Notesreferences

1. A six-sprocket system also made the Cinerama image taller. The result was an image six times larger than the standard of the day.

2. Directors often shot their films with the television ratio in mind (the old Academy standard 1:1.33). The result was shots with the action centered in the frame. When projected on television, the parts of the frame outside the television aspect ratio were cut off. Filmmakers have abandoned shots framed with characters off to the side of the frame or have skewed the foreground-background relationship to the sides rather than to the center.

3. For the television broadcast of large-scale epics shot with a ratio of 1:2.2, the films were optically rephotographed for television. Optical zooms and pans were used to follow actions and movements of characters within shots. The results were aesthetically bizarre and questionable, but they allowed the television audience to follow the action.

4. An excellent description of the process is found in David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction, 3d ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990), 336-342. The authors analyze the form and style of Fred Wiseman's High School (1968), a classic cinema verite film. With the Maysles brothers (Salesman, 1969; Gimme Shelter, 1970), Fred Wiseman epitomized the cinema verite credo and style.

5. For a full treatment of the attractiveness of the veracity and objectivity implicit in cinema verite, see Karel Reisz and Gavin Millar, The Technique of Film Editing, 2d ed. (Boston: Focal Press, 1968), 297-321.

6. The orgy scene in Seconds was filmed as if it were occurring.

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Film Making

Film Making

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