Notes

1. Ingmar Bergman, Images - My Life in Film (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1994), p. 226.

2. "If it is dangerous to regard the Swedish cinema as synonymous with Bergman, it is equally dangerous to dismiss or underestimate his contribution. His work has a universal and continuing importance far beyond that of any other Swedish director." Eva Geijerstam, "All var där utom Bergman" in Dagens Nyheter, 12 May 1997, quoted in Rik Vermeulen, Sweden and its National Cinema (M.A. thesis University of Amsterdam, 1997).

3. Bo Widerberg, who expended much energy on polemics against Bergman's vision of Sweden, neither inherited nor survived him - he died in May 1997. On the feud between Widerberg and Bergman, see Peter Cowie, Scandinavian Cinema (London, Tantivy Press, 1992), p. 147.

4. According to Rik Vermeulen, loc. cit., Bergman was to direct a play, written by P.O. Enquist, called The Makers of Images: Memories from the World of the Silent Film), set in the 1920s and dramatizing an encounter between the writer Selma Lagerlöf and the actor/director Victor Sjöström.

5. Jean-Luc Godard, "Bergmanorama" Cahiers du cinéma, no. 85, July 1958 [reprinted in T. Milne (ed.), Godard on Godard (New York: Da Capo Press, 1967), p. 77-78].

7. Ingmar Bergman, The Magic Lantern (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1988), p. 169.

9. As David Thomson once dryly noted: "Bergman's films are about actors and artists playing actors and artists." David Thomson, A Biographical Dictionary of Film (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), p. 60.

10. "Many people of my generation... joined the National Film Theatre in London to see a retrospective... of Bergman's early films after the seventh seal and wild straw berries had come to represent 'artistic' cinema." David Thomson, A Biographical Dictionary of Film (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1996) p. 60.

11. In Italy, for instance, directors like Fellini (also fated to be popularly remembered for his sexually most explicit film, la dolce vita) or Antonioni could make their films because directors like Sergio Leone and Sergio Corbucci were turning out profitable Spaghetti Westerns with Clint Eastwood and Klaus Kinski which were seen by millions in Italy, Spain, France, Germany, the US, Asia, and Latin America. When, in the early 1970s, kung fu movies with Bruce Lee, and made in Hong Kong ousted Spaghetti Westerns as the world's favorite action and adventure movies, the Italian art cinema of director-auteurs vanished at the same time, deprived of its (hidden) economic base.

12. Andrew Higson, "Nostalgia and Pastiche in the Heritage Film" in Lester Friedmann (ed.) British Cinema under Thatcher (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1992), pp. 109-129.

17. See Egil Tornqvist, Between Stage and Screen: Ingmar Bergman Directs (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1995), pp. 137-145 and pp. 174-187.

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