Notes

1. This analysis is conceptually indebted to Maureen Molloy's examination of Peter Jackson's Heavenly Creatures (1994), Jane Campion's The Piano (1993), and Lee Tamahori's Once Were Warriors (1994) in "Death and the Maiden: The Feminine and the Nation in Recent New Zealand Films,'' in which she addresses the films as "fantasies of femininity that are simultaneously narratives of nation'' (154).

2. Maureen Molloy draws on Freud's discussion of the different shades of the word "heimlich" that include its opposite, " unheimlich." Freud states: "Thus heimlich is a word the meaning of which develops in the direction of ambivalence, until it finally coincides with its opposite, unheimlich" (226).

3. Philip Armstrong's compelling discussion of Whale Rider underlies much of my thinking about this film throughout this essay. Armstrong maintains that the film offers us a formal rhetoric of Maori cultural survival, which opposes images of preservation and stasis to images of change and movement.

chapter 12

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