Bibliography

Bordwell, David (1985a) Narration in the Fiction Film (London Methuen & Co.). Bordwell, David and Thompson, Kristin (1997) Film Art An Introduction (New York McGraw-Hill, 5th edn). Bordwell, David et al. (1985b) The Classical Hollywood Cinema Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960 (London Routledge). Brecht, Bertolt (1978) Brecht on Theatre The Development of an Aesthetic (London Eyre Methuen). Godard, Jean-Luc (1972a) Godard on Godard (New York Da Capo Press). Godard, Jean-Luc (1972b)...

Commentary

The introduction emphasises very clearly the two major themes to be developed, the barge and the water, and places them in relation to each other using the structuring idea of the paradox. 1 a) The first part of the essay is devoted to the barge. The first section of the first part takes the notion of 'limited space' as its focus, announced clearly in the first sentence, and moves to the consequence of that limitation, anger, the search for fulfilment elsewhere and the deterioration of a...

Comparative Sequence Analysis Le Matin Novel By Philippe Djianfilm By Jeanjacques Beineix

In this sequence Zorg has just learned that Betty is pregnant as he was about to deliver a piano to a client. He rushes off with his friend Bob in a borrowed lorry, and gets caught in a speed trap by the young policeman Richard, whom he had crossed before in town. In the table that follows overleaf, the dialogue in the film has the original passage from the novel next to it in the far right-hand column. The sequence analysis which follows the table takes account of the sequence mainly from the...

Early Film Theory

The first theorists of the cinema were mainly the directors themselves, and their critics, in the increasing number of publications devoted to the cinema, whether the daily press, fan magazines or the more serious journals. The latter had started appearing before the First World War and had spread rapidly in the early 1920s, making France, and more especially Paris, one of the world's centres of reflection on film. One of the earliest journals, Le Film, became the mouthpiece for one of the...

Episodic sequence

Brief episodes whose meaning lies in their juxtaposition they function as vthe symbolic summary of one stage in the fairly long evolution condensed by the total sequence'. Metz gives the example of the breakdown of Kane's relationship with his wife in the breakfast sequence, where swish pans separate different moments in a long period of time. Another example might be episodes suggesting a character's Vise to fame'. encountered when considering the soundtrack, which can overlap between...

Further reading

Writing on the French cinema is extensive. We confine ourselves here to major works published in the last 20 years or so, which students may find helpful in thinking about French cinema. We have not listed encyclopaedias or dictionaries (of which there are many published in French and, increasingly, in English) nor have we listed volumes on individual directors, since these are too numerous many of them are referred to in Chapter 3 of this volume. It is also worth signalling Manchester...

Further Reading On Latalante

Salles Gomes, P.E. (1972) Jean Vigo (London Faber & Faber 2nd edn 1998 first published in French in 1957), 149-94. Warner, Marina (1993) L'Atalante (London BFI 'Film Classics'). 2. ON THE OPENING SEQUENCES OF WEEKEND (JEAN-LUC GODARD, 1967), BY JOHN WILLIAMS This longer essay was written as a course assignment on what Godard called his last bourgeois film before retreating after the events of May 1968 into work in television as part of a group of film-makers. This film, a companion piece to...

Image Not Available

Figure 1.2 L'Ann e derni re Marienbad and Varda for a very long time was - certainly so far as non-French audiences were concerned - seemingly the only one of her kind. Cl o de 5 7 (1962) tells in real time the story of a singer who suspects she may have cancer. Hope and encouragement are given to her by a young conscript soldier she meets in the Pare Montsouris while waiting for the result of hospital tests - a scene given particular poignancy by the fact that he is at the end of a period of...

Table And Figure Numbers Of Films Produced

Film production statistics are notoriously difficult to pin down, since they depend on the criteria used. The main problem is the status of co-productions. Is a film French if its director is French and its stars non-French, for example The figures presented here should therefore be used with caution, and are intended as a guide rather than an accurate record. We have given statistics for a number of European countries, mainly so that the reader can place French film production in a context...

Table And Figure Numbers Of Spectators

The figures presented here show that there has been a decline in spectator numbers since 1945. However, with the exception of the early 1950s, the decline in Paris has been slower and less dramatic than the decline over the whole of France. While Paris film theatres are sufficiently numerous and varied to continue attracting large numbers, elsewhere in France, particularly during the 1960s, spectators preferred to stay at home and watch television than go to their local cinema. The decline in...

Table French Prizes

Only major prizes have been listed (Best Film, Palme d'Or, International and Special Jury Prizes, Best Director, Best Actor and Best Actress). The year given is the year of release of the film. La Bataille du rail, R. Cl ment Best Director International Jury Prize La Symphonie pastorale, J. Delannoy Best Film Best Actress (Mich le Morgan) Au-del des grilles, R. Cl ment Best Director Best Actress (Isa Miranda) Nous sommes tous des assassins, A. Cayatte Sp cial Jury Prize Fanfan la tulipe,...

Table French Theorists Of The Cinema

This table lists the key theorists and their texts in the history of French cinema not all of these have been discussed in detail in Chapter 2 of this volume. The majority of these texts are also listed in the Bibliography, where the reader will find details of English translations where available. 1900 1945 Louis Delluc Photog nie (1920) 1945-1960 Alexandre Astruc 'La Cam ra-stylo' (1948) Andr Bazin and the Andr Bazin Qu'est-ce que le cinema (1958-1959) Essai sur les principes d'une...

Text

Film-makers and critics alike have long been fascinated by the similarities between man's natural voyeuristic impulses and the viewing process in cinema. Conditions of screening (the darkened room) and narrative conventions in mainstream cinema (continuity editing as a means of effacing the methods of production, and the convention by which actors do not, generally speaking, directly address the camera), essentially make the film viewer a voyeur. Like the voyeur, we as viewers derive a certain...

The Early Classic Era From Sound To The Second World

The advent of sound in 1929 inaugurated what is usually called the classic French cinema. Sound was a mixed blessing, at first viewed with suspicion by the industry because of the costly technological investment it required, all the costlier since France's only home-grown sound system was of poor quality and rapidly taken over by the German Tobis Klangfilm company. On the other hand, the language barrier introduced by sound ensured a viable domestic market for French films, while the...

The Movements Of Cinema Deleuze

Deleuze published his two volumes on the cinema in 1983 and 1985. Recognised by many at the time as key interventions, their impact had only begun to be felt in the late 1990s in Anglophone Film Studies. Keith Reader pointed out in the mid-1980s that 'Deleuze gazes from a place very different to that learnt by most of us' (Reader, 1987 99), which could act as the leitmotif for the reasons lying behind Deleuze's late impact. The first reason is that the volumes appeared at about the same time as...

Heritage The Look Women Beurs Banlieue Le Jeune Cinema

There were major changes in the production and distribution of films during the late 1970s and early 1980s, which had a significant impact on the cinema. Some of these changes were common to other developed countries in Europe. Amongst these, there was the rise of TV co-productions, in particular with the encrypted channel Canal+, which unlike its counterpart in the UK, Channel 4, was almost exclusively devoted to films other major channels such as TF1 and FR3 became associated with film...

The Silent Period

The two best-known names in French silent cinema are those of Lumi re and Georges M li s. This is largely because between them they permit the division of the field into two conveniently complementary halves. Lumi re allegedly described the cinema as 'a fairground showman's trade', and the brothers, initially at least, saw their short films as valuable publicity for their photographic business. Their titles, such as Sortie d'usine Workers Leaving the Lumi re Factory or Arriv e des congressistes...

Sociology And Structuralism

Bazin, who died in 1958, had nothing to do with the university sector, and his acolytes, the young critics, soon to become directors of the New Wave, did not emerge from film school (the IDHEC, Institut des Hautes Etudes Cin matographiques, had been established in 1945). Bazin, like theorists before him, was an enthusiast, if not a film-maker himself. Film theory in France took a new turn around 1960 as academics began to take an interest in the medium, heavily influenced in the early 1960s by...

Table Key Technical Terms In English And French

Camera distance (using the human figure as measure) plan g n ral, plan de grand ensemble plan d'ensemble plan moyen, plan demi-ensemble plan am ricain plan rapproch gros plan tr s gros plan arri re-plan premier plan crane up crane down dolly forwards dolly back dolly right dolly left pan right plan grue (haut) plan grue (bas) travelling avant travelling arri re travelling lat ral (droite) travelling lat ral (gauche) panoramique (droite) camera mounted on trolly often on a rail-track so also...

Le Matin Jeanjacques Beineix Aka Betty Blue

This cult film from the 1980s is about a failed writer, Zorg, and his relationship with Betty, something of a rebel, who encourages him to write. She tries to have a baby and fails, eventually gouging her eye out and becoming catatonic, at which point Zorg kills her. The sequence is taken from early on in the film when Betty has moved into Zorg's beach house. Zorg, who works as an odd job man, has been asked by the owner of the beach houses to paint them all so as to earn his and Betty's keep....

The New Wave Postscript Realism And Comedy

The May 1968 events - a student protest leading to a general strike on a massive scale and briefly seeming to menace the whole institutional structure of French society - appear in retrospect as the moment when culture assumed a major importance in the political arena. The Langlois affair, as we have seen, was a pr figuration of this, and the 'Estates-General of the Cinema', set up during the events by the film technicians' union, discussed various possibilities for the restructuring of the...

Le Jour Se Lve Marcel Carn

In Le Jour se l ve, one of the great films from the French Poetic Realist tradition, Jean Gabin plays Fran ois, a worker in a sand-blasting factory, who has murdered Valentin Jules Berry because the latter had taunted him over Fran ois's girlfriend, Fran oise Jacqueline Laurent . He has holed up in his hotel bedroom, where he ruminates during the night on the events that led up to the murder. In this sequence which is approximately six minutes long , the third hotel room sequence, the day has...

Le Cinma De Papa

The period between 1945 and 1959 was for long stigmatised as what TrufFaut called the cinema de papa 'daddy's cinema' , a sneering reference to the supposed political and aesthetic paralysis of the Fourth Republic his vitriolic 1954 article lambasts a cinema locked into tedious literary adaptations see TrufFaut, 1976 . Squeezed between the heyday of the classic cinema and the burgeoning of the New Wave, it remains, in both senses of the word, largely invisible. Not a single film by Claude...

The New Wave

The New Wave never formally constituted itself as a movement the term was coined by the journalist Fran oise Giroud , so that 'membership' of it is to a large extent a matter of opinion. The five 'core' directors - Claude Chabrol, Fran ois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Eric Rohmer and Jacques Rivette - had met at the Paris Cin math que in the late 1940s or early 1950s and had graduated to film making by way of the influential journal Cahiers du cin ma. The major intellectual and personal influence...

The Spaces Of Cinema Daney Burch And Gardies

The three writers to be dealt with in this section have in common a preoccupation with the spatial dimension of cinema. Clearly this forms part of any serious approach to the medium, but for the major figures considered thus far it is largely subsumed under ontology cinema's relationship to the 'real world' Bazin , cinema as signifying practice Metz or, as we shall see below, cinema as movement in through time Deleuze . Burch and Gardies in different ways articulate something like a theory of...

The War Years

To speak of the Occupation as having positive effects on the French cinema industry may appear perverse, even seditious, but it is a position increasingly widely accepted by film historians. The unavailability of American films meant that the French industry had the field to itself far more than in normal circumstances a character in Jean-Pierre Melville's Resistance epic L'Arm e des ombres 1969 says that France will know she is free when it is possible to watch Gone With The Wind on the...

Info

Censorial trigger-happiness, subsequently evidenced in the banning of Renoir's La R gle du jeu, doubtless owed much to this precarious position. L'Atalante owes much of its impact to the extraordinary performance of Michel Simon as the barge-hand P re Jules. Simon - Swiss, but at the very antipodes of the anodine cleanliness normally associated with that country - is the great visceral star of classic French cinema. Even at his most benignly disruptive, as in this him...

La Haine Matthieu Kassovitz

La Haine is one of the major films of the 1990s. It is characteristic of the cin ma de banlieue, films set in the outer suburbs of France's main cities, which focus on disaffected and usually jobless young men. It was the seventh most popular French film in 1995, and was shown to government ministers as an example of what would in the UK be called 'inner-city problems'. The film focuses on three friends, a black Hubert , a white Jew Vinz , and a beur Said . There is tension on the housing...

The Sounds Of Cinema Chion

Michel Chion is primarily known in Film Studies for his ground-breaking work on the soundtrack, but he is also a composer of electronic music, a film-maker and a university teacher in Paris. He has published some 18 books since the mid-1970s, either on music, film-makers one on Jacques Tati in 1987 and one on David Lynch in 1992 or various aspects of the film soundtrack. In this last group, there are five key works the first three, on voice 1982 , on sound 1985 and on dialogue 1988 , were all...

Ideology And Suture

The major socio-political event of the late 1960s in France was that of May 1968, as discussed in Chapter 1. This had a major impact on the film industry Godard, for example, withdrew from mainstream cinema to concentrate on radical political cinema as part of a collective artists and intellectuals, including many film-makers, grouped together to force the reinstatement of Henri Langlois, the director of the Cin math que, who had been sacked. In film theory, there was also a Leftist turn which,...

Autonomous shot

A single-shot sequence e.g. early silent films or an inserted shot, of which there are at least four types. 1 Non-diegetic insert objects exterior to the fictional world of the action, e.g. a metaphoric shot. 2 Displaced diegetic insert events from the diegesis, but temporally spatially out of context, e.g. the single shot of a pursuer inserted into a sequence showing a pursuit. 3 Subjective insert memories, dreams, fears, premonitions. 4 Explanatory insert closer shots of letters, headlines,...

Panique Julien Du Vivier Monsieur Hire Patrice Leconte

In this sequence analysis we will compare the opening sequences of two films adapted from the same novel, Georges Simenon's Les Fian ailles de Monsieur Hire 1933 . Since these films and their directors are less well known than those used so far in this chapter, there follows rather more context than for previous sequence analyses. Some 30 Simenon novels have been adapted for the screen. The most recent in relation to Monsieur Hire had been Tavernier's L'Horloger de Saint-Paul 1973 . In the...

Andr Bazin And The Politique Des Auteurs

As was the case in the period 1900-1945, there was no clear distinction between critical and theoretical debate on cinema in the France of the immediate post-war years. Subsequent references to 'the auteur theory' are effectively anachronistic it was not until the 1970s, with the upsurge of interest in what might be termed theory in general and theoretical Marxism and psychoanalysis in particular, that film theory came into its own as a separate discursive domain in France. This situation came...

Psychoanalysis And Poststructuralism

The Marxist approach was short-lived, partly because it was too monolithic, but partly too because the attempt to account for spectatorial positioning and pleasure had been in the air since at least Morin's 1956 Le Cin ma ou l'homme imaginaire. Indeed, strictly psychoanalytical approaches did not suddenly appear in the early 1970s as early as the 1940s, there had been an attempt to analyse Bunuel's Un chien andalou using Freudian psychoanalysis see Mondragon, 1949 . The psychoanalytic turn of...

Practice r

In this chapter, we will outline the types of academic work which have been produced on the French cinema, with a particular emphasis on work in the 1990s and beyond. In the 1990s, French cinema, in academic and film distribution circles, joined the ranks of 'everything-that-isn't-Hollywood', nesting in the catch-all category of 'World Cinema'. At the same time, the late 1990s saw an explosion, not just in French cinema itself, with the advent of a new generation of young film-makers, as we...

Bracket syntagma

VA series of very brief scenes representing occurrences that the film gives as typical samples of a same order of reality, without in any way chronologically locating them in relation to each other.' The syntagma functions like a parenthesis hence its title which establishes a concept The first erotic images of Une femme mari e Jean-Luc Godard, 1964 sketch a global picture of modem love through variations and partial repetitions' vin The Scarlet Empress Joseph von Sternberg, 1935 , the sequence...

An Approach To Sequence Analysis

In this brief introduction, we will cover the following questions. Why is a sequence analysis useful How can a sequence analysis be selected How long should a sequence be During the 1990s, several publishers have brought out series on individual films. Whereas the British Film Institute BFI series 'Film Classics' and 'Modern Classics' both include French films,37 neither has a standard format, reflecting the fact that both series are intended to address the film buff as well as the film...