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It is fitting that John Wayne made the only major Vietnam War movie to come out of Hollywood during that most divisive of conflicts. After all, the Pentagon regarded Wayne as perhaps its single most effective recruiting agent in the decades after the Second World War, and his mythical warrior status seems to have left an indelible mark on the generation of American fighting men that came to maturity in the 1960s. In one respect, in The Green Berets Wayne was simply doing for the US Special Forces what he had done for the Marines in The Sands of Iwo Jima two decades earlier. But The Green Berets also illustrated the sometimes highly personal nature of the cinematic state-private network during the Cold War. It was Wayne, a powerful actor, who was the driving force behind the making of The Green Berets, not a studio or a government department. As he told LBJ in December 1965, the Duke knew Vietnam was not a popular war. Because of this, he saw it as his duty, privilege even, to present the government's case for global anti-communist vigilance. Other stars had performed the same task previously, and would continue to do so, in different ways, until the Cold War came to a close. Others still were ready by the 1970s to use their power to question what that vigilance was doing to America, as we shall see in the next chapter.

Even John Wayne, however, would not have been able to make The Green Berets without the Pentagon's support. Indeed, this is precisely what some critics and opponents of the Vietnam War said at the time. For a brief moment after The Green Berets release, the public spotlight shone on the relationship between Hollywood and the military. Democrats in Congress, led by Senator James Fulbright, complained that Batjac had been vastly undercharged for the loan of military hardware and manpower during the making of The Green Berets, and consequently that taxpayers had paid for a movie that many of them considered illegitimate pro-war Defence Department propaganda. John Wayne reacted to this in typically combative fashion, by threatening to 'horsewhip' those who accused him of swindling the Pentagon and the American people.98 In fact, the golden age of the Hollywood-Pentagon axis had already passed before this embarrassing episode. Following the lead given by On the Beach in 1959, a handful of military films questioning nuclear deterrence had been made in the mid-1960s without Defence Department cooperation. The most powerful of these were Sidney Lumet's Fail Safe (1964) and James Harris' The Bedford Incident (1965). John Frankenheimer's drama Seven Days in May (1964) had even toyed explicitly with the military-industrial complex theme by showing a hawkish air force commander (played by Burt Lancaster) plotting the overthrow of the US government in order to prevent the ratification of a disarmament treaty.99 Growing public protests against the military's activities in Vietnam in the late 1960s led to a further weakening of HollywoodPentagon ties, and as a result the military's image on screen reached a low point in the mid-1970s. It was then rehabilitated during the Second Cold War of the 1980s, courtesy of renewed cooperation on prestigious anti-communist movies like Clint Eastwood's Heartbreak Ridge (1986), which celebrated the 1983 Marine invasion of Grenada, and Tony Scott's Top Gun, which, with Tom Cruise playing the lead role, glamorised the life of navy fighter pilots and was the nation's highest-grossing movie of 1986.100

At the height of the Vietnam War, the US government secretly undertook all kinds of propaganda activities to blunt the anti-war movement, even sending pro-war letters to itself to foster the impression of support.101 When these dubious measures later came to light, they had the effect of making John Wayne's The Green Berets look harmlessly naïve: an openly crude attempt to reassert America's imperial ethos by a dated film star in the television age. Yet we should remind ourselves of the critical role played by the US armed services in the making of The Green Berets and literally hundreds of other Hollywood films during the Cold War. These include the scores of Vietnam War movies produced after the conflict formally ended in 1975, many of which helped Americans come to grips with its defeat. In different ways, John Wayne and The Green Berets helped inform a significant number of these return-to-'Nam movies. Two of a surreal nature — Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979) and Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket (1987) - played on Wayne's iconic status in order to present the Vietnam War as a confusing and pointless experience.102 In contrast, the cartoon-like Rambo series (1982—8) paid tribute to the bravery of US military elites in Vietnam and suggested that, left unencumbered by bureaucrats and politicians, America's armed forces could have won the war. Other films still, like John Irvin's Hamburger Hill (1987), lent credence to the myth that the media had stabbed the US military in the back during the war.103

Appropriately enough, the Duke himself made one of his last public appearances at the Academy Award ceremonies in April 1979, when he presented the Oscar for best picture to Michael Cimino for The Deer Hunter,, widely regarded as one of the greatest films ever to have been made about the Vietnam War.104 A month later, Wayne died of cancer, caused, some claim, by the fallout from a nuclear bomb test in Nevada, 100 miles downwind from where he was making The Conquerer in 1954. Tributes paid to the Duke included this by President Jimmy Carter: 'In an age of few heroes, he was the genuine article.'105


1 Document 109 in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 390—1.

2 On the historical development of Hollywood's star system from the 1920s to the present see Paul McDonald, The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities (London, 2000).

3 Among the explicitly Cold War movies Andrews starred in were The Iron Curtain (1948), Assignment Paris (1952) and The Fearmakers (1958); Widmark was in Pickup on South Street (1953), Hell and High Water (1953) and The Secret Ways (1961). For brief synopses of these movies see Shain, 'Hollywood's Cold War', pp. 365—72. It should be noted that the actors' roles in these and other films did not necessarily accurately reflect their own political viewpoints. Widmark, for instance, was no conservative Cold Warrior. He was extremely liberal and played a key role in integrating the black actor Sidney Poitier into the Hollywood system in the 1950s, for example. See Kim Holston, Richard Widmark: A Bio-Bibliography (Westport, CT, 1990).

4 On Bond's relationship to the Cold War and détente see James Chapman, Licence to Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films (London, 1999).

5 Stallone starred as John Rambo in three films: First Blood (Ted Kotcheff, 1982), Rambo: First Blood Part 2 (George Pan Cosmatos, 1985) and Rambo III (Peter MacDonald, 1988). Norris starred as Colonel James Braddock in Missing in Action (Joseph Zito, 1984), Missing in Action 2 —The Beginning (Lance Hool, 1985) and Braddock: Missing in Action III (Aaron Norris, 1988). See Susan Jeffords, Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era (New Brunswick, NJ, 1994).

6 Bruce Crowther, Charlton Heston: The Epic Presence (London, 1986); Variety, 7 February 1968, p. 6; Filmfax, October 2002, pp. 52-6.

7 Michael Munn, Gregory Peck (London, 1998); Film Daily, 27 April 1944; Time, 22 March 1954; Monthly Film Bulletin, March 1988, p. 89. On the efforts made by the Nixon White House to use federal machinery to 'screw' its political opponents see the records of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force at www.archives.gov/ research/independent-counsels/watergate (24 February 2006).

8 Public Papers of the Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960-1961 (Washington, DC, 1961), pp. 1037-40.

9 On the military assistance that was given to William Wellman's highly successful Great War aerial epic Wings (1927), for example, see New York Times, 13 August 1927, p. 10; Stars and Stripes, 28 March 1961, pp. 12-13.

10 Variety, 5 September 1928, p. 14; New York Times, 14 September 1929, p. 17; Variety, 8 April 1931, p. 18; New York Times, 21 July 1934, p. 14; Motion Picture Daily, 31 January 1935, p. 11.

11 Robert Sklar, Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies (New York, 1975), p. 249.

12 Suid, Guts and Glory, pp. 136-7, passim; Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, esp. pp. 83-186.

14 New York Times, 16 April and 27 April 1950; Variety, 12 April 1950, p. 6.

15 Variety, 5 June 1963; Monthly Film Bulletin, August 1963, p. 117.

16 John Whiteclay Chambers and David Culbert (eds), World War II, Film and History (New York, 1996). Of course, America's was not the only film industry to manipulate the Second World War for Cold War purposes. See, for instance, Christiane Mückenberger, 'The Anti-Fascist Past in DEFA Films', in Sean Allan and John Stanford (eds), DEFA: East German Cinema, 1946-1992 (New York, 1999), pp. 58-76. On the relationship between 1950s American television documentary series about the Second World War and the Cold War see Bernhard, Television News, pp. 143-9. Out of interest, 44 per cent of the Americans surveyed in a September 1985 New York Times poll did not know that the Soviet Union and the United States had fought on the same side in the Second World War; a smaller number within that group - 28 per cent of the whole sample -thought that the two countries had actually fought against each other. New York Times, 10 November 1985, p. 40.

17 Christian Appy, '"We'll Follow the Old Man": The Strains of Sentimental Militarism in Popular Films of the Fifties', in Kuznick and Gilbert, Rethinking, pp. 74-105.

18 Militant Liberty Outline Plan, 5 November 1954, OCB Central Files, Box 70, OCB 091.4 Ideological Programs (File #1): DDEL (8); Proposed Implementation Plan for Project Action, 15 July 1955, OCB Central Files, Box 71, OCB 091.4 Ideological Programs (File#3) (4): DDEL. Broger was Deputy Director of the Armed Forces Information and Education programme between 1956 and 1961. During his tenure, it produced radio programmes and films with titles such as Freedom and You and Red Nightmare, and developed ties to a number of non-military groups involved in the indoctrination of the American people. These included HUAC, which in the film Operation Abolition (1960) portrayed the 1960 anti-HUAC student demonstrations in San Francisco as communist-led, and the National Education Programme, a right-wing patriotic organisation funded by George S. Benson, president of Harding College, a fundamentalist (Church of Christ) institution based in Searcy, Arkansas, which made Communism on the Map (c. 1960), portraying the US in the final phase of communist encirclement. Anne C. Loveland, American Evangelicals and the US Military 1942-1993 (Baton Rouge, LA, 1996), pp. 56-66.

19 Memorandum for JCS Chairman, 5 July 1956, RG 218, JCS Central Files 1954-6, Box 125, sec. 24: DDEL; Militant Liberty Outline Plan, 5 November 1954, OCB Central Files,Box 70, OCB 091.4 Ideological Programs (File #1) (8): DDEL; Memorandum to Chief of Naval Operations, 16 November 1955, RG 218, JCS Central Files 1954-6, Box 124, sec. 16: DDEL; Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, pp. 284-6.

20 Joseph McBride, Searching for John Ford: A Life (New York, 2001), pp. 461-84; Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, p. 286. Ford's Cold War movies included This is Korea! (1951), a Department of Defence orientation film for American soldiers being stationed on the peninsula, and The Bamboo Cross (1955), a television movie that portrayed Chinese communists abusing nuns. John Ford Papers, Box 5, f. 29-31, Lilly Library, University of Indiana (hereafter LLUI); Tag Gallagher,John Ford: The Man and his Films (Berkeley, CA, 1986), pp. 534, 537-40.

21 Mark Costa Vaz, Living Dangerously: The Adventures of Merian C. Cooper, Creator of King Kong (New York, 2005), pp. 321-31; Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, p. 285. On The Searchers see John Ford Papers, Box 6, f. 19-22, Box 8, f. 22, Box 21, f. 6-7, LLUI, and Edward Buscombe, The Searchers (London, 2000).

22 Ford treated Wayne as if he were his son, and is often credited with having invented Wayne's on-screen persona. Bond often played Wayne's dependable sidekick in movies. Gary WillsJohn Wayne: The Politics of Celebrity (London, 1997), p. 16;Katz, Encyclopedia, p. 148.

23 Time, 11 March 1957; Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, p. 286; The Wings of Eagles press book, BFIL.

24 John Ford Papers, Box 6, f. 23-4, Box 22, f. 1-3, LLUI. The 'baby carrier' was a small aircraft carrier whose sole purpose was to re-equip larger carriers with planes as they were lost in combat.

25 Daily Worker (London), 16 March 1957; Motion Picture Herald, 2 February 1967, p. 249; Andrew Sinclair, John Ford (London, 1979), p. 180.

26 www.anb.org/articles/18/18-01223.html (6 October 2005); Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 1.

27 A few claim that Wayne did not forgive himself for having escaped military service in the Second World War, and that the compensatory super-patriotism of later years was a form of expiation. See Wills, Wayne, p. 110; Ronald Davis, The Life and Times of John Wayne (Norman, OK, 1998), p. 118. Interestingly, Wayne did apply for a commission with the Office of Strategic Services. See

Modern Military Records, RG 226, E92, Box 32, F. 22087, Jimmy Carter Library and Museum, Atlanta, Georgia.

28 Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 4; Charles John Kieskalt, The Official John Wayne Reference Book (New York, 1993), p. 176; BoxOffice, 23 August 1971.

30 Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 1.

31 Wayne quoted during filming, in Donald Shepherd, Robert Slatzer and Dave Grayson, Duke: The Life and Times of John Wayne (London, 1985), pp. 203—4, 225; Wayne to Parsons, cited in Randy Roberts and James S. Olson, John Wayne, American (Lincoln, NE, 1995), p. 471; FBI press cutting, 9 November 1960: http:foia.fbi.gov/wayne/wayne.pdf (5 October 2005).

32 Michael Munn, John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth (New York, 2004), pp. 2-6, 125-8. Munn's sources are not as strong as they might be and include the actor Orson Welles and Russian filmmaker Sergei Bondarchuk.

33 Wills, Wayne, p. 13; Oriana Fallaci, Interview with History (London, 1976), p. 41.

34 Ron Kovic, Born on the Fourth of July (New York, 1976), pp. 43, 54-5, 72, 98. A movie version of Kovic's memoir was released in 1989 under the same title, directed by Oliver Stone. See also Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York, 1977), p. 6; W. D. Ehrhart, 'Why I Did It', Virginia Quarterly Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, Winter 1980, pp. 19-31, esp. p. 26; Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York, 1977), pp. 3-4, 188-9, 209. A journalist during the Vietnam War, Herr would later narrate Francis Ford Coppola's Vietnam epic Apocalypse Now (1979) and co-write Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket (1987).

35 Ron Briley, 'John Wayne and Big Jim McLain (1952): The Duke's Cold War Legacy', Film and History, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2001, pp. 28-33; Steve Zmijewsky, Boris Zmijewsky and Mark Ricci, The Complete Films of John Wayne (Secaucus, NJ, 1983), pp. 200-2.

36 Davis, Wayne, p. 26; Los Angeles Times, 5 October 1971.

37 Wills, Wayne, p. 201; Hollywood Reporter, 8 July 1965; Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, pp. 1, 7; Los Angeles Times, 8 May 1969.

38 FBI press cutting report from July 1961on Wayne's role as a commentator on the Defence Department film, Challenge of Ideas (1961), and FBI Special Agent Command to J. Edgar Hoover about a National Geographic Magazine article, 2 June 1960: http:foia.fbi.gov/wayne/wayne.pdf (5 October 2005).

39 Hoover to Wayne, 19 March and 8 April 1970: http:foia.fbi.gov/wayne/ wayne.pdf (5 October 2005).

40 Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 2; FBI Special Agent Command, Los Angeles, to J. Edgar Hoover, 23 April 1959: http:foia.fbi.gov/wayne/wayne.pdf (5 October 2005).

41 www.anb.org/articles/18/18-01223.html (6 October 2005).

42 Smith, Looking Away; Doherty, Projections, p. 276.

43 Susan L. Carruthers, The Media at War (Basingstoke, 2000), p. 254. The North Vietnamese were prolific producers of films about the war while it was being waged. The French, Canadians, Soviets, East Germans and Cubans also made a variety of films, documentaries especially. Few of these films were distributed in the United States. See Jean-Jacques Malo and Tony Williams (eds), Vietnam War Films (Jefferson, NC, 1994); Randolph Lewis, Emile de Antonio: Radical Filmmaker in Cold War America (Madison, WI, 2000), pp. 79-80.

44 Variety, 18 September 1965, p. 4.

45 Lewis, Emile de Antonio, pp. 76-112; Michael Klein and Peter Wiesner, 'A Filmography of Oppositional Politics and Culture in the Vietnam Era, 1963-1974', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1991, pp. 59-72.

46 Schwarz, Cold War Culture, p. 142; Chris Anderson, Citizen Jane (New York, 1990), pp. 168-93. On Fonda's Vietnam-related activities, including the movie Coming Home (1978), see Michael Anderegg, 'Hollywood and Vietnam: John Wayne and Jane Fonda as Discourse', in Michael Anderegg (ed.), Inventing Vietnam: The War in Film and Television (Philadelphia, PA, 1991), pp. 15-32.

48 Ibid.; Jonathan Nashel, Edward Tansdale's Cold War (Amherst, MA, 2006), pp. 163-73.

49 Caroline Page, US Official Propaganda during the Vietnam War, 1965-1973 (London, 1996), pp. 53-61.

50 Aronson, Press, pp. 202-3; Engelhardt, Victory Culture, pp. 242-3.

51 Richard Sobel, The Impact of Public Opinion on US Foreign Policy (Oxford, 2001), pp. 54-5; Tom Wells, 'The Anti-Vietnam War Movement', in Peter Lowe (ed.), The Vietnam War (Basingstoke, 1998), p. 117.

52 MPSVB, RG 306.05798, Night of the Dragon, USNA. In some countries this film circulated on the same bill as the year's hit musical, George Cukor's Oscar-winning My Fair Tady. Robert Elder, The Information Machine: The United States Information Agency and American Foreign Policy (Syracuse, NY, 1968), p. 9.

53 Documents 106-8 in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 376-89; Claudia Springer, 'Military Propaganda: Defense Department Films from World War II and Vietnam', in John Carlos Rowe and Rick Berg (eds), The Vietnam War and American Culture (New York, 1991), pp. 95-114.

54 Walter Hölbling, 'US Fiction about Vietnam: The Discourse of Contradiction', in Michael Klein (ed.), The Vietnam Era: Media and Popular Culture in the US and Vietnam (London, 1990), pp. 127-9.

55 Joseph Kraft, 'Hot Weapon in the Cold War', Saturday Evening Post, 28 April 1962, p. 88.

56 Justin Gustainis, American Rhetoric and the Vietnam War (Westport, CT, 1993), pp. 21-38.

57 Ibid., p. 33; Schwartz, Cold War Culture, p. 132.

58 Hollywood Reporter, 22 June and 14 July 1965.

59 Document 109 in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 390-1. The line is cited at the head of this chapter. Johnson was an avid movie-watcher whilst US president, and listed Wayne's Westerns among his favourites. Johnson/archives.hom/faqs/favorites/ibtable.asp (4 August 2004).

60 Valenti to Johnson, 6 January 1966, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, p. 393.

61 Wayne to Moyers, 18 February 1966, and Wayne to Senator Richard Russell et al., 15 April 1966, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 395-6, 399-400.

62 Baruch to Office of Chief of Information, Department of Army, 3 March 1966, and John Wayne to Bill Moyers, 18 April 1966, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 397-8, 401.

63 Time, 20 and 24 June 1966; Hollywood Citizen-News, 20 June and 6 July 1966; Los Angeles Times, 21 June and 6 July 1966; Variety, 29 June 1966. Michael Munn claims the attempt on Wayne's life was instigated by Mao Tse Tung. Guardian, 1 August 2003, p. 15.

64 Hollywood Reporter, 23 June 1966.

65 Variety, 15 September 1965 and 1 November 1967.

66 Baruch to Office of Chief of Information, Department of Army, 3 March 1966, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 397-8; Variety, 12 July 1967.

67 James W. Hardman, CBS, to Michael Wayne, 16 March 1966, The Green Berets Photograph Files, Batjac Productions, Los Angeles.

68 Interview with Michael Wayne, 5 August 1975, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, p. 407. After his visit to Vietnam, Barrett wrote that 'We are either going to roll over Communism, or we are going to lie down and let Communism roll over us.' See undated published article, 'Vietnam: The Killing Ground', Box 301, f. 3483, George Stevens Collection, AMPAS.

69 Interview with Michael Wayne, 5 August 1975, in Suid, Film and Propaganda in America, pp. 407-9.

70 Ibid., pp. 409-12; Suid, Guts and Glory, pp. 250-3.

71 Variety, 22 June 1967; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 18 November 1967. Seven Arts Productions, a film packager for television, bought Jack Warner's stake in Warner Bros. in mid-1967 for $183,942,000. Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex 'n' Drugs 'n' Rock 'n' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood (London, 1998), p. 35.

72 Variety, 12 July 1967; production notes, undated, c. June 1968, The Green Berets Clipping File, AMPAS.

73 Los Angeles Times, 28 January 1968; Hollywood Citizen-News, 26 June 1969; Commander William Byrns, Pentagon Information Officer, to Michael Wayne, 18 July 1967, The Green Berets Production File, Batjac Productions, Los Angeles; J. W Fulbright, The Pentagon Propaganda Machine (New York, 1970), pp. 117-20.

74 Despite the changes, Janssen remained unsatisfied, and expressed disappointment with his role and the film when The Green Berets opened. Janssen's taped interview with Tony Thomas in Atlanta, Georgia, July 1968, Music and Recorded Sound Files, AMPAS.

75 Variety, 1 November 1967; The Green Berets screenplay (marked 'Final') by James Lee Barrett, 15 May 1967, in The Green Berets, Warner Bros. Archives, USC.

76 Hollywood Reporter, 6 September 1967; Variety, 13 November 1967, p. 3. LeRoy brushed up on the current state of affairs in Vietnam by reading a pamphlet recently produced by the Defence Department, 'Know Your Enemy: The Viet Cong'. For this, and LeRoy's suggested changes for The Green Berets, see Box 2, Mervyn LeRoy Collection, AMPAS.

77 Variety, 1 November 1967.

78 Los Angeles Times, 28 January 1966.

79 Wayne hoped that choosing a black actor to play this role would help offset criticisms of the discriminatory use of African-Americans soldiers in menial chores in Vietnam. Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 5. On McGee's representation of a dependable 'ebony saint' figure see Brian J. Woodman, 'Represented in the Margins: Images of African American Soldiers in Vietnam War Combat Films', in Robert Eberwein (ed.), The War Film (New Brunswick, NJ, 2005), pp. 91-4.

80 Star Trek was first broadcast in 1966 on the National Broadcasting Company. On the programme's relationship to US foreign policy of the 1960s and Vietnam in particular see Nicholas Evan Sarantakes, 'Cold War Pop Culture and the Image of US Foreign Policy: The Perspective of the Original Star Trek Series', Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Fall 2005, pp. 74-103, and H. Bruce Franklin, 'Star Trek in the Vietnam Era', Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, March 1994, pp. 24-34.

81 Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 8.

82 On the journalists' war in Vietnam see Knightley, Casualty, pp. 373-426. On the convention of journalists being won over to the military in Hollywood war films see Stephen Badsey, 'The Depiction of War Reporters in Hollywood Feature Films from the Vietnam War to the Present', Film History, Vol. 14, No. 3-4,2002, pp. 243-60.

83 William Hammond, Reporting Vietnam: Media and the Military at War (Lawrence, KS, 1998), pp. 109-26.

84 Variety, 13 November 1967.

85 Michael X Delli Carpini, 'US Media Coverage of the Vietnam Conflict in 1968', in Klein (ed.), Vietnam Era, p. 38; Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York, 2000), pp. 221-3.

86 Variety, 26 June 1968.

87 New York Times, 30 June 1968; Glamour, October 1968.

88 Life, 19 July 1968, p. 8; Hollywood Reporter, 17 June 1968; Variety, 17 June 1968.

89 On the long-standing debate about television's role during the Vietnam War see Daniel Hallin, The 'Uncensored' War: The Media and Vietnam (Berkeley, CA, 1989), and Carruthers, Media at War, pp. 110-20,145-53.

90 Wall Street Journal, 3 July 1968; Variety, 2 July 1969; Steinberg, Reel Facts, p. 441.

91 New York Times, 14 July 1968; New Yorker, 29 June 1968, pp. 24-7, and 6 July 1968, pp. 44-6.

93 Variety, 1 November 1967.

94 Variety, 11 and 25 September 1968; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 8 August 1968, 7 May, 3 August and 10 September 1969.

95 New York Times, December 1967; Washington Post, 18 December 1967; Wayne interview, Playboy, May 1971, p. 6.

96 Gustav Hasford, The Short-Timers (London, 1979), p. 38.

97 MPSVB, RG 306.06279, Vietnam! Vietnam!, USNA; John Ford Papers, Box 3, correspondence between Ford and Bruce Herschenson, September-December 1968, and Box 8, f. 6, LLUI; De Viney, 'History of USIA Film and Television', ch. 3; Fred Kaplan,' Vietnam! Vietnam?, Cineaste, Vol. 7, No. 3,1976, pp. 20-3.

98 Hollywood Reporter, 26, 27 and 30 June 1969; Los Angeles Times, 27 June 1969; Variety,2 July 1969.

99 Suid, Guts and Glory, pp. 235-46; Michael Coyne, 'Seven Days in May: History, Prophecy and Propaganda', in Anthony Aldgate, James Chapman and Arthur Marwick (eds), Windows on the Sixties: Exploring Key Texts of Media and Culture (London, 2000), pp. 70-90.

101 Wells, 'The Anti-Vietnam War Movement', pp. 120-1.

102 Peter Lev, American Films of the 70s: Conflicting Visions (Austin, TX, 2000), p. 122; Thomas Doherty, 'Full Metal Genre: Stanley Kubrick's Vietnam Combat Movie', Film Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2,1988-9, pp. 24-30.

103 Suid, Guts and Glory, pp. 670-3; Badsey, 'War Reporters', pp. 249-50.

104 H. Bruce Franklin, Vietnam and Other American Fantasies (Amherst, MA, 2000), p. 15. On the political multivalence of Michael Cimino's The Deer Hunter see Michael Ryan and Douglas Kellner, Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film (Bloomington, IN, 1988), pp. 200-6.

105 Guardian, 1 March 2002, p. 16; www.anb.org/articles/18/18-01223.html (6 October 2005). The Conquerer was a film about Genghis Khan, directed by Dick Powell.

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