Time and Location Advantage in the New Experience Economy

To sum up some of our findings on how the festival circuit seems to work Each film festival, if we follow Dayan, consists of a number of cooperating and conflicting groups of players, forming together a dense latticework of human relations, temporally coexisting in the same time-space capsule. They are held together not by the films they watch, but by the self-validating activities they engage in, among which the production of prose struck Dayan most forcibly. My own interpretation - via...

European Art Cinema The Many Maps of Misreading

Indeed, and this maybe the rub, the point where any interpretation of Bergman's films, any thematic, modernist, or self-reflexive reading comes up against another set of realities those of production and reception as the obtain in a popular, quasi-universal, but nonetheless capital-intensive medium such as the cinema. After all, it is audiences as well as critics who decide how a film is to be understood, and the former are often cued not by the subject matter or metaphysical dilemmas about...

Dislodging the Frame The Future of Projection Scale and Ratio

Perhaps the most important reason, though, why for Greenaway it seems the (European) cinema has to pass through the art gallery if it is to reinvent itself is that constant irritant, the rigour of cinema's insistence on the rectangular frame, and that frame's fixed aspect ratio.20 Something must surely give The ever decreasing choice imposed by commercial and industrial standards has tightened the frame-ratio to such a point that it must - in the same way as other tightening strictures have...

Photographer Filmmaker Artist Auteur

So what kind of film director was Van der Keuken Although it may seem as if the still photographer and the filmmaker were forever competing with each other, he knew how to catch the instant (the gift of the photographer), while making us feel how this instant belonged in a continuum, a movement, a process. Consider a still that he took on holiday in Spain (Sierra Terade, Andalusia 2000), and which he captioned for his monthly picture column (From the Life of a Small Self-Employed), a task he...

Time Lost and Time Found

Tel qu'en lui-m me, l' ternit le change Mallarme A year after his death, a new Losey film opens in the cinemas. Steaming raises special expectations Is it a sort of testament Or did Losey, as a director, with more than 30 feature films to his credit, die -so to speak - intestate Steaming, Losey's only film after returning from French exile, is in some ways a work in the minor genre of the filmed play. One thinks of the American Film Theatre productions (for which Losey did Galileo), and...

Cinema and Myth

What retains my attention is not the incurably romantic nature of these self-images, but two structural features firstly, the contours of the myth they trace, and the social metaphysics they imply. Secondly, the tacit assumption that the depiction, however metaphysical, allegorical or self-referential, of the artist and the labors of creation has a redemptive power for the society, as represented by the audience and as present through the audience. In the wings of these self-portraits, in other...

Pictures of Europe

Behind the question about the fate of the cinema in the 1990s lurks another one, debated for almost as long as the cinema has existed, aired afresh every year at the film festivals of Cannes, Venice or Berlin, at FELIX award ceremonies and MEDIA initiatives the future of the European cinema vis- -vis Hollywood (whether viewed across France's passionate attachment to its cinematic patrimony, or more dispassionately, across the uneven, but nonetheless two-way talent transfer ). In 1992, a Channel...

German Feminism and Film Culture

In West Germany, films by and for women have to be seen against two historical factors The internal developments of the women's movement in late 1960s (the realization that feminist issues did not have a natural home inside the Marxist students' movement), and secondly, the cultural shifts which made television take up women's issues (creating from within the institution new spaces for their representation). But the feminist film culture, which by the early 1980s was associated internationally...

History and Memory

European cinema - European history who owns it, and who owns the rights to its representation This question has been posed several times in recent years, not least thanks to Steven Spielberg's Scrnndler's List and Saving Private Ryan, but it has been in the air since Bob Fosse's Cabaret and even Robert Wise's The Sound of Music. A whole generation of European directors in the 1970s and 1980s rose to the challenge to re-conquer lost territory Visconti (The Damned), Bertolucci (Novecento),...

The Documentary Tradition

On the face of it, then, Van der Keuken is a very Dutch filmmaker, especially considering that one of the strengths of Dutch filmmaking has always been in the field of documentaries. Van der Keuken had no difficulties in seeing himself in the tradition of Joris Ivens We met in Paris in 1968. With immense generosity he was willing to watch my films with me. It was the first time I was able to show my work to someone with international standing, who carries with him the myth of a world filmmaker,...

Double Occupancy An Intermediary Concept

Toujours occup seems as good a motto as any with which to confront the present debate about the new Europe and its sometimes siege mentality, when it comes to the so-called non-Europeans at its borders or in its midst. By proposing the idea of a permanent occupation, or more precisely, a double occupation, I am thinking of it as a kind of counter-metaphor to 'Fortress Europe', the term so often applied to the European Union's immigration policies.1 Toujour occup keeps in mind the fundamental...

Markers of Provenance Strategies of Access

In the previous chapter, I argued that the national in European cinema has become a second-order concept post-national , in that it is now generally mediated through the legislative and economic measures taken by the European Union to stimulate the audiovisual industries and promote their role in the preservation of its heritage and patrimony. In the films themselves, references to the nation, the region and the local have also become second-order realities, whenever they function as...

An Enlightened View of Immigration

The first position is perhaps the one most closely tied to the theme of the stranger and the migrant, and here I want to focus on what one might call the Tony Blair-Gerhard Schroeder enlightened view on immigration, that is the social-liberal one, which maintains that altogether, immigration is a good thing, and that Europe, and in particular Britain or Germany, have to honor their obligations and responsibilities of asylum. Thus, they make distinction between different kinds of immigrants,...

Auteurs and Artists

As the longevity of assignations such as neo-realism, nouvelle vague, New German Cinema, New Basque cinema proves, the diversity of national cinematic traditions within European cinema is impressive, and there is good reason to study them individually and in their particularity. But this insistence on both national specificity and the relative autonomy of film movements since 1945 in European countries nonetheless leaves several factors unaccounted for Firstly, the national movements and auteur...

Narrative Space

This theoretical-ethical point around which Persona is structured is already dramatized in the pre-credit sequence, where a boy with his hands stretched out trying to touch the projected image of a woman his mother . The image, as it becomes larger and larger is both too close to be clearly recognized and too far to be concretely grasped - it is at once immediately tactile and irredeemably unreal the boy's longing for his mother, human contact and physical commu nication remains unfulfilled,...

Sub State and Supra State Allegiances

A nation is always something smaller than mankind and bigger than an ethnic group or a geographical region. It lives from drawing boundaries, recognizing borders and operating categories of inclusion and exclusion. At the same time, identifying with one's nation is increasingly experienced as at once too big and too small to mesh with one's individual sense of not belonging. This applies to the disaffected youth in the banlieu of La Haine or the drug addicts in Trainspotting as much as to the...

Brief History of European Film Festivals

The global perspective taken here on the festival phenomenon needs to be con-textualized by a brief reference to the history of the European film festivals. They were, initially, highly political and nationalistic affairs. The Venice film festival, for instance, as has often been pointed out, was set up as a combination of a charm offensive on the part of the Italian Hotel Association and of a propaganda exercise by Benito Mussolini in 1932. So strong was the pro-fascist bias of Venice by the...

The Basis Film Verleih

A recent event at the ICA, featuring the work of a Berlin distribution and production company, the Basis Film Verleih, has again highlighted the current dilemmas of independent cinema on the Left, battling against an unfavorable cultural climate, increasing difficulties with funding, and the competition from denationalized and deregulated television markets. The history of Basis, however, also demonstrates, amidst an atmosphere of near-despondency, the position of relative strength from which...

Two European Cinemas Art House vs Genre Cinema Art House as Genre Cinema

In the case of the French film industry, the fact remains that in the period of the nouvelle vague of the 1960s, for every Truffaut and Godard, France had to make a Borsalino a thriller with Alain Delon , or in the 1970s, co-produce a French Connection with Gene Hackman and directed by William Friedkin , and in the 1980s, for every Jacques Rivette making La Belle Noiseuse, and every Eric Rohmer making Le Rayon Vert, there had to be a Claude Berri making a Jean de Florette or a Jean Paul...

After the Historical Imaginary

As we have seen, much of the debate around national cinema is dominated by two paradigms that of essentialism versus constructivism, and the paradigm of otherness, the fact that a sense of national identity always implies drawing boundaries, and staking out the visible or invisible lines of inclusion and exclusion. However hard a semiotically inclined mind may find it to abandon the meaning-making power of binary pairs, from what has been said so far, such strict oppositions cannot be...

Notes

John Naughton, The Observer, 16 May 1992. 2. Pictures of Europe Channel Four, television program, 1992. 3. For an inversely related perspective, see Richard Pells, Not Like Us How Europeans Have Loved, Hated, and Transformed American Culture Since World War II. New York Basic Books, 1997 . 4. Gian Piero Brunetta, Storia del cinema italiano 1948-1980 Rome Einaudi, 1982 , p. 34. 5. Siegfried Kracauer, From Caligari to Hitler a Psychological History of the German Cinema Princeton Princeton...

Colonization Self Colonization and Significant Others

What could in the 1990s, be at stake in renewing a debate about national cinema If the struggle over realism the social and political stakes in representation, whether individual or collective, or the importance of documentation as record and reference has moved to television, then it is there that the national in the sense I defined it above as exclusion and inclusion, appropriation and consensus is now being negotiated. As a consequence, the national cinemas task may well be to set themselves...

Reconceptualizing National Cinemas

The other extreme of the post-national national cinema would be a commercial producer's perspective, who like many a European entrepreneur, will utilize to the full the EU provisions for subsidies, tax-breaks and other community measures designed to minimize his business risk, in this case, of making films for an unpredictable internal market and with few export sales opportunities other than into the world's niche markets, namely art houses, public service television, and DVD-sales. Films...

Post National Cinema Europe

Do these small-scale production units amount to a new post-national basis of European cinema Certainly not by themselves, since many of these units have a national base and are as likely to cooperate with US firms or Asian directors as with other European partners, but they nonetheless constitute one crucial element in the jigsaw puzzle or network system. The other key ingredient is the film festival circuit, discussed in the following chapter, which is indeed transnational and international....

Table of Contents

European Cinema Conditions of Impossibility 2005 13 National Cinema Re-Definitions and New Directions European Culture, National Cinema, the Auteur and Hollywood 1994 35 ImpersoNations National Cinema, Historical Imaginaries 2005 57 Film Festival Networks the New Topographies of Cinema in Double Occupancy and Small Adjustments Space, Place and Policy in the New European Cinema since the 1990s 2005 108 Auteurs and Art Cinemas Modernism and Self-Reference, Installation Art and Autobiography...

Lucebert

I am referring by this, first of all, to a powerful sense that in the past twenty years the cinema of whatever provenance - mainstream, avant-garde or art house, as well as the art world that has finally found in the moving image one of its main resources for renewal and self-reflection - has made a pre-occupation with the body its central concern. From action spectaculars with Bruce Willis or Sylvester Stallone, to sexually explicit, semi-pornographic...

Shifting the Discourses and Realigning the Paradigms

The more the essays reach into the new century, the more they take reflexive as well as retrospective turns. Not because of any disappointment in the state of European cinema or a nostalgic sense of regretting past glories. There is much to love and admire about the films being made by European directors. With talents as diverse and controversial as Pedro Almodovar, Lars von Trier, Mike Leigh, Agn s Varda, Danny Boyle, Roberto Benigni, Catherine Breillat, Nanni Moretti, Emir Kusturica, Tom...

ZDFs Das Kleine Fernsehspiel

As far as the European cinema goes, the 1970s belonged to Germany, or more exactly, to the New German Cinema. Breaking through the commercial and critical twilight of the post-war period, a handful of internationally well-exposed star directors - mainly Fassbinder, Herzog, Wenders and Syberberg -briefly illuminated a notoriously bleak filmmaking landscape. Looking back, however, one realizes that this blaze of light left much territory underexposed, not least by obscuring the ground on which...

How Do Festivals Work

Given the degree of standardization in the overall feel of film festivals, and the organizational patterns that regulate how films enter this network, it is tempting to ask what general rules govern the system as a whole. Can one, for instance, understand the film festival circuit by comparing it to the mega art exhibitions that now tour the world's major museums Or does it behave more like a very specialized UPS postal service Are festivals the logical extension of the artisanal model of...