1. Simon Watney, Policing Desire (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 23.

2. K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989); David M. Halperin, One Hundred Years of Homosexuality (New York: Rout-ledge, 1990); Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, vol. 1, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage, 1980).

4. For example, up until 2001, the age of consent for gay men in England was considerably higher (20) than for lesbians and heterosexuals (16 in England, Wales, and Scotland; 17 in Northern Ireland). The list of countries that have had a higher age for gay males include Antiqua (Barbuda), Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Lithuania. See

5. As quoted in Robert Moeller, Sex, Society and the Law in Postwar West Germany: Homosexuality and the Federal Constitutional Court (Berkeley: Center for German and European Studies, 1993), 29.

6. James Steakley, The Homosexual Emancipation Movement (New York: Arno Press, 1975), 62 (6n). Steakley suggests that there was a fourth founder, Leopold von Meerescheidt-Hullesem, who handled homosexual matters for the Berlin police.

7. John Lauritsen and David Thorstad, The Early Homosexual Rights Movement (New York: Times Change Press, 1974), 11.

9. Lauritsen and Thorstad, 14.

10. Steakley, 85.

11. Rudolf Klare, Homosexualität und Strafrecht [Homosexuality and Penal Law] (Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1937), 114, as quoted in Steakley, 84.

12. Sonderrichtlinien: Die Bekämpfung gleischgeschlechtlicher Verfehlungen im Rahmen der Jugenderziehung [Special Guidelines: Combating Same-Sex Transgressions in the Framework of Youth Training] (1943), 7. I am indebted to James Steakley for providing me with this information.

13. Gunter Grau, Hidden Holocaust? trans. Patrick Camiller (London: Cassell, 1995), 86-87. For documents relating to the nationwide registration of homosexuals, see Grau, 89-103.

15. Rüdiger Lautmann, "The Pink Triangle: The Persecution of Homosexual Males in Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany,'' Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality, ed. Salvatore J. Licata and Robert P. Peterson (New York: Haworth Press, 1980), 146.

16. Lautmann, 157.

18. Barry D. Adam, Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement (Boston: Twayne, 1987),

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