Info

-. ''Witherspoon's Ditzy Blonde Has Wrong Look for Beltway.'' Chicago Edelstein, David. ''Kicking, but not Alive.'' Slate, March 14, 2003, sec. Movies. Edley, Nigel, and Margaret Wetherell. ''Masculinity, Power and Identity.'' In Understanding Masculinities Social Relations and Cultural Arenas, ed. Mairtin Mac an Ghaill. Buckingham and Bristol, PA Open University Press, 1996, 97-113. Eisenhower, Dwight D. Public Papers of the Presidents, 1960, pp. 1035-1040. Eisenstein, Zillah. ''Eastern...

Blockers

Some recent films have shown us the other side of public masculinities, placed firmly back in the present and in their domestic environments, deprived of their nostalgic glow, often in gendered confrontation with women and at a generational war with their adolescent offspring. It is no coincidence that this group of films has had better success at addressing adolescent audiences, who tend to be consumed by identity crises raging within their own personal spheres. In Eastern Europe, the...

CHYof GOD

HMHi SnCiWEl *.< IkVIHUM 'li.SIK . til . JMI M iifciMMi -C* .W'l n 4X.I > t- (OFflCIAL iUECIION CANNti FIIH F S1IVM.> The North American posterior City of God places more emphasis on Angelica (Alice Braga) and Rocket (Alexandre Rodrigues). the chicken is the character Knockout Ned (Man Galinha in Portuguese), suggesting that he is a ''dead chicken'' galinha morta ,19 meaning an inexpressive, mediocre person. In City of God, the narrative is characterized by its circularity, expressed in...

Conclusion

While the ''basketball number'' can be considered as a ''traditional'' integrated number, it also challenges the supposed narrative links assigned to the integrated musical performance by Altman.32 If, as Altman argues, the musical number functions to reconcile two mutually exclusive terms introduced in the plot of the film, how do we address a film in which none of the ''stars'' of the plot are musical performers Perhaps the two stars are not musical performers, but what I have been trying to...

Contents

Introduction Youth Culture Shock 1 timothy shary chapter 1. American Juvenile Delinquency Movies and the European Censors The Cross-Cultural Reception and Censorship of The Wild One, Blackboard Jungle, and Rebel Without a Cause 9 daniel biltereyst chapter 2. The Imported Rebellion Criminal Guys and Consumerist Girls in Postwar Germany and Austria 27 alexandra seibel chapter 3. Rebels with a Cause Children versus the Military Industrial Complex 37 mick broderick chapter 4. Chinese Youth Problem...

Culturalnational identity

Genglik K pr s The Bridge of Youth (1975) Die Halbstarken Teenage Wolfpack (1956) Meg ll az id Time Stands Still (1982) Les Roseaux sauvages The Wild Reeds (1994) Time of the Gypsies Dom za vesanje (1988) Topio stin omichli Landscape in the Mist (1988) La Vie devant soi Madame Rosa (1977) Wan zhu Masters of Mischief (1988) Whale Rider (2002) Yalniz Degilsiniz You Are Not Alone (1990) Yaogun qingnian Rock Kids (1988)

Delinquency

Certi bambini A Children's Story (2004) Di yi lei xing wei xian Don't Play with Fire (1980) Die Halbstarken Teenage Wolfpack (1956) The Little Thief La Petite voleuse (1988) The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (1962) Les Quatre cents coups The 400 Blows (1959) Rosie (1998) Sia dai (1996) Christiane F. ir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo We Children from Bahnhof Zoo (1981) Cidade de Deus City of God (2002) La Luna (1979) Temporada de patos Duck Season (2004)

Family problems

Al-Abwab al-moghlaka The Closed Doors (1999) Chinesisches Roulette Chinese Roulette (1976) Heavenly Creatures (1994) High Tide (1987) Mitt liv som hund My Life as a Dog (1985) Mon oncle Antoine My Uncle Antoine (1971) Les Quatre cents coups The 400 Blows (1959) The Young Poisoner's Handbook (1995)

Filmography Of Global Youth Films By Nation

This filmography consists of all the non-U. S. feature films about youth listed in this book, as well as over 700 other titles culled from many different indexes and databases. The list is as exhaustive as possible, although it is not complete due to the numerous international films that have not found their way into wide release and or have not been properly catalogued. All of the films below feature a significant role or roles for people in their adolescence or puberty in terms of years, that...

Heterosexual relations

A nos amours (1983) L'Amant The Lover (1992) Dependencia sexual Sexual Dependency (2003) M dchen, M dchen Girls On Top (2001) Malabimba Possession of a Teenager (1979) Shifshuf Naim Hot Bubblegum (1981) Sieben Sommersprossen Seven Freckles (1978) Somersault (2004) Swimming Pool (2003) Tendres cousines Cousins in Love (1980) Y tu mam tambi n And Your Mother Too (2001)

Homosexualbisexual relations

Anders als du und ich The Third Sex (1957) A toute vitesse Full Speed (1996) Beautiful Thing (1996) Bilitis (1977) Dependencia sexual Sexual Dependency (2003) Fucking Amal Show Me Love (1998) Head On (1998) Lola + Bilidikid Lola and Billy the Kid (1999) Lost and Delirious La Rage au coeur (2001) Nagisa no Shindobaddo Like Grains of Sand (1995) No se lo digas a nadie Don't Tell Anyone (1998) Les Roseaux sauvages The Wild Reeds (1994) Shi qi sui de tian kong Formula 17 (2004) Sommersturm Summer...

In global cinema

Copyright 2007 by the university of texas press Printed in the United States of America First edition, 2007 Requests for permission to reproduce material from this work should be sent to Permissions, University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, TX 78713-7819 The paper used in this book meets the minimum requirements of ansi niso z39.48-1992 (r1997) (Permanence of Paper). library of congress cataloging-in-publication data Youth culture in global cinema edited by Timothy Shary and Alexandra...

Looking for girls

The Visual Pleasures and Social Empowerment of Queer Teen Romance Flicks elin Is it true you're a lesbian If it's true, I understand 'cause guys are so gross. I'm also going to be one, I think . . . Show Me Love Queer girls have come to represent some of the most transformative subjects within contemporary independent film, giving rise to new forms of youth cinema. The emergence of queer girl characters driving romantic narratives challenges normative ideals of heterosexual adolescent...

Murray Pomerance

A poem is a petition. theo's father, in The Dreamers Age grading is a widely distributed feature of human societies. The allocation of rewards and responsibilities, the designation of dependent groups, and the differentiation of rights and obligations on the basis of age is widespread among communities primitive and advanced, ancient and contemporary alike. Most typically, two broad categories are to be found, defined in mutual exclusion childhood, a zone of technical incompetence and spiritual...

Notes

See also her Tiempo presente Notas sobre el cambio de una cultura (Buenos Aires Siglo XXI, 2001), 79-91. 2. In the case of Mexico, Televicine's productions are a case in point. Starting in the early 1980s, this branch of media conglomerate Televisa began to produce feature films that combined pop music and entertainers like Luis Miguel, Lucerito, and later Gloria Trevi and Yuri to draw younger viewers. Although the commercial success of such films is uneven, recent...

Radical Muslim Groups

Fiza focuses on the dispute between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region, which is divided by a ''line of control.'' The conflict started in 1947 after the partition of the Indian subcontinent into two independent states India and Pakistan. The conflict further escalated in Indian-controlled Kashmir in 1989, and since then, the activities of several Muslim radical groups have increased. These groups 2 try to justify their fight as jihad Holy War'' in the name of Allah. The male...

Santiago Fouzhernandez

Girls Looking at Girls Looking for Girls The Visual Pleasures and Social Empowerment of Queer Teen Romance Flicks 241 susan driver chapter 16. Youth, Sexuality, and the Nation Beautiful Thing and Show Me Love 256 scott henderson chapter 17. Different from the Other(s) German Youth and the Threat of Homosexual Seduction 271 Stephen tropiano appendix a Filmography of Global Youth Films by Nation 287 appendix b Filmography of Global Youth Films by Theme 306 bibliography 313...

Scott Henderson

Alexander Doty notes the possibility of queer spectatorship of mainstream texts in his identification of''queer moments'' in texts.1 In conjunction with this idea, it might be possible to conceive of queer texts that rely on mainstream constructions in relation to issues of queer, or more specifically queer youth, identities. As Doty's argument suggests, many mainstream ''straight'' texts remain open to possible ''queer readings,'' an aspect that, according to Doty, inheres in the text itself...

South Korea

Bom yeoreum gaeul gyeoul geurigo bom Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter . . . and Spring (2003) Noksaek uija Green Chair (2005) Samaria Samaritan Girl (2004) Suchwiin bulmyeong Address Unknown (2001) Sureongeseo geonjin naeddal My Daughter Rescued from a Swamp (1984) Uribanul chasubnida Searching for Our Class (1990) Yeopgijeogin geunyeo My Sassy Girl (2001) SOVIET UNION (see also BELARUS ESTONIA GEORGIA KAZAKHSTAN RUSSIA) Avariya doch menta Crash Cop's Daughter (1989) Bakenbardy Sideburns (1990)...

Space Childreh

HICHEl FEAY HM ihms 'pfmWEBBER' raucaetmiM MLH mkj iwh MMM This lobby card for The Space Children (1958) clearly shows the suspicion and contempt that many adults have for youth in nuclear-era movies. tually be used to create the Pentagon A.I. that initiates the nuclear war.7 Amid a firefight with local police SWAT teams, the quartet of saboteurs assemble all of the classified files and materials relevant to Dyson's research and destroy the building in a massive explosion, thereby preventing or...

Stephen Tropiano

In his autobiographical film Taxi Zum Klo (Taxi to the Toilet, 1980), German actor director Frank Ripploh offers a candid, personal account of his double life as a closeted gay schoolteacher with a passion for cruising the streets of West Berlin. Through his blend of absurd humor and the explicit, unapolo-getic depiction of his many anonymous sexual encounters, Ripploh critiques the values that straight society imposes on both his public and private life. In one amusing and insightful sequence,...

Synopsis Of The Films

Both films in my analysis show the immense influence Islamic radical groups have on teenagers. The first film, al-Abwab al-moghlaka (The Closed Doors, Egypt, 1999, Arabic), portrays the life of young Mohammed in Cairo. It is the first feature film directed by Atef Hetata (b. 1965), who is a student of Egypt's well-known director Youssef Chahine (b. 1926) (Fawal). Hetata himself is the son of two renowned Egyptian intellectuals his father, Sherif Hetata, is a famous civil rights activist, and...

Timothy Shary

One of the best youth films released in the United States in 2005 was an unassuming drama called The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants, which follows four teenage girls from the U.S. as they explore different locales during a high school summer. In Greece, Lena (Alexis Bledel) encounters both fascination and frustration with her relatives, who oppose her romance with a local boy. In Mexico, Bridget (Blake Lively) shows off her great athletic skills at soccer camp, even though her interest in a...

Turnofthecentury Comingofage Films

The three films chosen for discussion here focus on male teenagers struggling with their gender and sexual identities, and all share aspects of context, narrative, and production which contribute to form a representative and cohesive unit of analysis. All three films have been commercially successful in Spain and have been well received by the critics and by the Spanish Academy.5 Furthermore, these three films were produced at the turn of the century (1998-2000) and, importantly, by young...

United Kingdom

The Greengage Summer Loss of Innocence (1961) Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush (1967) Kevin & Perry Go Large (2000) King, Queen, Knave (1972) Let Him Have It (1991) Let's Kill Uncle (1966) The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (1962) Lord of the Flies (1963) Madame Sousatzka (1988) Me Without You (2001) Mumsy, Nanny, Sonny and Girly (1969) The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969) The Testimony of Taliesin Jones (2000) There's Only One Jimmy Grimble (2000) The Young Poisoner's Handbook...

Mick Broderick

The postwar period from 1945 has been labeled many things the jet age, the television age, the space age yet the most resilient nomenclature is that of the atomic age or nuclear era. Throughout the Cold War (1945-1991), American cinema produced a significant number of films that broached issues concerning the development, testing, and deployment of nuclear weapons, and their associated technologies.1 This essay considers a small but important number of films that challenge assumptions about the...

High School

The single overriding monument of capitalism, as regards age grading, is the high school, an institutionalization of the conceit that adolescents are particularly in need of an education designed especially for them and modified to address their peculiar needs and sensitivities (induced by the hegemony). Capitalism and mass technological society needed the high school as a holding pen for young people for whom, though they could surely copulate and endure the rigors of the workplace just as...

Vulnerable Bodies

As I have already mentioned, the secondary but memorable presence of death and old people is a key reminder of the futility of youth in both Barrio and El Bola. In El Bola, Pablo helps his mother wash his grandmother but looks away while he holds her in the shower. His family's attitude to the body and death is very different from Alfredo's the latter discusses his godfather's illness, and at one point the whole family and some friends joke about farting in the car. They have a tactile...

Theorizinc Queer Cirls In Film

The emergence of independent queer girl romance films in the 1990s can be traced to the release of Rose Troche's Go Fish (1994), which promised quirky insider ways of seeing the lives of individuals and communities historically marginalized within mainstream cinema. Marking a turning point in which young lesbians are positioned at the center of fictional feature films, these and other films, such as Cheryl Dunye's Watermelon Woman (1997), contributed to a growing range of lesbian characters...

Father Figures

According to a survey carried out by the CIS (Spanish Centre of Sociological Research) in 1999, 80 percent of young Spaniards between the ages of 15 and 29 live at their parents' home and 60 percent live off their parents' income (42 percent exclusively so). Recent studies suggest that the age of emancipation of young people in Spain continues to increase due to the high cost of housing and instability of jobs (Requena, 1-13). Spanish critics such as Mon-terde (1993) and Trenzado Romero (1997)...

Exaggeration Of Masculinity

Hrithik Roshan Fiza 2000

In the film Fiza, the protagonist Amaan undergoes a significant masculin-ization (Dyer 1992). In the beginning we can see Amaan laughing and joking with his mother and his sister. He is interested in the aesthetic aspects of Indian star Hrithik Roshan showing a hypermasculine persona in Fiza (2000). Indian star Hrithik Roshan showing a hypermasculine persona in Fiza (2000). art and painting. We can also see him laughing. In these scenes, the female side of Amaan is stressed, and thus there is a...

Of Surfaces And Planes

Standing on the margins of the new independent Argentine cinema, Esteban Sapir's Picado fino is a unique film that gestures toward the past even as it distinguishes itself from both previous and contemporary films about young adults. Set in the city of Buenos Aires, the story revolves around Tom s, a young man from a working-class family who is ostensibly looking for work after he discovers that his girlfriend Ana is pregnant. Frequently shot in close-ups that cut across rather than frame his...

Aniko I

Anyone even vaguely familiar with Eastern and Central European films will notice their preoccupation with children and teens. Yet, ''youth film,'' in the sense of a genre of films that address young people, is at best an emerging concept in postsocialist cultures. Similar to the way in which Hollywood's teen representations have changed over the decades along with the political climate,1 adolescents have served as indispensable representational devices for Hungarian, Slovak, or Polish...

Alexandra Seibel

In April of 1956, a West German film production company organized a discussion panel that set out to negotiate a fervent question. The question was directed toward Berlin's postwar youth, printed on red billboards throughout the city ''Are you really like this '' This meant deviant, delinquent, or dangerous. The actual reason for posing the question at this particular time was the promotional campaign that had just started for Georg Tressler's teen movie Die Halbstarken (West Germany, 1956)....

1

Bonasso, Miguel. ''De los 'Desaparecidos' a los 'Chicos de la Guerra.''' Nueva Sociedad 76 1985 52-61. Boudreau, Brenda. ''The Battleground of the Adolescent Girl's Body.'' In The Girl Constructions of the Girl in Contemporary Fiction by Women, ed. Ruth O. Saxton. New York St. Martin's Press, 1998, 43-56. Broderick, Mick. ''Is This the Sum of All Fears Nuclear Imagery in Post-Cold War Cinema.'' In Atomic Culture, ed. Scott C. Zeman and Michael A. Amundson. Boulder University of Colorado Press,...

Contributors

Savag Arslan is an assistant professor in the Film and Television Department at Bahcesehir University, Istanbul. His work on various aspects of Turkish cinema has been presented at international conferences in the U.S. and in Italy and published in several books and magazines in Turkey. Among these are studies of the language of film criticism in Turkey, center-periphery differences in melodramas, and remakes and adaptations of Western films such as The Exorcist, Superman, and Zorro. He is also...

Claudia Preckel

Islam embraces many principles and ideas about childhood and Islamic Muslim education, which differ according to historical time period and region Barazanji, 406 . All of these schools of thought aim at shaping children's characters in line with the Islamic worldview. Islamic families are entitled to educate their children in order to allow them to follow the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. Tradition encourages young people to ''Worship none but Allah alone and be dutiful and...

Islamic Enlightenment versus Westernization in Turkish Cinema savas arslan

Mehmet You behave like a young Viennese girl. You are learning western music Bach, Beethoven, and Strauss. Why leyla It is very simple I like Vienna and the Viennese. mehmet But you are not Viennese. You are from Istanbul. You are a Turk. I cannot understand why one would learn somebody else's music without learning one's own. from a conversation in the movie Memleketim Popular Turkish cinema, known as Yegilgam, peaked in the 1960s and 1970s in a complex context it needed to respond not only to...

Establishing An Analogy

We find a striking image of a chicken in a Brazilian movie poster for City of God. The poster alludes to the first sequence of the movie, with its image of The Brazilian movie posterior City of God features a significant image of a large chicken. The Brazilian movie posterior City of God features a significant image of a large chicken. armed teenagers and children above the title and a chicken below, its wings spread, apparently trying to fly. The sentence used as a subtitle calls our attention...

Filmography Of Global Youth Films By Theme

This filmography consists of 21 common themes within global youth cinema and films that are relevant to those themes. Please note that this list is selective and in many cases subjective since attempting to qualify or quantify such categories as abuse or religion is difficult indeed . Films are only listed here if the editors or contributors knew of their specific themes, and thus many films from Appendix A are not listed, while some films are listed in more than one category.

Acknowledgments

We began planning this book in early 2003, knowing that the field needed an anthology on the cinematic image of youth beyond the U.S. context, and we were quite happy that we received so many great proposals. We must first thank those scholars who submitted ideas and essays, especially since we could not publish all of the great work we received. We'd also like to give a special thanks to Murray Pomerance, who not only agreed to contribute an essay to this volume, but who met with us early in...

Of Seawalls And Scaffolding

The following section offers a contrasting view of how youth is being formulated in contemporary Cuba. Whereas in Argentina there has been an explosion of filmmaking activity by younger directors in recent years, in Cuba these types of productions are both less numerous and less visible. This absence is the result of a number of circumstances, among them, the economic difficulties starting in the 1990s that have sharply curtailed ICAIC productions and, perhaps even more important, the...

Teen Masculinities in Recent Spanish Cinema santiaco fouzhernandez

YOUTH AND CHiLDREN iN SPANISH CINEMA Films about youth have been prominent in Spanish cinema of the last three decades. Data suggest that in the early 1990s youth went from media under-representation to overrepresentation and, according to Trenzado Romero, the profession most widely represented by male characters in the Spanish cinema of the 1990s was that of the student, even if the narrative was completely unrelated to the world of education 99-100 .1 Young people between 15 and 29 years of...

The Comingof Age Girl in Contemporary New Zealand Cinema mary m wiles

Pai Waka Whale Rider

The storyteller takes what she he tells from experience her his own or that reported by others. And she he in turn makes it the experience of those who are listening to the tale. In every case the storyteller is a wo man who has counsel for her his reader . . . Walter benjamin, ''the storyteller, in Illuminations Filmmaker Vincent Ward remarks, ''Childhood is a common theme in New Zealand writing. Perhaps this is due to the relative newness of the national identity, and 'rites of passage'...

Universality

While one might consider the kind of exoticization and construction of an ahistorical cultural authenticity I describe in the previous section to be the opposite of a claim that the films are ''universal'' how can the films be both about a specific exotic delicious patriarchal culture and about all cultures at all times i.e., universal in fact these two different kinds of representations depend on and support one another. Once a culture is fixed into a static, ahistorical authenticity and...

Angels

In order to characterize a prominent group of East and Central European films about adolescents, I am borrowing the image of angels from ''Gangsters and Angels,'' the Hungarian critic Sandor Turcsanyi's article about Arpad Sopsits' film Torzok Abandoned, 2001 . Turcsanyi argues that representations of innocent, ethereal, vulnerable, often orphaned5 young people are central to understanding Hungarian and, by extension, East and Central European cinemas and cultures. Torzok exemplifies the...

Laura Podalsky

Over the past decade or so, there has been a proliferation of films from a variety of Latin American countries about disaffected youth, among them Rodrigo D No futuro 1990, Colombia , Johnny Cien Pesos 1993, Chile , Madagascar 1994, Cuba , Pizza birra faso 1997, Argentina , Amor vertical 1997, Cuba , and Amores perros 2000, Mexico . Although tales of youthful alienation have been a cinematic staple in many countries since the 1960s, many of these recent Latin American films depart from the...

And The Homosexual Seduction Myth

From the late nineteenth century through the late 1960s, sodomy laws in Germany and postwar East and West Germany constructed the male homosexual as a monstrous figure who poses a threat to the patriarchal power of the state and the welfare and morality of its youth. In 1871, the newly formed German state adopted Prussia's anti-sodomy law, which became Paragraph 175 of the Reich Criminal Code. The law declared that an ''unnatural sexual offense, which is committed by two people of the male sex...

Sonia Cristina Lino

In the first sequence of the Brazilian movie City of God 2002 , with pagode1 music in the background, we see slums and a group of people in a party mood getting ready to cook a few chickens. With vibrant images and rhythm, the audience is introduced to this situation from the perspective of one of the chickens that is waiting to be cooked. Held by the foot, the chicken watches as another chicken is killed and plucked. The visible anxiety of the animal is underlined by the fast editing and the...

The Apolitics of Rebellion xuelin zhou

In February 2004, Chun Shu, a Beijing teenage writer, appeared on the cover of Time Asia. Chun, along with another high school-dropout-turned-writer, Han Han, punk rocker Li Yang, and computer hacker Man Zhou, were described in Time's lead article as the embodiment of disaffected Chinese youth and were labeled linglei, a word used to carry negative connotations of''a disreputable hooligan'' but in the official dictionary defined as ''an alternative lifestyle'' Feb. 2, 2004 . While it is...

Venezuela

Oro diablo Devil Gold 2000 Sicario 1994 Anders als du und ich The Third Sex 1957 Chinesisches Roulette Chinese Roulette 1976 Christiane F. Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo We Children from Bahnhof Zoo 1981 Die Halbstarken Teenage Wolfpack 1956 Endstation Liebe Last Stop Love 1958 Leidenschaftliche Bl mchen Boarding School 1978 Nordsee ist Mordsee North Sea Is Dead Sea 1976 Schulm dchen-Report Was Eltern nicht f r m glich halten 1970 Schulm dchen-Report 2 Was Eltern den Schlaf raubt 1971 Schulm...

Youth Culture Genre and Performance in Charlie Ahearns Wild Style kimberley bercov monteyne

Urban Youth Culture

While it is hard to imagine a moment when hip-hop was not predominant in both urban and suburban youth culture, there was a time when it could be termed subcultural. In fact, even before MTV latched on to it as the next big thing, one of the first vehicles for hip-hop's entry into the mainstream in the early '80s was through the musical, in such films as Wild Style 1982 , Beat Street 1984 , and Krush Groove 1985 . Although these films are in fact musicals, film historians have rarely tackled...

The Unremarkable US Popular Press Reception of Bend It Like Beckham and Whale Rider

Bend Like Beckham Symbols

The fact that U.S. popular culture pays attention to girls is certainly not a new phenomenon nevertheless, I would argue that representations of girls have significantly intensified since the mid-1980s. For example, since as early as 1923, when Time began publishing, girls appeared on the cover of that magazine once per year in most years but, starting in 1986 they appeared several times nearly every year. In the 1990s, new television shows centering on girls included Clarissa Explains It All...

Kimberley Bercov Monteyne

Part 111 youth and inner-national conflict 107 chapter 7. Out of Depth The Politics of Disaffected Youth and Contemporary Latin American Cinema 109 laura podalsky chapter 8. Birds That Cannot Fly Childhood and Youth in City of God 131 chapter 9. Portraying Muslim Youth in Egypt and India Worship None but Allah and Be Dutiful and Good to Parents 144 claudiapreckel chapter 10. Projecting a Bridge for Youth Islamic Enlightenment versus Westernization in Turkish Cinema 157

Daniel Biltereyst

Daniel Biltereyst

In the mid-1950s, the gradual relaxation of the Hollywood Production Code and the growth of independent filmmaking brought to the forefront a whole series of American movies which openly explored taboo-breaking subjects around sexuality, crime, and the use of drugs. One strand of movies causing a heated public controversy dealt with the social problem of juvenile delinquency. Films like The Wild One 1953 , Blackboard Jungle 1955 , and Rebel Without a Cause 1955 directly confronted the issue of...