Conclusion

Kroll and McGilligan had valid points here. The Watergate revelations would prove, in time, to be a crucial release for much of the American media, helping to break down permanently many of the barriers to criticism of the Cold War security state. But Three Days of the Condor and other films like it were made in the mid-1970s, when the shocks to the system caused by the revelations of government skulduggery were newsworthy yet still raw and highly politically sensitive. Three Days of the Condor may in retrospect look somewhat shallow, but its limited critique of CIA machinations was realistically all that could expected from the Hollywood mainstream, given its established support for (and links with) the national security agencies and the film industry's longstanding political cautiousness.

An earlier part of this study showed how reluctant the US film industry was to question Cold War orthodoxy. This was especially the case in the 1940s and 1950s, when America's Cold War values were not yet fully formed and consequently when cinema probably could have made the biggest difference to the American people's outlook on the conflict. This chapter has demonstrated the degree to which the 1970s marked a shift away from the black-and-white views of early Cold War American cinema. Yet its analysis has also confirmed Hollywood's time-honoured tradition of swimming with, rather than against, the prevailing political tide. Even at its height, during what was the heyday of Hollywood liberalism in the 1970s, Cold War cinematic deviance continued to be heavily circumscribed. Neither Hearts and Minds nor Three Days of the Condor could be described as anti-capitalist, still less pro-communist. As radical as it was, Peter Davis' film eschewed an economic reading of the Vietnam War, for instance, in favour of a cultural-political one.78 Moreover, by the time Hearts and Minds appeared in 1974—5, American policy in Vietnam had been subjected to intense criticism from the press and in Congress for more than five or six years. Combine this with the fact that the Vietnam War ended in 1975, and Davis's fine documentary begins to look like an instant period piece.

As a mark of both its artistic and its political boldness, Three Days of the Condor was the recipient of several awards in 1975—6. The movie also enjoyed reasonable commercial success. It made $20 million in rentals, making it the seventeenth highest-grossing film at the US box office in 1975.79 Using films like Three Days of the Condor as a springboard, Hollywood continued to snipe at the CIA during the remaining years of the Cold War. Movies like Arthur

Hiller's The In-Laws (1979) merely poked fun at the agency, while others like John Schlesinger's The Falcon and the Snowman (1985) depicted the CIA as more insidious than drug-dealing Soviet agents.80 Whether Hollywood's CIA-bashing actually increased public hostility to the US intelligence network is of course highly debatable. It could be argued that treating the CIA as a scapegoat for past and on-going American misdemeanours meant wider questions about US foreign policy were sidestepped. One movie, Missing (1982), did focus directly on the CIA's highly contentious role in the 1973 Chilean coup, to which Patrick McGilligan had referred so caustically when Three Days of the Condor was released. Constantin Costa-Gavras' award-winning thriller was closely based on the disappearance of American expatriate writer Charles Horman (played by John Shea) after the coup, and went beyond condemning the CIA to offer a trenchant critique of the whole US Cold War machine. But Missing was itself based on events nearly ten years out of date, and thus, like Hearts and Minds, less likely to alter current US foreign policy.81 From one perspective at least, therefore, Three Days of the Condor was unusually daring.

Notes

1 Mason Wiley and Damien Bona, Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards (New York, 1986), p. 504.

2 For an overview of American movies and movie-making of the 1970s see Lev, American Films of the 70s, and Biskind, Easy Riders.

4 Broderick, Nuclear Movies, pp. 134,137; Shaheen, Nuclear War Films, pp. 157—62.

5 James Chapman, Cinemas of the World (London, 2003), pp. 130—4.

6 Ibid., pp. 135-8; Biskind, Easy Riders. Jim Hillier's The New Hollywood (New York, 1994) warns against making too much of these changes, particularly in relation to the industrial context of filmmaking.

7 On America's sense of crisis in the 1970s see Kim McQuaid, The Anxious Years: America in the Vietnam-Watergate Era (New York, 1989) and Peter N. Carroll, It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: The Tragedy and Promise of America in the 1970s (New York, 1982).

8 On US thinking behind détente see Michael B. Froman, The Development of the Idea of Détente (Basingstoke, 1992), and Richard Pipes, US-Soviet Relations in the Era of Détente (Boulder, CO, 1981).

9 Biskind, Easy Riders, pp. 15-16; Lev, American Films of the 70s, pp. 54-9, 77-89.

10 Ryan and Kellner, Camera Politica, pp. 282-3; Broderick, Nuclear Movies, pp. 152-3. The Atomic Café was produced and directed by Kevin Rafferty, Pierce Rafferty and Jayne Loader.

11 For Moore's speech see www.oscars.org/75academyawards/winners/docfeature. html. For other anti-war statements during the awards ceremony see www.wsws. org/articles/2003/mar2003/osca-m25.shtml (both 25 January 2006).

12 Wiley and Bona, Inside Oscar, pp. 504-7; Michael Nelson, 'Ol' Red, White, and Blue Eyes: Frank Sinatra and the American Presidency', Popular Music and Society, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2000, pp. 79-102. Shirley MacLaine had recently produced The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir, an account of a three-week visit to China in 1973 by a group of American women. New York Times, 23 March 1975, Section 2, p. 1.

13 Biskind, Easy Riders, p. 52.

14 New York Times, 4 May 1975, p. 149. On the tremendous cultural impact of Easy Rider see Lev, American Films of the 70s, pp. 3-12.

15 Biskind, Easy Riders,pp. 57,130,165,186; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 19 January 1975.

16 Daniel Ellsberg, Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers (New York, 2002); Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 21 October 1974.

17 Garth Jowett, 'The Selling of the Pentagon': Television Confronts the First Amendment', in John O'Connor (ed.), American History/American Television: Interpreting the Video Past (New York, 1983), pp. 256-78 (quotation at p. 275).

18 People Magazine, 29 March 1982; Hollywood Reporter, 13 August 1974.

19 Hollywood Reporter, 13 August 1974; Los Angeles Times, 15 November 1974, G1; Peter Davis, 'Hearts and Minds Redux', and commentary by and interview with Davis, on Hearts and Minds (1974), DVD MTD5206 (released 2005).

20 Devine, Vietnam, pp. 62, 74; Galaxy, April 1983.

21 Commentary by and interview with Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

22 Los Angeles Times, 15 November 1974, G1; commentary by and interview with Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

23 Biskind, Easy Riders, pp. 74,184-8; New York Times, 17 November 1974, Section 2, p. 1.

24 Variety, 29 May 1974; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 21 October 1974; New York Times, 17 November 1974, Section 2, p. 1.

25 Los Angeles Times, 15 November 1974, G1; New York Times, 17 November 1974, Section 2, p. 1; commentary by Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

26 Los Angeles Times, 16 December 1974; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 18 December 1974. Tracks was released in 1976. See Variety, 19 May 1976, p. 27.

27 Variety, 17 December 1974; Variety, 20 January 1975; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 19 February 1975; Warner Bros. press releases, 23 January and 11 February 1975, Hearts and Minds Clippings, AMPAS.

28 This clip borrowed footage from the most highly publicised of the early 1950s communist 'takeovers', that which was staged in the small Wisconsin town of Mosinee, on May Day 1950. On Mosinee's famous day see Fried, The Russians are Coming!, pp. 67-86.

29 On the degree to which Vietnam films of the late 1970s and 1980s combined this stab-in-the-military's-back theory with stories of the suffering inflicted on American soldiers serving in Vietnam see Devine, Vietnam, pp. 130-316.

30 New York Times, 17 June 2004.

31 New York Times, 17 November 1974, Section 2, p. 1.

32 This last clip used footage shot by a Swedish film crew in North Vietnam. Commentary by Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

33 Commentary by Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD. On the debate surrounding the effect of the Loan execution on public and political opinion in the United States in the late 1960s see David Culbert, 'American Television Coverage of the Vietnam War: The Loan Execution Footage, the Tet Offensive (1968) and the Contextualization of Visual Images', in Mark Connelly and David Welch (eds), War and the Media: Reportage and Propaganda 1900-2003 (London, 2005), pp. 202-13.

34 Stanley Kauffman, New Republic, 15 March 1975, p. 22.

35 http://rialtopictures.com/grisbi_xtras/hearts_links.html (25 October 2005); New York Times, 17 June 2004; interview with Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD; New York Times, 17 June 2004; www.villagevoice.com/film/0442,atkinson,57660,20. html (25 October 2005). On Fahrenheit 9/11 see Vanity Fair, March 2005, pp. 108-15, and Cineaste, October 2004, pp. 3-7.

36 Ms., March 1975, pp. 35-7; Ramparts, April 1975, pp. 38-44; National Review, 6 June 1975, p. 621.

37 See, for instance, Walter Goodman's review in the New York Times, 23 March 1975, Section 2, p. 1.

38 Time, 17 March 1975.

39 Newsweek, 3 March 1975; Wall Street Journal, 3 March 1975.

40 Press book, Hearts and Minds Clippings File, AMPAS; Playboy, December 1974.

41 Commentary by Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

42 New Yorker, 28 April 1975, pp. 120-6; New York Times, 4 May 1975, p. 149.

44 On the commercial success and political impact of Fahrenheit 9/11, see Screen International, 2 July 2004, p. 3; Sight and Sound, July 2004, pp. 14-16; Cineaste, October 2004, pp. 3-7.

45 BoxOffice, 17 September 1975; Variety, 17 March 1976; Variety, 6 August 1975; People, 25 August 1975.

46 www.wintersoldierfilm.com (22 January 2006).

47 Village Voice, 26 December 1974.

48 Alan R. Booth, 'The Development of the Espionage Film', Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 5, No. 4, October 1990, pp. 136-60.

49 Variety, 11 June 1952, p. 6, and 27 August 1952.

50 Chapman, Licence to Thrill; Christoph Lindner, The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader (Manchester, 2003); Edward P. Comentale, Stephen Watt and Skip Willman (eds), Ian Fleming andJamesBond: The Cultural Politics of 007 (Bloomington, IN, 2005).

51 Motion Picture Herald, 29 March 1967, p. 669; Variety, 20 December 1967, p. 14; Peter Richards, Film Comment, Vol. 33, No. 1, January 1997, pp. 74-81.

52 Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?,pp. 381-4,405-6; William Conrad Gibbons, The US Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships. Part IV July 1965-January 1968 (Princeton, NJ, 1995), pp. 853-65.

53 On Watergate see Fred Emery, Watergate: The Corruption of American Politics and the Fall of Richard Nixon (London, 1994), and Stanley I. Kutler, The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of the Nixon Presidency (New York, 1990).

54 Ryan and Kellner, Camera Politica, p. 49.

55 On this conspiracy cycle and its political significance see Ryan and Kellner, Camera Politica, pp. 95—8, and Scott, Politics, pp. 119—24.

56 Vogue, November 1975; Saturday Review, 6 September 1975.

57 Publishers Weekly, 3 December 1973.

58 Biskind, Easy Riders, pp. 67,184, 273; Los Angeles Times, 15 January 1975.

59 Hollywood Reporter, 1 and 5 March 1974.

60 Robert J. Emery, The Directors — Take One: In Their Own Words (New York, 1999), pp. 81—97.

61 On The Way We Were see Booker, American Left, pp. 258—9. On the sequences about blacklisting which were cut from the released film see Jump Cut, No. 10/11, 1976, pp. 11—12.

63 Three Days of the Condor Pressbook, BFIL. Redford's mildly anti-establishment image was exploited by Condor's publicists. See 'Handbook of Production Information', pp. 20—3, 59, 62—3, Three Days of the Condor Clippings File, AMPAS.

64 'Handbook of Production Information', p. 61.

65 Playboy, interview with Robert Redford, December 1974, p. 92; Minty Clinch, Robert Redford (London, 1989), p. 123; Scott, Politics, pp. 123—4; James Spada, The Films of Robert Redford (Secaucus, NJ, 1977), pp. 225—37.

66 Three Days of the Condor, draft script by Lorenzo Semple, Jr., 5 October 1974, Paramount Script Collection, AMPAS.

67 Three Days of the Condor, draft script by David Rayfiel, 20 October 1974, Collection 073, Box F-883, UCLA AL.

68 Christopher Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (London, 1995), pp. 401—5. Hersh's revelations more than anything else made 1975 the 'Year of Intelligence', writes Andrew (p. 404).

69 Three Days of the Condor, revised screenplay by Lorenzo Semple, Jr., and David Rayfiel, 20 January 1975, Collection 073, Box F-883, UCLA AL; New Times, 31 October 1975.

70 'Handbook of Production Information', pp. 115—35; Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, 4 November 1974; Jump Cut, No. 10/11, 1976, pp. 11—12; Emery, Directors, p. 99. According to William Colby, director of the CIA between 1973 and 1976, Nixon had fired Helms in late 1972 because of his refusal to allow the CIA to be used in the Watergate cover-up. Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only, p. 387.

71 These comparisons were made at the time. See Films and Filming, December 1975, and Los Angeles Times, 28 September 1975. For more on The Spy Who Came in from the Cold and The Ipcress File see Motion Picture Herald, 3 March 1965, p. 21; Motion Picture Herald, 22 December 1965, p. 425; and Sight and Sound, Vol. 34, No. 3, July

1965, p. 150. On the scriptwriters' manipulation of tension in Three Days of the Condor see Gregg Bachman, 'Three Days of the Condor: Tension', Creative Writing, Vol. 3, No. 3, Winter 1996, pp. 76-82.

72 Jump Cut., No. 10/11, 1976, pp. 11-12; 'Handbook of Production Information', p. 11; Andrew, President's Eyes Only, p. 414.

73 Osceola, 14 November 1975.

74 Los Angeles Times, 10 September 1975.

75 Clinch, Redford, p. 125; Saturday Review, 6 September 1975; Jump Cut, No. 10/11, 1976, pp. 11-12.

76 Clinch, Redford, p. 125; Hollywood Reporter, 17 September 1975.

77 Newsweek, 29 September 1975; Jump Cut, No. 10/11,1976, pp. 11-12.

78 Although Hearts and Minds includes a speech by President Eisenhower citing Vietnam's valuable tin and tungsten resources, Davis discounted 'revisionist' theorists like Noam Chomsky who argued in the late 1960s and 1970s that America's road to Vietnam lay in the quest for economic aggrandisement. Commentary by Davis, Hearts and Minds DVD.

79 Variety, 3 May 1976; www.imdb.com/title/tt0073802/awards (24 January 2006); Ryan and Kellner, Camera Politica, p. 100.

80 Variety, 13 June 1979;Photoplay,May 1985,pp. 26-8;Hollywood Reporter,21 January 1985; Palmer, Eighties, pp. 222-32.

81 For the genesis and development of Missing see scripts in the Core Script Collection, AMPAS, and in Collection 073, Box F114 and F146, UCLA AL, and John J. Michalczyk, Costa-Gavras: The Political Action Film (Philadelphia, PA, 1984), pp. 215-35. On the truth or falsehood of the film's allegations, and the controversy Missing triggered, see Robert Brent Toplin, History by Hollywood: The Use and Abuse of the American Past (Chicago, IL, 1996), pp. 104-24.

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