Notes

This essay was translated into English by Marcello Lino.

1. Popular and contemporary musical rhythm with roots in the samba—a new style of samba.

2. Paulo Lins, Cidade de Deus (Sao Paulo, Cia. das Letras, 1997).

3. Paulo Jorge Ribeiro, ''Alguns impasses da crítica cultural contemporánea: Cidade deDeus," Intersegoes. Revista deEstudos Interdisciplinares 5, no. 1 (2003).

4. This dual and complementary image is expressed by the great number of reports based on statistical research, academic or commissioned by the media, that indicate the spatial advance of crime rates to urban areas that until then were middle-class strongholds.

5. I use "overlapping spaces'' here to analyze the Brazilian cities as Edward Said uses "overlapping territories'' and "intertwined histories'' to describe the colonial relationship of the nineteenth century.

6. Néstor Canclini, Consumidores e cidadaos (Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ, 1997).

7. Joao Cezar de Castro Rocha, ''Dialética da marginalidade. Caracterizado da cultura contemporánea,'' Folha de Sao Paulo Caderno Mais, Feb. 29, 2004, 4-8; Roberto DaMatta, Carnavais, malandros e heróis (Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1978); Antonio Candido, ''A dialética da malandragem,'' Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros, no. 8 (1970): 76-89.

8. Ivana Bentes, ''Estéticas da violencia no cinema,'' Intersegoes. Revista de Estudos Interdisciplinares 5, no. 1 (2003): 229; Ivana Bentes, ''Estéticas da violencia e cultura nacional,'' in A Missao e o grande show, ed. Angela Maria Dias (Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro, 1999), 101-127; Ivana Bentes and M. Herschmann, ''O espetáculo do contra-discurso,'' Folha de Sao Paulo Caderno Mais, Aug. 18, 2002, 10-11.

9. Paraphrasing the expression ''aesthetic of hunger,'' coined by Glauber Rocha in the '60s.

10. Ivana Bentes, ''Estéticas da violencia no cinema,'' writes:

We have gone from the ''aesthetic'' to the ''cosmetic'' of hunger, from ''an idea in the head and a movie camera in one hand'' to the steadicam, the camera that ''surfs'' the reality, the signal of a discourse that values what is ''beautiful'' and the ''quality'' of the image, or also, the mastery of the classical technique and narrative. An ''international popular'' or ''globalized'' cinema whose formula is a local, historical or traditional theme and an international aesthetic. . . . We are going through a moment of infatuation with this other social reality, in which the voices of those who are outcast begin to conquer space in the market: in literature, in music (funk, hip hop), speeches that reflect the daily lives of the inhabitants of the slums, of the unemployed, subemployed, prisoners, drug addicts, a "diffused" group of outcasts that reached the media and is portrayed by it in an ambiguous way. (229)

11. José Geraldo Couto, "Cidade de Deus questiona produçâo nacional,'' Folha de Sao Paulo. Folha Ilustrada, Sept. 7, 2002, 6.

13. Criticism by sociologist Alba Zaluar and by rapper MV Bill published by the press upon the release of the movie.

14. For a discussion of such violence, see Amnesty International, "Dossiê Rio de Janeiro: Candelária e Vigário Geral 10 anos depois,'' London, Sept. 28, 2003 (originally published in Jornal Zero Hora, Porto Alegre, June 17, 2002).

15. At http://www.vivafavela.com.br.

16. Paulo Lins, "Carta aberta,'' published by the websites Viva Favela—www.viva favela.com.br—and Cinema em Cena—www.cienam.art.br/variedades-textos.asp? cod=20: "Obviously neither the movie nor the book follows faithfully the history of crime in Cidade de Deus, otherwise it would be a documentary or a History book, respectively. These two works are based on a given social reality to 'shed light on our misery', make politics, change the world. ... I am committed to what is real in the work of art and not immediately with the historical reality that we want to change There is nothing strictly new in the movie City of God. Everyday the news throws on our faces the chaos in which we live. . . . It's just that the press doesn't have the same power to move and surprise people that a work of art has. Maybe this is the reason of the controversy. ... As a writer, I had a commitment to reach for the imagination of those who are socially segregated, to be credible, to warn people about what the awful income distribution in Brazil is doing, to incite the creation of forums on racism, abandon of the elderly, negligence of our children by the government, widespread violence, police arbitrariness and corruption, to question the lack of public, social and cultural policies.''

17. Pero Vaz de Caminha, scribe of the fleet led by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, which reached Brazil on April 22, 1500, writes to the King of Portugal, Dom Manuel, a letter narrating the voyage as well as the physical and human characteristics of the land they had discovered. During the nineteenth century, after independence, the letter gained importance and is considered the first official document of the country.

18. Pero Vaz de Caminha, Letter to King Dom Manuel. Adaptation by Rubem Braga: "A chicken was showed to them and they didn't want to touch it; afterwards, they took it, frightened.''

20. The only places outside the slums shown in the movie are the beach, the supermarket, the newspaper building at which Rocket works, and the home of the journalist where he takes refuge after the pictures of Little Zé are published. Still, with the exception of the beach, these places are shown from inside.

21. Couto, "'Cidade de Deus questiona produçâo nacional.''; Bentes, "'Estéticas da violência no cinema,'' 234.

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