Sociology And Structuralism

Bazin, who died in 1958, had nothing to do with the university sector, and his acolytes, the young critics, soon to become directors of the New Wave, did not emerge from film school (the IDHEC, Institut des Hautes Etudes Cin matographiques, had been established in 1945). Bazin, like theorists before him, was an enthusiast, if not a film-maker himself. Film theory in France took a new turn around 1960 as academics began to take an interest in the medium, heavily influenced in the early 1960s by...

Table Key Technical Terms In English And French

Camera distance (using the human figure as measure) plan g n ral, plan de grand ensemble plan d'ensemble plan moyen, plan demi-ensemble plan am ricain plan rapproch gros plan tr s gros plan arri re-plan premier plan crane up crane down dolly forwards dolly back dolly right dolly left pan right plan grue (haut) plan grue (bas) travelling avant travelling arri re travelling lat ral (droite) travelling lat ral (gauche) panoramique (droite) camera mounted on trolly often on a rail-track so also...

Le Matin Jeanjacques Beineix Aka Betty Blue

This cult film from the 1980s is about a failed writer, Zorg, and his relationship with Betty, something of a rebel, who encourages him to write. She tries to have a baby and fails, eventually gouging her eye out and becoming catatonic, at which point Zorg kills her. The sequence is taken from early on in the film when Betty has moved into Zorg's beach house. Zorg, who works as an odd job man, has been asked by the owner of the beach houses to paint them all so as to earn his and Betty's keep....

The New Wave Postscript Realism And Comedy

The May 1968 events - a student protest leading to a general strike on a massive scale and briefly seeming to menace the whole institutional structure of French society - appear in retrospect as the moment when culture assumed a major importance in the political arena. The Langlois affair, as we have seen, was a pr figuration of this, and the 'Estates-General of the Cinema', set up during the events by the film technicians' union, discussed various possibilities for the restructuring of the...

Le Jour Se Lve Marcel Carn

In Le Jour se l ve, one of the great films from the French Poetic Realist tradition, Jean Gabin plays Fran ois, a worker in a sand-blasting factory, who has murdered Valentin Jules Berry because the latter had taunted him over Fran ois's girlfriend, Fran oise Jacqueline Laurent . He has holed up in his hotel bedroom, where he ruminates during the night on the events that led up to the murder. In this sequence which is approximately six minutes long , the third hotel room sequence, the day has...

Le Cinma De Papa

The period between 1945 and 1959 was for long stigmatised as what TrufFaut called the cinema de papa 'daddy's cinema' , a sneering reference to the supposed political and aesthetic paralysis of the Fourth Republic his vitriolic 1954 article lambasts a cinema locked into tedious literary adaptations see TrufFaut, 1976 . Squeezed between the heyday of the classic cinema and the burgeoning of the New Wave, it remains, in both senses of the word, largely invisible. Not a single film by Claude...

The New Wave

The New Wave never formally constituted itself as a movement the term was coined by the journalist Fran oise Giroud , so that 'membership' of it is to a large extent a matter of opinion. The five 'core' directors - Claude Chabrol, Fran ois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Eric Rohmer and Jacques Rivette - had met at the Paris Cin math que in the late 1940s or early 1950s and had graduated to film making by way of the influential journal Cahiers du cin ma. The major intellectual and personal influence...

The Spaces Of Cinema Daney Burch And Gardies

The three writers to be dealt with in this section have in common a preoccupation with the spatial dimension of cinema. Clearly this forms part of any serious approach to the medium, but for the major figures considered thus far it is largely subsumed under ontology cinema's relationship to the 'real world' Bazin , cinema as signifying practice Metz or, as we shall see below, cinema as movement in through time Deleuze . Burch and Gardies in different ways articulate something like a theory of...

The War Years

To speak of the Occupation as having positive effects on the French cinema industry may appear perverse, even seditious, but it is a position increasingly widely accepted by film historians. The unavailability of American films meant that the French industry had the field to itself far more than in normal circumstances a character in Jean-Pierre Melville's Resistance epic L'Arm e des ombres 1969 says that France will know she is free when it is possible to watch Gone With The Wind on the...

Info

Censorial trigger-happiness, subsequently evidenced in the banning of Renoir's La R gle du jeu, doubtless owed much to this precarious position. L'Atalante owes much of its impact to the extraordinary performance of Michel Simon as the barge-hand P re Jules. Simon - Swiss, but at the very antipodes of the anodine cleanliness normally associated with that country - is the great visceral star of classic French cinema. Even at his most benignly disruptive, as in this him...

La Haine Matthieu Kassovitz

La Haine is one of the major films of the 1990s. It is characteristic of the cin ma de banlieue, films set in the outer suburbs of France's main cities, which focus on disaffected and usually jobless young men. It was the seventh most popular French film in 1995, and was shown to government ministers as an example of what would in the UK be called 'inner-city problems'. The film focuses on three friends, a black Hubert , a white Jew Vinz , and a beur Said . There is tension on the housing...

The Sounds Of Cinema Chion

Michel Chion is primarily known in Film Studies for his ground-breaking work on the soundtrack, but he is also a composer of electronic music, a film-maker and a university teacher in Paris. He has published some 18 books since the mid-1970s, either on music, film-makers one on Jacques Tati in 1987 and one on David Lynch in 1992 or various aspects of the film soundtrack. In this last group, there are five key works the first three, on voice 1982 , on sound 1985 and on dialogue 1988 , were all...

Ideology And Suture

The major socio-political event of the late 1960s in France was that of May 1968, as discussed in Chapter 1. This had a major impact on the film industry Godard, for example, withdrew from mainstream cinema to concentrate on radical political cinema as part of a collective artists and intellectuals, including many film-makers, grouped together to force the reinstatement of Henri Langlois, the director of the Cin math que, who had been sacked. In film theory, there was also a Leftist turn which,...

Autonomous shot

A single-shot sequence e.g. early silent films or an inserted shot, of which there are at least four types. 1 Non-diegetic insert objects exterior to the fictional world of the action, e.g. a metaphoric shot. 2 Displaced diegetic insert events from the diegesis, but temporally spatially out of context, e.g. the single shot of a pursuer inserted into a sequence showing a pursuit. 3 Subjective insert memories, dreams, fears, premonitions. 4 Explanatory insert closer shots of letters, headlines,...

Panique Julien Du Vivier Monsieur Hire Patrice Leconte

In this sequence analysis we will compare the opening sequences of two films adapted from the same novel, Georges Simenon's Les Fian ailles de Monsieur Hire 1933 . Since these films and their directors are less well known than those used so far in this chapter, there follows rather more context than for previous sequence analyses. Some 30 Simenon novels have been adapted for the screen. The most recent in relation to Monsieur Hire had been Tavernier's L'Horloger de Saint-Paul 1973 . In the...

Andr Bazin And The Politique Des Auteurs

As was the case in the period 1900-1945, there was no clear distinction between critical and theoretical debate on cinema in the France of the immediate post-war years. Subsequent references to 'the auteur theory' are effectively anachronistic it was not until the 1970s, with the upsurge of interest in what might be termed theory in general and theoretical Marxism and psychoanalysis in particular, that film theory came into its own as a separate discursive domain in France. This situation came...

Psychoanalysis And Poststructuralism

The Marxist approach was short-lived, partly because it was too monolithic, but partly too because the attempt to account for spectatorial positioning and pleasure had been in the air since at least Morin's 1956 Le Cin ma ou l'homme imaginaire. Indeed, strictly psychoanalytical approaches did not suddenly appear in the early 1970s as early as the 1940s, there had been an attempt to analyse Bunuel's Un chien andalou using Freudian psychoanalysis see Mondragon, 1949 . The psychoanalytic turn of...

Practice r

In this chapter, we will outline the types of academic work which have been produced on the French cinema, with a particular emphasis on work in the 1990s and beyond. In the 1990s, French cinema, in academic and film distribution circles, joined the ranks of 'everything-that-isn't-Hollywood', nesting in the catch-all category of 'World Cinema'. At the same time, the late 1990s saw an explosion, not just in French cinema itself, with the advent of a new generation of young film-makers, as we...

Bracket syntagma

VA series of very brief scenes representing occurrences that the film gives as typical samples of a same order of reality, without in any way chronologically locating them in relation to each other.' The syntagma functions like a parenthesis hence its title which establishes a concept The first erotic images of Une femme mari e Jean-Luc Godard, 1964 sketch a global picture of modem love through variations and partial repetitions' vin The Scarlet Empress Joseph von Sternberg, 1935 , the sequence...

Bibliography

Abel, Richard 1984 French cin ma The First Wave, 1915-1929 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press . Abel, Richard 1988 French Film Theory and Criticism A History Anthology, 1907-1929 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press . Abel, Richard 1994 The Cine Goes to Town French Cinema, 1896-1914 Berkeley University of California Press . Aitken, Ian 2001 European Film Theory and Cinema A Critical Introduction Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press . Andrew, Dudley 1984 Concepts in Film Theory Oxford,...

An Approach To Sequence Analysis

In this brief introduction, we will cover the following questions. Why is a sequence analysis useful How can a sequence analysis be selected How long should a sequence be During the 1990s, several publishers have brought out series on individual films. Whereas the British Film Institute BFI series 'Film Classics' and 'Modern Classics' both include French films,37 neither has a standard format, reflecting the fact that both series are intended to address the film buff as well as the film...