1. Sarlo, 18-23, 41-55, 57-73. See also her Tiempo presente: Notas sobre el cambio de una cultura (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 2001), 79-91.

2. In the case of Mexico, Televicine's productions are a case in point. Starting in the early 1980s, this branch of media conglomerate Televisa began to produce feature films that combined pop music and entertainers like Luis Miguel, Lucerito, and later Gloria Trevi and Yuri to draw younger viewers. Although the commercial success of such films is uneven, recent statistics point to the importance of young adults as a market sector in Latin America. In Brazil most cinemagoers are between 14 and 25 years old, and it is this audience that has drawn the interest of global capital like Warner Bros. and Diler Asociados, who have collaborated on a number of films starring Xuxa (''Muy Caliente: Hollywood Majors Team up with Latin Film Producers,'' Variety, April 1-7, 2002, A2).

3. See the articles in Fernando Peña's edited volume 60/90 Generaciones (2003) for further comparison of the work of filmmakers from these two eras.

4. Translations provided by author, unless otherwise noted.

5. See the articles in Horacio Bernades, Diego Lerer, and Sergio Wolf, eds., Nuevo cine argentino: Temas, autores y estilos de una renovación (Buenos Aires: Ediciones Tatanka/FIPRESCI, 2002) and Callegaro and Goldstein for some of the earliest ''hard copy'' studies of the new independent cinema. Consult the archives of the on-line journals FilmOnLine ( and El Amante ( for even earlier coverage.

6. For an example of the vision of youth promoted by the repressive military government, see the illustration reproduced in Diana Taylor, Disappearing Acts: Spectacles of Gender and Nationalism in Argentina's Dirty War (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997), 195.

7. See Jabbaz and Lozano, 99, for a summary of such comments and Trigo, 309-310, for an overview of similar critiques of contemporary Uruguayan youth articulated by both those on the Right and the Left.

8. See for example Jabbaz and Lozano, and Guelerman.

9. Martorell, 137-138. Beatriz Sarlo provocatively shifts the terms to argue that youth functions as an allegory for today's marketplace, characterized as it is by ''rapid circulation and . . . accelerated obsolescence'' (43).

10. HIJOS are most well known for their public acts of denunciation staged in front of the homes of individuals presumed to have been part of the Proceso's repressive apparatus who have never been brought to justice. See Martorell and Kaiser for more in-depth analyses.

11. Indeed, they might be reworking notions of the public sphere and perhaps of civil society itself. This possibility is mapped out by Paolo Carpignano et al. in their article on talk shows and "the public mind,'' where they suggest moving away from the notion of civil society as constituted by institutions—political parties, unions, and so on—toward one "consolidated in the circulation of discursive practices'' (119).

12. By the end of the film Momi will lose her ability to penetrate the surface of reality. Returning from town, she will join her sunglasses-clad sister Vero on the pool deck, in a scene reminiscent of the opening tableau of the drunken adults, having failed to see the miraculous appearance of the Virgin on the town's water tower, which had attracted so much attention in news reports seen throughout the film.

13. Richard further suggests that the political realm has become simply another site of market logic: "The consensual model of 'democracy of agreements' formulated by Chile's transitional government (1989) signaled the shift from politics as antagonisms—the dramatization of conflict ruled by a mechanism of confrontation—to politics as transaction: a formula of pacts and their praxis of negotiation'' (27). See also Kaufman, 15, 20-22, 26, for similar arguments in the case of Argentina.

14. The imagery of the original Spanish phrase (literally translatable as "Don't flit around like a butterfly, work'') becomes significant later on when butterflies begin to appear on screen.

15. The inclusion of the telenovela provides one of the film's funniest and sharpest critiques of the stagnancy of Cuba's audiovisual productions and their calcified notion of youth. Coming on right before Professor Cruzado's show, the telenovela features an old nun with wrinkled features who cries out about the impossibility of love even as she throws herself against the dapper young hero, dressed in nineteenth-century garb. The setting and the age difference of the two protagonists recall Humberto Solas' Cecilia (1982), which featured a thirty-something Daysi Granados in the title role of the teenage mulata and the much younger Spanish actor, Imanol Arias (b. 1956), as her lover. The allusion is particularly noteworthy as Granados herself appears in Nada as Carla's vicious boss, the rigid Cunda Severo.

16. Kathleen Newman, "Cinemas of Solitude after the Lettered City,'' unpublished paper presented at the annual conference of the Latin American Studies Association (LASA), Dallas, March 2003.

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