Notes

1. The Iran-Iraq War was commonly referred to as the Persian Gulf War until the Iraq-Kuwait conflict in 1990-1991, which came to be known as the Second Gulf War, and later simply the Gulf War. The first conflict lasted from September 22,1980, when Iraqi troops invaded Iran, until August 20,1988.The war was caused by disagreements over the border between the two countries. It was also a conflict between the Republic of Iraq, under the leadership of Saddam Hussein, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. More than 1 million soldiers are said to have been killed during the war. For further reading see Morris M. Mottale, The Origins of the Gulf Wars (Lanham, MD: 2001); and M. El-Azhary, ed., The Iran-Iraq War: Historical, Economic and Political Analysis (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984).

2. The three main groups are the following: Hizb ul-Mujahideen, Lashkar-e-Toyeba, and Harakat ul-Mujahideen. Beside the removal of India from Kashmir, they are fighting for the enforcement of a rigid form of Sunni Islam (Sreedhar and Manish; Akbar).

3. In this context, several European/American productions are also worth mentioning as they were on screen at the same time: Thriller-en grym film (Bo Arne Vi-benius, Sweden, 1974) tells the story of mute prostitute Frigga, who is raped and later takes a bloody revenge. The figure of one-eyed Frigga was taken as a model for the killer Elle Driver (Daryl Hannah) in Quentin Tarantino's recent Kill Bill (2003-2004). Extremities (Robert M.Young, U.S., 1986) is about Marjorie (Farrah Fawcett), who takes revenge on a man who has invaded her home and raped her.

4. See the official Web site of the documentary at http://www.shaktiproductions .net/tcws.html. Shakti Productions also released a film on domestic violence under the title Voices Heard Sisters Unseen.

5. For further reading see Jarrod Hayes, "A Man Is Being Raped: Nouri Bouzid's Man of Ashes and the Deconstruction of Sexual Allegories of Colonialism,'' in African Images: Studies in Text and Cinema, ed. by Maureen N. Eke, Kenneth W. Harrow, and Emmanuel Yewah (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2000), 73-88.

6. For the depiction of adolescent homosexuality in American cinema, see Shary (2002), 238-246, and Shary (2005), 94-99.

7. This view is also shared by Anand Pathwardhan in his controversial documentary Father, Son, and Holy War (1996).

chapter 10

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