erotic thrillers. Fans have gotten into the act as well, picking up cameras and making their own films, hawked in the pages of fanzines, at conventions, and on the Internet. Other entrepreneurs, who scour old film depots and vaults, have released hundreds of old exploitation movies to new generations on videotape and DVD. It would appear that as long as audiences will search for a cheap thrill, there will be...

Latinos And Hollywood Film

In the first few decades after the birth of American film in the late 1890s, a few Latinos in fact were involved in filmmaking or appeared as actors in films. These individuals were all from economically privileged backgrounds and had predominantly Spanish ancestry, however. In this time period there was no centralized film industry rather, filmmaking consisted of entrepreneurs scattered around the country making silent motion pictures. A few Americans of Latino descent who made early silent films in this capacity included the actresses Myrtle Gonzalez (1891-1918) and Beatriz Michelena (18901942), who also produced the adventure films she starred in. As a small number of film production companies rose to dominate the industry in the 1910s and 1920s, Latinos working behind the scenes in film production virtually disappeared, however. They did not reappear in substantial numbers until the 1970s.

The Truth about Self Employment

For those who choose to make a production company a full-time venture, it helps to understand some of the myths versus realities involved. I have discovered that people who are employed by others confuse self-employed with comfortably unemployed, as if we have all the time There are plenty of other myths surrounding self-employment, including . Self-employment is too risky if you don't have a lot of cash at the outset. . Self-employment causes people to become very isolated. . Only a lucky few succeed at self-employment.

How Much Should I Invest in My Company

You need to understand what your costs are, advises accountant Larry Lundin. Pay attention to the bottom line, because that will help determine your success or failure. I often see people start a business with a lot of drive, and after a year or so they lose sight of the light at the end of the tunnel and get burned out and then it's really easy to let things slip. But if you keep track of your books and watch your incoming and outgoing finances, you start to see a pattern that gives you valuable information. One of the biggest mistakes is not paying attention to costs and thinking you've got money because everyone's just paid you but you haven't really looked at your outgoing expenses.

Partnerships In Early Cinema And The Studio

From the very inception of the film industry, from the ranks of relatively anonymous individuals plying their respective trades, certain creative collectives emerged that represent film history's most exemplary partnerships. Beginning in the mid-1890s, groundbreaking entrepreneurial inventors Auguste (1862-1954) and Louis Lumi re (1864-1948) in France, and William K. L. Dickson (1860-1935) and Thomas Edison (18471931) in America formed partnerships to develop and exploit a system for photographing and exhibiting motion pictures. The Vitagraph Company, the most important of the pre-1910 American studios, was the first to build up a stock company of players and directors, including Florence Turner, Maurice Costello, and John Bunny. In 1911 Gaston M li s (1843-1915) emigrated from France to Texas to form his Star Ranch stock company for the production of westerns, including The Immortal Alamo (1911), the first film ever made on that subject. D. W. Griffith (1875-1948) formed his own...

Independence In Classical Hollywood

Making movies for small and specific target audiences. For example, as early as 1915, Noble Johnson's (18811978) Lincoln Film Company produced films made by and for African American audiences. These so-called ''race films,'' like those directed by the entrepreneurial auteur Oscar Micheaux (1884-1951) (who went door to door to raise money to shoot his movies), played in select urban venues and on the ''chitlin circuit'' (venues in the Southeast where daily life featured a strict racial segregation). Another alternative independent cinema, Yiddish films, emerged to serve the many Eastern European immigrants in the urban northeast. Featuring dialogue in Yiddish, a language that combines elements of German and Hebrew and was spoken by many firstgeneration Jewish immigrants, these films had their own stars and exhibition venues. Over forty Yiddish language ''talkies'' were made between 1930 and 1950.

An Independent Voice Bill Moyers

Murrow had found it increasingly difficult to explore controversial themes on commercial television so, too, did Moy-ers. Murrow moved into government service. Moyers had another avenue in the early 1970s, and a standing in public life that allowed him to take a more entrepreneurial approach. The foundation support and funding he elicited in the 1970s and early 1980s gave him a degree of freedom few broadcasters possessed, and he was constantly working to consolidate his position of independence from both network and governmental control. Never a ''talk-show host'' in conventional terms, he produced some of the most interesting talk of the 1970s and 1980s on television. Over time, it became increasingly apparent that the shows Moyers produced were a significant body of work. It added up six hundred hours of programming (filmed and videotaped conversations and documentary interviews) between 1971 and 1989 alone, coming to about thirty-three hours of programming a...

Collaboration Agreement

2.1 Chepil shall not use or exploit or authorize or permit the use or exploitation in any manner or medium of any materials used in the Book or Screenplay or in any work or production based upon or derived from the Book or Screenplay ( Production ) without the prior written consent of Frumkes and Simonelli. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall be deemed to limit Chepil's right to use or authorize or permit the use other than in the Book or Screenplay of Chepil's physical description, date and place of birth, years of employment by the New York Police Department and such other similar autobiographical facts, the use of which will not be likely to diminish the unique appeal of, or interfere with the market for, the Book, Screenplay or Production. You can see the necessity for this. Word of the project gets out . . . other entrepreneurs decide to do something similar . . . Bill gets involved with them . . . a lot of our valuable time goes down the toilet. Not that Roc and...

Lawrence P Lundin CPA Chicago

Lawrence (Larry) Lundin, CPA, has been handling the accounting needs of Chicago area business and individuals for nearly twenty-five years. He joined Gerald M. Schechter & Company in 1979, becoming a partner in 1983 and remaining with the company until its dissolution in 1997. At that time he joined the ranks of small business owners and started his own firm, focusing on family owned businesses. Larry's clients range from construction and trade industries to retail and service ventures, with a special niche for creative entrepreneurs, such as media production and dance companies as well as theme restaurants. Larry is a graduate of DePaul University and lives in Chicago with his wife, Mary, and his son, Patrick.

Reconceptualizing National Cinemas

The other extreme of the post-national national cinema would be a commercial producer's perspective, who like many a European entrepreneur, will utilize to the full the EU provisions for subsidies, tax-breaks and other community measures designed to minimize his business risk, in this case, of making films for an unpredictable internal market and with few export sales opportunities other than into the world's niche markets, namely art houses, public service television, and DVD-sales. Films produced in this way, i.e., European in their legal status, insofar as they enjoyed forms of subsidy and are bound to the contractual obligations that flow from them, would normally be co-productions, and have the country codes of several states in their production credits. Lars von Trier's EuRopa, for instance, has five of these (Denmark, Sweden, Germany, France, Switzerland), Kieslowski's ThRee ColouRs Blue has three (France, Poland, Switzerland), and Chocolat, set in France and directed by a...

The Business of Starting a Company

An S corporation offers limited liability for the corporate shareholder, but you pay income taxes on the same basis as a sole proprietor or partnership. In comparison, C corporation is taxed on business profits, and the owners pay individual income tax only on money they draw from the corporation as a salary, bonus, or dividend. Many entrepreneurs are now opting for limited liability companies (LLC). As with S corporations, incomes from these companies are passed through the owners and reported on the owners' personal income tax returns, thus eliminating the double taxation of a company and individual.

Sub State and Supra State Allegiances

The hyphenation of identity produced by immigration, migration and exile makes those affected by it appear in stark contrast to another group of hyphenated nationals, hyphenated at the supra-state level. These are the cosmopolitan elites, i.e., intellectuals, businessmen, entrepreneurs, financiers, politicians, academics, artists, architects, who move freely between London, Paris and New York, or between Berlin, Milan and Warsaw. While their number may be comparatively small, their influence and role in the world economy is, however, so significant that they are able to set major trends in urban developments, in the labour market and employment, as well as in the spheres of entertainment and leisure. Their activities and movements, thus, also contribute to the social crisis of the nation-states, when we think of them as employees of multinational companies, for instance, which operate as states within the state, and are able to

Founders At Cbs Murrow and Godfrey

Now (1951-1958), Person to Person (1953-1959), and Small World (19581960), he showed that a single host could pass back and forth among three kinds of talk show and do justice to each. Finally, he exemplified the multiple roles of the talk-show host as character, creator, star-commodity, and entrepreneur.

Development Of The Motion Picture Camera

By the late 1880s numerous scientists and inventors from around the world were working to develop a camera that could record motion. In 1891 American inventor Thomas A. Edison (1847-1931) applied for a patent for a motion picture system developed primarily by his laboratory assistant, William Kennedy Laurie (W. K. L.) Dickson (1860-1935). The system featured a camera called the Kinetograph (from the Greek for ''motion recorder'') and a viewer called the Kinetoscope (from the Greek for ''motion viewer''). The Kinetograph used flexible celluloid film that had been introduced to the market in 1889 by American businessman and entrepreneur George Eastman (1854-1932). Dickson and Edison included an intermittent mechanism in the camera so that each frame would stop before the lens long enough for the shutter to open and expose the film, and perforations were added to the filmstrip to ensure that the film would be advanced by regular intervals. The intermittent, or stop-motion, device and the...

Thomas H Ince b Thomas Harper Ince Newport Rhode Island November d on or about November

Thomas Ince wielded enormous influence over the Hollywood studio system, particularly the factory-based mode of production that came to characterize it. Ince wrote, directed, and produced scores of top features from 1914 until his untimely death in 1924, but his most important contributions involved not individual films but the filmmaking process. More than any other Hollywood pioneer, Ince anticipated and effectively defined the roles of film producer and production executive during the nascent studio era. And as a one-man writing staff who supervised every stage of production and eventual release, Ince also was a consummate creative producer and innovative entrepreneur who maintained a steady output of high-quality, commercially successful films. In the process, he refined a number of key aspects of the emerging system, from the shooting script as a blueprint for production to the centralized studio system and the assembly-line construction of multiple films.

Arnold Schwarzenegger b Thal Styria Austria July

A bodybuilder, entrepreneur, and movie star, Arnold Schwarzenegger is associated with the box-office prominence of spectacular action cinema through the 1980s and into the 1990s. Schwarzenegger achieved fame first as a bodybuilder, appearing in the documentary Pumping Iron (1977). From his early leading roles in comic book, fantasy muscle movies, notably Conan the Barbarian (1982) and Conan the Destroyer (1984), Schwarzenegger demonstrated a capacity for physical acting. His key success came with The Terminator (1984), a noirish science-fiction film in which he plays a cyborg sent from the future to kill the unwitting mother of a rebel leader yet to be born. Playing off the performer's machine body and robotic delivery, the film ensured his iconic status. With minimal dialogue, Schwarzenegger's part focused on the formation of an image, one defined by his physical presence.

The Institutional Coordinates Of The Metatextual Persona

Stars are no longer employees (on a freelance, let alone fixed-term, basis), but stakeholders in the enterprise that manages their career (Baker and Faulkner, 1991). Within any product cycle the star has a direct commercial interest in claiming a deep existential commitment to a given role. et, the star as entrepreneur must be ready to switch roles as business opportunities arise. Hence the paradoxical desire to be protean and yet quintessential in every role. The globalisation of the market for the star's services exacerbates this process, because claims of existential commitment multiply as films and product open in different markets and address different cultural constituencies. 'Big in Japan' is not the same semantically as 'Big in America'. This can require a higher level of abstraction

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Film Production Company

The enormity of the information I had to learn was a huge challenge, reflects Emma Farrell of Six Foot High Films in Brighton, England. After spending my life in education I was suddenly in the business world and had to learn about health and safety, accounts, VAT, and the Inland Revenue very technical administrative things. But looking back on the fears I faced, I think I was able to do it because I didn't really know about the enormities I was undertaking. It's the entrepreneurial spirit of going blindly forward and saying yay, I'm going to start my own production company and make films If I had actually known what it was going to involve I might have been more circumspect.

Television The Pop Industry And The Hollywood Musical

A significant enabling factor in this trend was the growing influence of independent production companies, both within the US film industry and the record industry. In these industries, the exploitation of the independents' entrepreneurial responsiveness to the teenage market was used by the majors to reduce risk at a time when it must have appeared to them that the established rule-book for success had been suddenly thrown away. At the same time and in a similar way, the emerging power of the television networks in the US was to an extent dependent on successes developed in local television.

Diana Sole Motion Masters Charleston WV

Diana is a veteran of the communications industry. A Marshall University Graduate, she has been president of MotionMasters since 1988 and prior to that served as its vice president and executive producer. With more than twenty years in the industry, she has produced hundreds of videos and commercials used to educate, motivate, and persuade. Prior to joining MotionMasters in 1984, Diana worked as a public relations account executive at Charles Ryan Associates, as promotional public services director at WVAH-TV, and as a news producer at WOWK-TV. She served as the communications director and spokesperson for the 1996 campaign of former West Virginia Governor Cecil H. Underwood. In addition to numerous awards received by MotionMasters, Diana was a 1997 recipient of the State Journal's Who's Who in West Virginia Business award and was the winner of a 2001 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. www.motionmasters.com

The Impure Cinema New Hollywood

Fonda and Redford, born in New York and Santa Monica, respectively, rose to prominence on the carefree side of Cold War Culture (which was belatedly memorialised in Barefoot in the Park), came of age during the incipient crisis of the mid-Sixties (The Chase) and, after several detours, continued down a path of social awareness (Downhill Racer, Tell Them Willie Boy's Here, They Shoot Horses, Don't They ) and antiwar protests. Acting as figureheads of the left, they enabled several analyses of social and screen stereotypes (The Candidate, Klute, Tout va bien), but stopped short of any decisive, radical step, mellowing into a kind of critical movie star liberalism (All the President's Men, Three Days of the Condor, Brubaker, Julia, Coming Home, The China Syndrome). They fostered the re-romanticisation of outsider myths (The Electric Horseman) and finally became more occupied with preserving their youth, disciplining the body, consulting on media industry matters and such pursuits as...

Capitalism of Social Responsibility

Spike Lee, like Fort Greene itself, remains a bundle of contradictions, as do his films. He stands at the confluence of many social currents. This central location provides a vantage point that allows him to be the perfect participant-observer. He is proud of his tradition, aware of its weaknesses as well as its strengths, and strives to be a catalyst for change. He recognizes the debilitating side of racism and poverty and does not shy away from portraying it honestly in his films. At the same time, he keeps alive the dream that with hard work, life can get better. He remains firmly rooted in the black community but does not hesitate to collaborate with the majority community as an equal partner. Although only marginally religious at best, he follows the Protestant ethic of self-reliance and personal responsibility with a conviction that borders on devotional. In the midst of grim realities, he finds room for comedy. After his considerable successes as an artist and entrepreneur, he...

The Reasons Behind The Success

Furthermore, and because it did not possess a studio lot, UA was the first financier distributor to encourage production outside the US. Like the other distributors, UA had blocked or frozen capital in several European countries, a result of the protective measures these countries had taken to encourage domestic film production. Runaway productions (as American productions made outside the US came to be known) gave an opportunity to a financier distributor to utilise those frozen funds by re-investing them in production in the same country, while partnerships with local entrepreneurs, use of local tax loopholes, and considerably cheaper (than Hollywood) labour costs could bring budgets down. Very soon the benefits of runaway production were recognised by the rest of the majors. By 1959 there were 32 US pictures being filmed in Italy, 28 in France and 20 in Britain, while in the following year 40 per cent of all films financed by the ex-studios were shot outside the US.48 It was clear...

Film Exhibition And Theater Ownership

Perhaps most successful among this first generation of exhibition entrepreneurs who would later shape the Hollywood studio system was Marcus Loew (1870 1927), who began his career running arcades and nickelodeons in New York City. To guarantee the regular supply of films for his theaters, Loew acquired production and distribution companies and in 1924 formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), a vertically integrated company that produced and distributed films as well as owning and operating a chain of first-run theaters in major metropolitan areas. Controlling a significant part of the exhibition market was an essential strategy not

The Corman Connection

Ment and even exuberance that existed in this domain, her essay soon tracks down this most improbable source of the New Hollywood, geographically much closer to hand, and aesthetically more subterranean than that of European art cinema. At the centre is not an auteur-artist, but an entrepreneur, not a single masterpiece, but a stream of low-budget B-pictures, made at the margins of the studio system, but nevertheless mimicking it made not on the expensive, labour-intensive real-estate of Culver City or Burbank, but on abandoned industrial terrain and disused railroad property behind Venice Beach. In other words, even though Corman did not exactly embody the European concept of the auteur, any more than he was an avant-garde artist, his operation was such a vibrant and improbable hybrid that the Corman connection may be the closest the 1970s came to supplying an authentically American pedigree for the auteur theory as it 'went West' and found itself practically and unselfconsciously...

Photographer Filmmaker Artist Auteur

So what kind of film director was Van der Keuken Although it may seem as if the still photographer and the filmmaker were forever competing with each other, he knew how to catch the instant (the gift of the photographer), while making us feel how this instant belonged in a continuum, a movement, a process. Consider a still that he took on holiday in Spain (Sierra Terade, Andalusia 2000), and which he captioned for his monthly picture column (From the Life of a Small Self-Employed), a task he fulfilled for nearly thirty years for the film magazine Skrien. It shows a bend in the road, cut into rocks and is taken from the slope of a mountain. The caption reads The spirit of Hitchcock has just passed and disappeared around the corner. But in his absence he still commands the scene. Homage to a master of montage from another master of montage, Van der Keuken sees a view and sees the movement in it, he sees a view and sees the fiction in it.

In Praise of Pilot Fish

Great White Shark Jaws

As an alternative (or sub-category) of post-Fordism, economists like Storper and neo-Marxists like Asu Aksoi and Kevin Robins have identified a two-tier industrial dualism, where the independents or small-scale entrepreneurs act as both 'shock absorbers' and 'pilot fish',17 which corresponds roughly to the push-pull model I mentioned earlier and is reminiscent of the relation between the hackers in the earlier years of the computer industry, whose attacks on IBM accidentally or strategically helped 'debug' the corporate giant's software. Applied to the film industry of the late 1960s and 1970s, the pilot fish model would specify that the old studios new corporate con-

Beginnings And Landmarks

Domestic film production activity in several Arab countries other than Egypt remained limited and sporadic until they gained their independence in the period between the early 1940s and the early 1960s. During the colonial period, film production was mostly attributable to the initiative of ambitious young artists and entrepreneurs who were enthused about cinema and the possibility of making quick profits. In 1928 Al Mutaham al bari (The Innocent Victim) became the first Syrian feature-length fiction film. Based on real events, it tells the story of a band of thieves who spread havoc across Damascus. Its producers also created a film production company, Hermon Film. Despite the film's commercial success, the budding Syrian film industry nearly died out owing to the arrival of sound and the ability of Egyptian film to streamline and diversify its mass production. In Lebanon cinema did not come into existence until the early 1960s, although, as in Syria, attempts at filmmak

Oscar Micheaux b Metropolis Illinois January d March

Oscar Micheaux

Born in a small town in southern Illinois to a schoolteacher mother and an agriculturist father, the influence of his parentage can be seen in themes that would emerge in his films the importance of landownership, an appreciation for those that work the land, and the value of education. In 1910 he became a homesteader in South Dakota. His skills as an entrepreneur were revealed when he prospered as a novelist, selling his works first to his fellow South Dakotans, white farmers whose land surrounded his own, and later nationally. His third novel, The Homesteader (1917), attracted the interest of the Los Angeles based Lincoln Motion Picture Company, which wanted to adapt it into a film. Micheaux agreed, under the stipulation that he be hired to direct. When Lincoln refused, he founded the Micheaux Film and Book Company, which would later grow to include distribution offices in three locations Chicago Roanoke, Virginia and Beaumont, Texas. His first film, the first feature film directed...

Starting Your Own Production Company

Do you have the right personality Some people are happiest when they can work within the comfortable structure of an existing company. Others like to set their own deadlines and goals. Examine your own personality traits, and ask yourself if you've honestly got the motivation and energy to be self-employed. Consider taking on a partner whose strengths and character work well with yours, or who is adept in areas you're not, like administration or pitching or budgeting. Sometimes a partner can come in with funds and specific abilities, but if there isn't a positive chemistry between the two of you, it's seldom worth the trade-off. Taxes Depending on the company's structure, its owner could be responsible for withholding money from an employee's wages for state and federal income taxes and Social Security insurance, known as FICA. If you're self-employed, you pay your own FICA. Businesses are required by the state to pay unemployment insurance in some cases, as well as state and federal...

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

Snorting and LSD trips to the hippy generation. In tune with the new entrepreneurial spirit of the counter-culture, the film cost only 501,000 to make and grossed 19.1 million in rentals. In Britain it presented an ideal lifestyle to young people who yearned for something beyond the materialism of cosy suburbanism. The lifestyle portrayed, of young, rootless bikers on a quest travelling south through America's badlands was immensely appealing. The fringed buckskin jacket worn by Dennis Hopper was an important feature of counter-culture wear. Inspired by native American prototypes, it was used to great effect on stage at Woodstock by Roger Daltry of The Who, and worn by David Crosby of Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young. It also looked great when riding a motorcycle, the fringes blowing in the wind from your outstretched arms. Jackets in this style were available in Britain on a mass-market basis from Lewis Leathers, based in London. It was the motorcycles that made the biggest impact in...

Prominent Stage And Screen Artists

A century of theater-film interaction has seen many stage-trained directors, writers, and performers whose motion pictures bear the traces of their theatrical experience and sensibilities. In the silent period, David Wark Griffith quit the life of an itinerant player to score a spectacular success in the burgeoning film industry with smash hits The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Way Down East (1920) (both based on stage plays) in America. Mauritz Stiller (1883-1928) and Victor Sjostrom (1879-1960) quit the stage to make popular films like Erotikon (1920) and Korkarlen (The Phantom Carriage, 1921), respectively, for the Svenskfilmindustri in Sweden. Maurice Tourneur (1876-1961) left the French independent theater entrepreneur Andr Antoine (1858-1943) to come to America and direct the Mary Pickford vehicles The Poor Little Rich Girl (1917) and The Pride of the Clan (1917). After working with Max Reinhardt's (18731943) Deutsches Theater, Ernst Lubitsch (1892-1947) emigrated to America...

Formation Of The Film Star System In America

When film and cinema technologies first appeared in Europe and the United States in the mid-1890s, film was sold to consumers on the technological effect of moving images rather than the content of what those images represented. Consequently, the first entrepreneurs who aimed to exploit the commercial potential of the new medium saw its value as an instrument of technological innovation rather than as a new performance medium. In this commercial context, film acting remained an amateur or semiprofessional occupation. American theater already had an established star system, but the nascent film industry saw no immediate need to cultivate and promote stars. Frequently early cinema would see technicians or amateurs performing in films, although some professional theater actors did venture into acting for the camera. Until industrialization, the volume of film production was insufficient to provide actors with regular employment and film acting was regarded merely as a means for...

Dialogue And Character

A very different type of sequence establishes character but does not provide as clear a sense of the dialogue's role in its establishment. In Robert Altman's McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), we are introduced to gambler John McCabe (Warren Beatty) as he enters the small mining town of Presbyterian Church. He takes off his coat and searches for the bar. He is dressed differently than the others in the bar. In the first scene in the bar, there is a dialogue exchange. The dialogue is neither textured nor localized it's about the price of liquor and the price of playing a card game. The goal of the scene is to position McCabe among the town's occupants as a negotiator and as something of an entrepreneur. The scene establishes this.

Projection Technologies

Since the earliest days of film, film entrepreneurs have struggled with different ways of exhibiting films. Projection refers to the process whereby photographed images are projected on a screen (and thus enlarged) so that their rapid consecutive appearance creates the illusion of movement through persistence of vision (and or via the phi-phenomenon). It was the Lumi re brothers - whose ownership of a factory manufacturing photographic materials was no doubt a great help - who developed the projection system which immediately spread all over the world. The remarkable feature of the system was its simplicity and compactness the same basic hand-cranked motor served to operate both the camera and the projector, which formed a portable unit. The same system could also be adapted for developing and printing the film.

Substitutes For The Saloon

Like vaudeville entrepreneurs such as Proctor, those associated with the film industry had begun to suggest even before the mayoral hearing that moving pictures counteracted the deleterious effects of the saloon. Moving Picture World suggested in mid-1908 that moving picture shows are doing temperance work quietly furthermore, Men who formerly were rarely seen on the streets in company with their wives and children have come to the practice of taking their family for an hour almost nightly to the five cent shows. 66 Views and Film Index similarly suggested that nickelodeons keep men out of saloons. 67 Likewise, the summary of the report undertaken by the Women's Municipal League and the People's Institute in early 1908 praised nickelodeons as a family theater distinct from the penny arcade that is like the saloon from which the family has stayed away. 68 The head of the Police Censorship Board in Chicago stated, Emerging in mid-1908 and running through to the teens, the suggestions...

Johnny Carson

The turning point for Johnny Carson as talk-show host and entrepreneur took place in 1967, right at the beginning of the challenges that were mounted against him as ''king of late night.'' As opposition to the Vietnam War began to mount, and as the culture wars flared, Carson was engaged in his own battles with NBC executives. Up to this time Carson's network salary had been quite substantial, almost three-quarters of a million dollars a year. Out of that amount, however, he had to pay salaries not only to his personal staff but also to a number of other Tonight show staffers.18 His offices and dressing room were small and shabby, ''just a little bigger than closets,''19 one secretary recalled, and more importantly, Carson did not make the larger financial decisions that affected his show. NBC owned the show and called the shots.

Silent Cinema

As soon as the technology of cinema reached Mexico City in 1896, Mexican entrepreneurs were shooting their own versions of the Lumi re brothers' ''documentary views'' and exhibiting them in theatrical venues to upper-class audiences and in hastily erected tents in isolated villages spread out around the vast rural expanse of Mexico. Mexican film historians have remarked on the itinerant nature of these first film entrepreneurs who traveled across the nation to bring this new cinema of attractions to the Mexican people.

Early History

Though these exhibition records in Korea are relatively well documented, complications cloud the exact exhibition date of the first Korean film. Japanese colonialism, which began in Korea in 1910, contributed to the loss of records of early Korean films (including the disappearance of all Korean narrative films made before 1943). Many films made in Korea during the colonial period, which lasted thirty-five years, were financed, supervised, and distributed by Japanese entrepreneurs and personnel. Strict film censorship, enacted in 1926, also required every film to obtain approval from the Japanese authorities before it could be screened in Korea. With one notable exception (Tansongsa, which still remains in business), all of the successful theaters in Seoul were also owned by the Japanese during the first half of the twentieth century.

Well Laid Plans

I definitely think planning is an issue and the scary thing you hear when you start a business is that you should do a business plan, says Larry. You'll look at these business plans out there that are an inch thick and done by an MBA and you're going, 'I can't do that and I won't even think about it.' I always tell people a business plan can start out small and simple. It can just be a notebook where you start putting your ideas before you start your business. It might include your mission and what you plan to do, but a business plan should also get into projections. Here's where I think our sales or revenue is going to come from. Here's where I project our revenue to be the first month, three months, six months from now. So planning is key.

Self Distribution

By far the most ambitious option for selling your project involves distributing it yourself. It can be time-consuming, and it requires not only an entrepreneurial mindset but also an initial startup fund, research, and infinite belief in your project. But if you can navigate the duplication,

Role Reversal

Victor Victoria is the story of a young performer, Victoria (Julie Andrews) who is not very successful in 1930s Paris until she meets a gay performer, Toddy (Robert Preston), who suggests that she would improve her career if she pretended to be a man who pretended to be a female performer. She follows his advice, pretends to be a Polish count, and under Toddy's tutelage, she is an instant success. An American nightclub entrepreneur, King Marchand (James Garner), sees her perform and is very taken by her performance and by her female stage persona until he discovers that she is Victor. He doesn't believe that she is a man and tries to prove that she really is a woman.

Celebrity Nudes

Entertainment industry has always quickly adopted new media technologies, and the internet has proved no exception. Pornography has become one of the most prevalent forms of electronic commerce and a channel for sexual entrepreneurship (Lane, 2000). Possibly more than any other type of entertainment content, porn seems most appropriate for taking advantage of the distribution channels offered by the internet. Images can be easily distributed across borders in ways that escape national censorial frameworks, and, without the linguistic barriers of television or film, pornography is not subject to the same cultural discount as these media. Popular adoption of the computer as a domestic technology has allowed direct access to porn in the private confines of the home. With an over-abundance of images and easy access, the internet is close to representing what Laurence O'Toole describes as the pornutopian fantasy of 'sex now and without complication or issue no headache, no limitations of...

Moral Advances

Let me turn now from these questions of regulatory discourses and practices to consider the response of the beleaguered film industry, asking three simple but important questions that will guide the rest of this chapter how did the film industry respond to elite concerns about cinema and to the regulatory strategies of elite groups Why did it respond in this way And, most important, what effects did this process of interaction between elite groups and the film industry have on the shaping of cinema 85 Let us start again with the National Board of Censorship, for as the above has suggested, an industrial self-regulation alongside progressive or Arnoldian elites was a central strategy in the transformation of the cultural and social status of cinema, a dance of inter-legitimation that lent to the film industry moral legitimacy because of the social prestige and cultural status of the board members and that lent social purpose to those members.86 A modification of film content was...

Music In Silent Film

Initially, accompanists, left to their own devices and untrained in their craft, improvised. Therefore the quality of musical accompaniment varied widely. The single most important device in the standardization of film music was the cue sheet, a list of musical selections fitted to the individual film. The most sophisticated of them contained actual excerpts of music timed to fit each scene and cued to screen action to keep the accompanist on track. As early as 1909, Edison studios circulated cue sheets for their films. Other studios, trade publications, and entrepreneurs began doing the same. Musical encyclopedias appeared, containing vast inventories of music, largely culled from the classics of nineteenth-century western European art music and supplemented by

Reforming Cinema

Lawyers for the film industry, film industry entrepreneurs, and sympathetic reformers opposed these familiar arguments about cinema and children in various ways by calling for a form of censorship similar to the one exercised in Chicago,4 by suggesting that nickelodeons provided the moral and educational uplifting of the poor, and by suggesting that nickelodeons effectively countered the deleterious effects of the rotten saloon, forcing the closure of saloons and providing safe and respectable family theatre. 5 Speaking to this latter point, the lawyer for the film exhibitors at the hearing suggested that the Sunday opening of nickelodeons meant that many a former drunkard now spent that day in such shows with his fam-ily. 6 Likewise, a supervisor of the Juvenile League observed, Years ago, the man was in the rum shop on Sunday night. Where do you find him now Side by side with his children witnessing a moving picture show. 7 Looking to respond to widely articulated concerns about the...

Film Fights

Looking for a way to sidestep a ban on the exhibition of films showing the African American boxer Jack Johnson's 1910 world-title fight against the white boxer Jim Jeffries in the states of Arkansas and Tennessee, entrepreneurs devised a clever plan to show the film on a barge midstream of the Mississippi River, literally in between states and so on territory claimed to be outside the jurisdiction of the two state governments.1 In the event, police officers ignored the constitutionally correct claims that navigable streams were outside the jurisdiction of state authority and boarded the barge to stop the projection of the film and, specifically, of the shocking images of Johnson knocking down the previously undefeated Jeffries and winning the fight.2 Liminal or heterotopic spaces such as boats in between states were clearly not beyond the purview of an intensified governmental surveillance, as troublesome films and, with them, cinema more generally were increasingly brought into the...


The first thirty years of theater-film interaction may be conveniently divided into three periods. In the first, roughly 1896-1907, pioneering filmmakers in America and Europe borrowed liberally from vaudeville acts, operas, dramas, and magic shows for their peep show and nickelodeon shorts. In the second, 1908-1915, filmmakers and theatrical entrepreneurs collaborated in translating famous plays and their players into feature-length theatrical films, commonly called ''photoplays.'' (A ''the-

Early Cinema

Emerging at the tail end of the nineteenth century, cinema owed its existence as a technological invention to key developments in motion study and optics, and, as a visual novelty to traditions of screened entertainment. The medium would soon shed its affiliation with science when its potential for widespread commercial success became more apparent, facilitating its entry into the mainstream of twentieth-century popular culture. Even so, cinema's earliest years were marked by a variety of representational tendencies and viewing contexts whose diversity would diminish once commercial imperatives imposed themselves more fully. Had cinema proved less successful, it might have enjoyed freedom from borrowed aesthetic conventions somewhat longer than it did. But by the first years of the new century, as films became longer and their content incorporated story material with greater regularity, the potential for the cinema to rival stage-based forms and generate greater profit attracted...


Form and signals metamorphosis as the core language of animated stories. Inevitably, though, it is the US tradition that defines the form in the public imagination, beginning with cartoon versions of comic strips and quickly embracing vaudeville and slapstick film comedy as the touchstone for its development as an indigenous American art. The pioneering work of Winsor McCay (1871-1934), including Gertie the Dinosaur (1914), arguably the first personality animation, was hugely influential on the aspirational Walt Disney (19011966), who became the key figure in creating an animation industry and ultimately in determining a critical view of animation as a film art. Disney's entrepreneurial and editorial skills drove his company and created a small-scale studio that could compete with the major players in the Hollywood system. The Silly Symphonies, made throughout the 1920s and 1930s and arguably some of the studio's greatest works, preceded the groundbreaking Snow White and the Seven...


My hope is that the readers of this book gain as much from the experience of reading it as I did writing it. As I connected with talented filmmakers from around the globe, my respect for such brave and creative entrepreneurs grew and grew. It also helped me realize I wasn't alone in the pursuit of dreams and I have made some wonderful new friends as a result. While we are all distinctly different as film production company owners, we share much in common, from the frustration of administrative chores to the satisfaction of completing and distributing personally important projects.

In the Pipes

People have certainly watched MotionMasters with the same wonder over the years. Among many awards and other recognition, Diana and her business partner Dan Shreve received the 2001 Entrepreneur of the Year award from Ernst and Young, an awards program designed to recognize individuals who are paving the way for a new age of entrepreneurship.


Yesterday's trash becomes today's history. Old talk shows are now running on cable channels. Through Pea-body and Emmy awards, books, articles, and more recent scholarly attention, the television talk show has begun to receive recognition for its role in helping to define American life over five decades. Influential talk-show hosts are beginning to receive serious attention. Hosts are now being defined as entrepreneurs as well as entertainers, owners and managing editors as well as catalysts within the TV industry. Ultimately, certain talk-show figures have become acknowledged titans of talk and shapers of American culture.

Tough Guys

The collapse of the stock market in 1929 lit the match to the tough-guy fuse by sparking a national depression marked by soaring unemployment and widespread despair over the value of public policy and the institutions of government, finance, and the law. When police officers appeared increasingly as enforcers of rich men's law, banks either foreclosed on delinquent mortgages or failed their depositors, and Washington seemed powerless to alleviate the nation's sufferings, audiences turned toward strong heroes who offered them the hope of taking charge of their own future self-made entrepreneurs in direct sales (albeit the illegal sale of liquor) like Tom Powers in The Public Enemy and Tony Camonte in Scarface. At the same time, the arrival of synchronized sound, as Jonathan Munby has noted, turned the suddenly speaking gangster from a deracinated outlaw to a member of a specific marginal ethnic group whose accent frames his desire for success within a history of struggle over national...

The Productive Entrepreneur

The Productive Entrepreneur

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