Life and a Work

Johan van der Keuken was born in Amsterdam on April 4, 1938. His grandfather introduced him to photography when he was twelve, and in 1955, he published his first photo book, We Are Seventeen (years old). The book consisted of a series of portraits of his friends at school, and although Van der Keuken himself thought of it as a sober record in the classic Dutch tradition, it was hailed as the manifesto of a new era, as well as chided for the somber and cheerless image it managed to give of...

Map of Misreadings

But this maybe the rub, and the point where a cultural view differs from the cognitive case around narrative comprehension. By the logic of reception studies, it is ultimately the various nationally or geographically distinct audiences who decide how a film is to be understood, and they often take their cue not only from title, poster, actors or national origin, but from the place where a film is shown, in which case, an art film is simply every film at an art-house cinema, including old...

Proposal for Defining a New European Cinema

This very general sketch of some of the political ramifications of the many ways in which Europe as a union of nation-states is in the middle of a possibly long and painful process of dis-articulating and realigning key aspects of the traditional congruence between nation and state was inter alia also meant to underline the difficulty of drawing too direct a parallel between the question of national cinema on the one hand, and the nation on the other. Clearly, the nation state is renegotiating...

An Impossible Project

Any book about European cinema should start with the statement that there is no such thing as European cinema, and that yes, European cinema exists, and has existed since the beginning of cinema a little more than a hundred years ago. It depends on where one places oneself, both in time and in space. In time for the first fifteen years, it was France that defined European cinema, with Path and Gaumont educating Europe's film-going tastes, inspiring filmmakers and keeping the Americans at bay....

Auteur Brand Name Sacrificial Hero

Since the late 1980s, the image of the auteur cinema has changed dramatically. The auteur may not be dead, but the meaning of what or who is an auteur has shifted considerably for Europe and America, not self-doubt nor self-expression, not metaphysical themes, nor a realist aesthetic are what makes a director an auteur. The themes that still identified an Ingmar Bergman as an auteur would today be mere affectations, a personal tic, noted by critics in passing. Instead, auteurs now dissimulate...

Body Measure Body Mass

Does this mean that Greenaway should be counted among the postmodernists after all Yes, if by postmodern we understand not only - as is so often stressed - the border-crossings of high and low culture in both directions, but - a more crucial and critical point - a willingness to engage in a debate about what might be the place of art in contemporary public space, and what it is called upon to perform. Greenaway no doubt comes with the right credentials, and his consistent interventions at the...

Dutch Ways of Seeing The Art Historical Tradition

What would it mean to speak of typically Dutch ways of seeing, within which Van der Keuken could be placed and dis-placed at the same time For such a scheme, one has to step outside the bounds of cinema and resort to analogies and examples from painting, even at the risk of establishing a very rough-and-ready, indeed clich form of categorization. There is, first of all, the tradition of the rebus picture in Dutch art, the illustration of proverbs and figures of speech, as in Hieronymus Bosch or...

Eastern Europe and Europes Own Others

But who is speaking when claiming the right to our history and our stories Let me cite a voice, whose right to speak on the topic of both European cinema and European politics is indisputable, the Polish filmmaker Krzysztof Za-nussi, who in a lecture originally given at the Ebeltoft European Film College in Denmark in May 1993 argued that Western Europe is turning its back on the future, just at the moment that the newly liberated countries of Eastern Europe (which from his perspective, are...

Europe Cannot Be Defined by Either Faith or Ethnicity

For my second position I draw on Manuel Castells, and his vision of Europe. Castells, best know for his books on the network society, has often argued that he thinks that the European Union will not be able to sustain itself as a viable political experiment if it relies on its Christian values, or its present understanding of liberal democracy around the notion of ethnicity and multiculturalism.14 What he values in the European Union is the way it reaches decisions by the long-drawn out,...

Europe Hollywood and The Rest The Ties that Bind and that Divide

The essays between the opening section and the conclusion follow to a large extent the trajectory thus charted, examining landmark figures of European authorship, the ever-present and much-resented impact of Hollywood, Europe's own others, and the post-colonial, post-historical legacies. Thus, the section which follows the re-appraisal of national cinema and the emergence of a European cinematic space turns its attention to the Europe-Hollywood-Europe divide, emphasizing the extent to which...

Europe The Double Perspective

From these two quotations one might derive a somewhat fanciful proposition. What if - at the end of the 19th century - Europe had been discovered by America rather than America being discovered by the Europeans at the end of the 15th century Counterfactual as this may seem, in a sense this is exactly what did happen, because with Henry James, Ernest Hemingway, Henry Miller, Gertrud Stein, Josephine Baker and so many other US American writers, musicians, and artists exiling themselves...

European Cinema History and Memory

Makavejev's invocation of the Russian Revolution also makes a convenient transition to the following section Europe Haunted by History, in which a number of issues are being touched upon which, especially during the 1980s and 1990s, have given European cinema - at least in retrospect - a remarkable unity of preoccupation if not of purpose, across victims and perpetrators, occupiers and occupied the working through of the history of fascism, Nazism and of collaboration, acquiescence and...

Face to Face with Hollywood

Cover illustration Nicole Kidman in Dogyille Cover design Kok Korpershoek, Amsterdam Lay-out japes, Amsterdam isbn 90 5356 594 9 (paperback) isbn 90 5356 602 3 (hardcover) nur 674 Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2005 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise)...

From National Cinema to Cinema in Europe

The changing function of television with respect to national self-representation might nonetheless be a useful pointer, when trying to understand the move from national cinema to European cinema. For once one accepts that European cinema cannot merely be either the historically conventionalized accumulation of national cinemas (most of which have been in commercial decline since the early 1980s) or the equally conventionalized enumeration of outstanding directors (however crucial filmmakers...

Ghosts and Dreams Liv Ullmann with Bob Hope on

So how does one go about writing Bergman back into the contemporary cinema, and into a film history other than that of the European auteur national cinema As indicated, I would probably not start with Wild Strawberries, but with a film made eight years earlier, which strikes me, for much of its 83 minutes as timelessly modern as all great films are I am thinking of Three Strange Loves (1947). Although cast in the form of a journey, rather like Wild Strawberries - it moves with such a febrile...

Helke Sander

In contrast to Helma Sanders-Brahms or Margarethe von Trotta - two examples of the woman filmmaker as auteur - Helke Sander remained committed to a more narrowly defined constituency in Germany itself, and also to a consistently socialist and feminist perspective. One of the very first students of the Berlin Academy, her career can also be read symptomatically in the way that it quite deliberately documents the women's movement and its impact on the private as well as public lives of her...

Helma Sanders Brahms

Initially making shorts and features about the economic situation of working-class women and men, before taking up explicitly feminist subjects, as in Shirin's Wedding (1976) Helma Sanders-Brahms won several festival prizes which secured a basis for further work in cooperation with ZDF and WDR, the two most generous German television networks. Yet from 1977 onwards, her films reflect the changing trends within the New German cinema as a whole rather than the issues emerging from the women's...

Historicizing the

European Cinema Face to Face with Hollywood implicitly addresses and often explicitly discusses the question of Europe as a political entity, as well as a cultural space, from the distinct perspective of cinema. For instance, the book as a whole stands squarely behind the preserving and conserving tendencies manifest in most European countries with respect to their national cinema. Films are fragile, perishable and physically impermanent. They need institutional and financial support they...

Introduction

Of Dutch filmmakers whose works I have some acquaintance with, none has left me with more suspended emotions and unresolved moral chords than Johan van der Keuken. This has an autobiographical origin Van der Keuken was the first director I met in person when I moved to the Netherlands from London in 1991. It was an instructive meeting, leaving me with the feeling that it would be good, one day, to reply to the questions that stayed unspoken in the air. This encounter or perhaps I should say,...

Media Nation State Another Look at the Discourses

Considered as a subject taught in academic film studies, European cinema is unproblematic the impossibility which I mentioned in the introduction has itself been institutionalized and become something of a fixed trope of discourse. As a consequence, despite or because of the difficulties of defining what European cinema is, a growing number of books are being edited and published on the topic since the early 1990s, servicing the needs of the curriculum. Many opt for a pragmatic approach they...

Mutual Interferences

As indicated, according to Castells, the current trial and error process in constructing a European political project is the only feasible option and should be considered as a positive gain. This view is shared, sharpened and reformulated in The Breaking of Nations (2003),17 by Robert Cooper, a British writer and diplomat who provides me with my third vision of Europe, this time centerd on post-Westphalian notions of sovereignty. Cooper argues that the world order based on liberal democracy...

National Cinema

It has often been remarked that in order to talk about a national cinema at all, one always tries to conjure up a certain coherence, in the first instance, that of the Nation. In this respect, it is quite clearly a notion with a lot of historical and even more so, ideological ballast. A nation, especially when used in a context that suggests cultural identity, must repress differences of class, gender, race, religion, and history in order to assert its coherence, and is thus another name for...

National Cinema Essentialism vs Constructivism

The first signs of a renewed debate around national cinema in Britain took place in the early 1980s, on the fringes of emerging film studies, as part of a polemic about the relation between two kinds of internationalism that of Hollywood and its universalizing appeal, and that of a counter-cinema avant-garde, opposed to Hollywood, but also thinking of itself as not bound by the nation or national cinema, especially not by British cinema. At that point the problem of nationality played a minor...

Notes

Andre Bazin, What is Cinema Essays selected and translated by Hugh Gray (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press, 1967), p 168. 2. Peter Greenaway, The Stairs (London Merrell Holberton, 1995), p. 11. 4. The passage continues Painters, writers, playwrights, composers, choreographers - creators indeed who we could say should know better - have eager aspirations to make films, and if not to make them, then debate endlessly the possibilities of making them. The Stairs, p. 13. 5. See...

On Leaving the Century of Cinema

In his brief essay Painting and Cinema, Andr Bazin, after sharing the general dissatisfaction with films about artists and paintings, nonetheless remarks that, the cinema, not only far from compromising or destroying the true nature of another art, is, on the contrary, in the process of saving it.1 About half a century later, and a full century after the first presentation of the Cin matographe Lumi re, it is tempting to read in Bazin's phrase a question that reverses the terms is another art...

Preface

The (West) European cinema has, since the end of World War II, had its identity firmly stamped by three features its leading directors were recognized as auteurs, its styles and themes shaped a nation's self-image, and its new waves signified political as well as aesthetic renewal. Ingmar Bergman, Jacques Rivette, Joseph Losey, Peter Greenaway, neo-realism, the nouvelle vague, New German Cinema, the British renaissance - these have been some of the signposts of a cinema that derived legitimacy...

Space Place and Policy in the New European Cinema since the s

The famous Strasbourg-born New York political cartoonist and writer of children's books, Tomi Ungerer was once asked what it was like to grow up in Alsace (he was born in 1931), and he replied It was like living in the toilet of a rural railway station toujours occup (always occupied). He was, of course, referring to the fact that for more or less four hundred years, and certainly during the period of 1871 to 1945 Alsace changed nationality many times over, back and forth, between France and...

Television and Cinema Disarticulating and Rebranding the Nation

Double occupancy, as the co-extensiveness of symbolic and ethnic identities, but also the overlap of media representations, racial stereotypes and day-to-day discriminations, connects directly with the re-figuration of the nation and the national discussed in an earlier chapter. For as already argued, the communication revolutions, together with the media-consciousness and media-skills of diaspora communities, have played a major role in the present resurgence of nationalism and the...

The Body as Perceptual Surface

I could go on, by introducing yet another argument, this time borrowed from David Hockney and his re-discovered passion for the Delft, Ghent, and Bruges schools of painting, over those of Florence, Venice and Rome, around the question of the central perspective, and its Northern variants. I would have cited Van der Keuken's repeated forays, notably in his photo-essays for Skrien, into questions of perspective and point of view, where he thought aloud about his own poetics, especially his use of...

The International Market

What could be said to be the lowest common denominator, the default values of national cinema It may mean nothing more historically precise or metaphysically profound than the economic conditions under which filmmakers in a given country try to work. It functions as part of an industry required to turn a profit, as artisans selling individually crafted objects in a volatile market, or as artists, sponsored by the state and its cultural institutions, representing a cultural vision. However, when...

The New Nationalism A Modern Phenomenon

As Hans Magnus Enzensberger suggests, it may be fruitless to rail against national stereotypes they are absurd, unfair, pernicious, and nonetheless so persistent that they probably serve a purpose. When asking where they are most likely to thrive, one realizes that it is not politics. Set ideas about the national character or cultural stereotyping are especially vivid within popular culture and the media.2 Often, they are diagnosed as potentially dangerous invitations to racism, or conversely,...

Ulrike Ottinger Jutta Brckner Spectacles of Self Estrangement

A different redefinition of the auteur and of the political in the wake of autonomous feminism can be studied in filmmakers who turned to that area of experience where women felt most alienated from themselves. In the words of Heide Schl pmann and Carola Gramann the women's movement started simply and materialistically with what was nearest, the woman's body, and from there tried to disentangle the violation of women's rights and their subjection. Yet some of the films most directly concerned...

Propos Jacques Rivettes La Belle Noiseuse

There are films about painters, films that feature paintings in the plot, and there are films about particular paintings. In the first category, the centenary has given us several van Gogh movies (directed by Paul Cox, Robert Altman, Maurice Pialat), and in Derek Jarman's Caravaggio we had the anti-myth to the myth of the creative genius tormented by his Art. In all of them, what remains, one way or another, is the agony and the ecstasy, whether embodied by Kirk Douglas, Tim Roth, or Nigel...

Time and Location Advantage in the New Experience Economy

To sum up some of our findings on how the festival circuit seems to work Each film festival, if we follow Dayan, consists of a number of cooperating and conflicting groups of players, forming together a dense latticework of human relations, temporally coexisting in the same time-space capsule. They are held together not by the films they watch, but by the self-validating activities they engage in, among which the production of prose struck Dayan most forcibly. My own interpretation - via...

European Art Cinema The Many Maps of Misreading

Indeed, and this maybe the rub, the point where any interpretation of Bergman's films, any thematic, modernist, or self-reflexive reading comes up against another set of realities those of production and reception as the obtain in a popular, quasi-universal, but nonetheless capital-intensive medium such as the cinema. After all, it is audiences as well as critics who decide how a film is to be understood, and the former are often cued not by the subject matter or metaphysical dilemmas about...

Dislodging the Frame The Future of Projection Scale and Ratio

Perhaps the most important reason, though, why for Greenaway it seems the (European) cinema has to pass through the art gallery if it is to reinvent itself is that constant irritant, the rigour of cinema's insistence on the rectangular frame, and that frame's fixed aspect ratio.20 Something must surely give The ever decreasing choice imposed by commercial and industrial standards has tightened the frame-ratio to such a point that it must - in the same way as other tightening strictures have...

Photographer Filmmaker Artist Auteur

So what kind of film director was Van der Keuken Although it may seem as if the still photographer and the filmmaker were forever competing with each other, he knew how to catch the instant (the gift of the photographer), while making us feel how this instant belonged in a continuum, a movement, a process. Consider a still that he took on holiday in Spain (Sierra Terade, Andalusia 2000), and which he captioned for his monthly picture column (From the Life of a Small Self-Employed), a task he...

Time Lost and Time Found

Tel qu'en lui-m me, l' ternit le change Mallarme A year after his death, a new Losey film opens in the cinemas. Steaming raises special expectations Is it a sort of testament Or did Losey, as a director, with more than 30 feature films to his credit, die -so to speak - intestate Steaming, Losey's only film after returning from French exile, is in some ways a work in the minor genre of the filmed play. One thinks of the American Film Theatre productions (for which Losey did Galileo), and...

Cinema and Myth

What retains my attention is not the incurably romantic nature of these self-images, but two structural features firstly, the contours of the myth they trace, and the social metaphysics they imply. Secondly, the tacit assumption that the depiction, however metaphysical, allegorical or self-referential, of the artist and the labors of creation has a redemptive power for the society, as represented by the audience and as present through the audience. In the wings of these self-portraits, in other...

Pictures of Europe

Behind the question about the fate of the cinema in the 1990s lurks another one, debated for almost as long as the cinema has existed, aired afresh every year at the film festivals of Cannes, Venice or Berlin, at FELIX award ceremonies and MEDIA initiatives the future of the European cinema vis- -vis Hollywood (whether viewed across France's passionate attachment to its cinematic patrimony, or more dispassionately, across the uneven, but nonetheless two-way talent transfer ). In 1992, a Channel...

German Feminism and Film Culture

In West Germany, films by and for women have to be seen against two historical factors The internal developments of the women's movement in late 1960s (the realization that feminist issues did not have a natural home inside the Marxist students' movement), and secondly, the cultural shifts which made television take up women's issues (creating from within the institution new spaces for their representation). But the feminist film culture, which by the early 1980s was associated internationally...

History and Memory

European cinema - European history who owns it, and who owns the rights to its representation This question has been posed several times in recent years, not least thanks to Steven Spielberg's Scrnndler's List and Saving Private Ryan, but it has been in the air since Bob Fosse's Cabaret and even Robert Wise's The Sound of Music. A whole generation of European directors in the 1970s and 1980s rose to the challenge to re-conquer lost territory Visconti (The Damned), Bertolucci (Novecento),...

The Documentary Tradition

On the face of it, then, Van der Keuken is a very Dutch filmmaker, especially considering that one of the strengths of Dutch filmmaking has always been in the field of documentaries. Van der Keuken had no difficulties in seeing himself in the tradition of Joris Ivens We met in Paris in 1968. With immense generosity he was willing to watch my films with me. It was the first time I was able to show my work to someone with international standing, who carries with him the myth of a world filmmaker,...

Double Occupancy An Intermediary Concept

Toujours occup seems as good a motto as any with which to confront the present debate about the new Europe and its sometimes siege mentality, when it comes to the so-called non-Europeans at its borders or in its midst. By proposing the idea of a permanent occupation, or more precisely, a double occupation, I am thinking of it as a kind of counter-metaphor to 'Fortress Europe', the term so often applied to the European Union's immigration policies.1 Toujour occup keeps in mind the fundamental...

Markers of Provenance Strategies of Access

In the previous chapter, I argued that the national in European cinema has become a second-order concept post-national , in that it is now generally mediated through the legislative and economic measures taken by the European Union to stimulate the audiovisual industries and promote their role in the preservation of its heritage and patrimony. In the films themselves, references to the nation, the region and the local have also become second-order realities, whenever they function as...

An Enlightened View of Immigration

The first position is perhaps the one most closely tied to the theme of the stranger and the migrant, and here I want to focus on what one might call the Tony Blair-Gerhard Schroeder enlightened view on immigration, that is the social-liberal one, which maintains that altogether, immigration is a good thing, and that Europe, and in particular Britain or Germany, have to honor their obligations and responsibilities of asylum. Thus, they make distinction between different kinds of immigrants,...

Auteurs and Artists

As the longevity of assignations such as neo-realism, nouvelle vague, New German Cinema, New Basque cinema proves, the diversity of national cinematic traditions within European cinema is impressive, and there is good reason to study them individually and in their particularity. But this insistence on both national specificity and the relative autonomy of film movements since 1945 in European countries nonetheless leaves several factors unaccounted for Firstly, the national movements and auteur...

Narrative Space

This theoretical-ethical point around which Persona is structured is already dramatized in the pre-credit sequence, where a boy with his hands stretched out trying to touch the projected image of a woman his mother . The image, as it becomes larger and larger is both too close to be clearly recognized and too far to be concretely grasped - it is at once immediately tactile and irredeemably unreal the boy's longing for his mother, human contact and physical commu nication remains unfulfilled,...

Sub State and Supra State Allegiances

A nation is always something smaller than mankind and bigger than an ethnic group or a geographical region. It lives from drawing boundaries, recognizing borders and operating categories of inclusion and exclusion. At the same time, identifying with one's nation is increasingly experienced as at once too big and too small to mesh with one's individual sense of not belonging. This applies to the disaffected youth in the banlieu of La Haine or the drug addicts in Trainspotting as much as to the...

Brief History of European Film Festivals

The global perspective taken here on the festival phenomenon needs to be con-textualized by a brief reference to the history of the European film festivals. They were, initially, highly political and nationalistic affairs. The Venice film festival, for instance, as has often been pointed out, was set up as a combination of a charm offensive on the part of the Italian Hotel Association and of a propaganda exercise by Benito Mussolini in 1932. So strong was the pro-fascist bias of Venice by the...

The Basis Film Verleih

A recent event at the ICA, featuring the work of a Berlin distribution and production company, the Basis Film Verleih, has again highlighted the current dilemmas of independent cinema on the Left, battling against an unfavorable cultural climate, increasing difficulties with funding, and the competition from denationalized and deregulated television markets. The history of Basis, however, also demonstrates, amidst an atmosphere of near-despondency, the position of relative strength from which...

Two European Cinemas Art House vs Genre Cinema Art House as Genre Cinema

In the case of the French film industry, the fact remains that in the period of the nouvelle vague of the 1960s, for every Truffaut and Godard, France had to make a Borsalino a thriller with Alain Delon , or in the 1970s, co-produce a French Connection with Gene Hackman and directed by William Friedkin , and in the 1980s, for every Jacques Rivette making La Belle Noiseuse, and every Eric Rohmer making Le Rayon Vert, there had to be a Claude Berri making a Jean de Florette or a Jean Paul...

After the Historical Imaginary

As we have seen, much of the debate around national cinema is dominated by two paradigms that of essentialism versus constructivism, and the paradigm of otherness, the fact that a sense of national identity always implies drawing boundaries, and staking out the visible or invisible lines of inclusion and exclusion. However hard a semiotically inclined mind may find it to abandon the meaning-making power of binary pairs, from what has been said so far, such strict oppositions cannot be...

Colonization Self Colonization and Significant Others

What could in the 1990s, be at stake in renewing a debate about national cinema If the struggle over realism the social and political stakes in representation, whether individual or collective, or the importance of documentation as record and reference has moved to television, then it is there that the national in the sense I defined it above as exclusion and inclusion, appropriation and consensus is now being negotiated. As a consequence, the national cinemas task may well be to set themselves...

Reconceptualizing National Cinemas

The other extreme of the post-national national cinema would be a commercial producer's perspective, who like many a European entrepreneur, will utilize to the full the EU provisions for subsidies, tax-breaks and other community measures designed to minimize his business risk, in this case, of making films for an unpredictable internal market and with few export sales opportunities other than into the world's niche markets, namely art houses, public service television, and DVD-sales. Films...

Post National Cinema Europe

Do these small-scale production units amount to a new post-national basis of European cinema Certainly not by themselves, since many of these units have a national base and are as likely to cooperate with US firms or Asian directors as with other European partners, but they nonetheless constitute one crucial element in the jigsaw puzzle or network system. The other key ingredient is the film festival circuit, discussed in the following chapter, which is indeed transnational and international....

Table of Contents

European Cinema Conditions of Impossibility 2005 13 National Cinema Re-Definitions and New Directions European Culture, National Cinema, the Auteur and Hollywood 1994 35 ImpersoNations National Cinema, Historical Imaginaries 2005 57 Film Festival Networks the New Topographies of Cinema in Double Occupancy and Small Adjustments Space, Place and Policy in the New European Cinema since the 1990s 2005 108 Auteurs and Art Cinemas Modernism and Self-Reference, Installation Art and Autobiography...

Lucebert

I am referring by this, first of all, to a powerful sense that in the past twenty years the cinema of whatever provenance - mainstream, avant-garde or art house, as well as the art world that has finally found in the moving image one of its main resources for renewal and self-reflection - has made a pre-occupation with the body its central concern. From action spectaculars with Bruce Willis or Sylvester Stallone, to sexually explicit, semi-pornographic...

Shifting the Discourses and Realigning the Paradigms

The more the essays reach into the new century, the more they take reflexive as well as retrospective turns. Not because of any disappointment in the state of European cinema or a nostalgic sense of regretting past glories. There is much to love and admire about the films being made by European directors. With talents as diverse and controversial as Pedro Almodovar, Lars von Trier, Mike Leigh, Agn s Varda, Danny Boyle, Roberto Benigni, Catherine Breillat, Nanni Moretti, Emir Kusturica, Tom...

ZDFs Das Kleine Fernsehspiel

As far as the European cinema goes, the 1970s belonged to Germany, or more exactly, to the New German Cinema. Breaking through the commercial and critical twilight of the post-war period, a handful of internationally well-exposed star directors - mainly Fassbinder, Herzog, Wenders and Syberberg -briefly illuminated a notoriously bleak filmmaking landscape. Looking back, however, one realizes that this blaze of light left much territory underexposed, not least by obscuring the ground on which...

How Do Festivals Work

Given the degree of standardization in the overall feel of film festivals, and the organizational patterns that regulate how films enter this network, it is tempting to ask what general rules govern the system as a whole. Can one, for instance, understand the film festival circuit by comparing it to the mega art exhibitions that now tour the world's major museums Or does it behave more like a very specialized UPS postal service Are festivals the logical extension of the artisanal model of...