Notes

1. From an interview with the author on Aug. 3, 2002.

2. In the 1990s, with the start of the ''New Turkish Cinema,'' popular cinema in Turkey went into a serious crisis and changed its form because of private broadcasting companies, television series, and other new forms that made film available outside of theaters.

3. Following the 1980 military intervention, the number of films and film theaters decreased heavily, which led to a severe stagnation in popular cinema until recently.

4. When I asked Qakmakli about class conflicts in his films, he responded, not very surprisingly, that he focused on the lifestyles of his characters but not on their class backgrounds, which would put him dangerously close to the leftists. This disinterest in class issues turns into an open encampment against the leftists in Genglik Koprusu.

5. Interestingly enough, the current prime minister of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdo-gan, refuses to wear tuxedos for national or international meetings. Instead, unlike other presidents or prime ministers, he wears regular suits with ties.

6. A similar pop music contest was organized by a national newspaper, Milliyet, which means "nationality"—the Arabic word "millet" means nation. However, the filmmakers render this name into Zilliyet with a play on the Arabic word "zillet," which means inferior or lesser, so Zilliyet comes to mean inferiority or lesserness. Moreover, zilli [literally, having or being with bells] is a curse that means "immoral woman.''

7. Interestingly, the teacher says Sophocles instead of Socrates, and this must be a slip caused either by the Akin Group or by the actor who played the literature teacher.

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