1. Alexander Doty, Making Things Perfectly Queer: Interpreting Mass Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).

3. Chris Straayer, "The Hypothetical Lesbian Heroine in Narrative Feature Film,'' in Out In Culture: Gay, Lesbian and Queer Essays on Popular Culture, ed. Corey K. Creekmur and Alexander Doty (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995), 44-59.

7. Among the more recent nonmainstream teen films that have featured homo-

sexual protagonists are The Incredibly True Adventure of Two Girls in Love (Maria Maggenti, 1995), All Over Me (Alex Sichel, 1997), Totally Fucked Up (Gregg Araki, 1993), Edge of Seventeen (David Moreton, 1998), and But I'm a Cheerleader (Jamie Babbit i999)-

8. Timothy Shary, "Teen Films: The Cinematic Image of Youth,'' in Film Genre Reader III, ed. Barry Keith Grant (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003), 507.

9. Yvonne Tasker, "Pussy Galore: Lesbian Images and Lesbian Desire in the Popular Cinema,'' in The Good, The Bad and The Gorgeous: Popular Culture's Romance with Lesbianism, ed. Diane Hamer and Belinda Budge (London: Pandora, 1994), 172.

10. Julianne Pidduck, "After 1980: Margins and Mainstreams,'' in Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film, ed. Richard Dyer and Julianne Pidduck, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 2003), 286.

11. Christie Milliken, "The Pixel Visions of Sadie Benning,'' in Sugar, Spice, and Everything Nice: Cinemas of Girlhood, ed. Frances Gateward and Murray Pomerance (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002), 287.

12. Julia Hallam, "Film, Class and National Identity: Re-imagining Communities in the Age of Devolution,'' in British Cinema, Past and Present, ed. Justine Ashby and Andrew Higson (London: Routledge, 2000), 266.

13. Andrew Higson, "The Instability of the National,'' in Ashby and Higson, 45.

16. John Hill, "British Cinema as National Cinema: Production, Audience and Representation,'' in The British Cinema Book, ed. Robert Murphy (London: British Film Institute, 1997), 252.

17. Straayer, 45.

18. Straayer, 48.

19. Straayer, 52.

20. Straayer, 45.

21. Straayer, 45.

22. Mary Ann Doane, "Film and Masquerade: Theorizing the Female Spectator,'' in Femmes Fatales: Feminism, Film Theory, Psychoanalysis (New York: Routledge, 1991), 31-32, as quoted in Straayer, 47.

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