Real Masculinity and Manhood

Core: How To Connect With Your Masculine Energy

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Jeanhugues Anglade And Romantic Masculinity

The hints of a tamed, domesticated, and hence romantically accessible masculinity that emerge from Betty Blue were to form a crucial part of Anglade's star image. They are reiterated most evidendy in his role as Marco in Mkita (1990), where he is feminised first by his job - cashier at a supermarket - and later by identification with the domestic space - he stays at home, cooking and designing boats, while Nikita goes to work as an action hero(ine). It has been observed that the romantic hero (in film, as in literature) is a 'woman-made man', whose masculinity ultimately conforms to female standards and whose behaviour replaces brutal masculine values (aggression, strength) with the romantic values of gentleness, devotion and love.38 If Anglade's star image is consistently that of the romantic hero, then it seems that the necessary modification of brute masculinity has already happened at some earlier, unseen point. Vestiges remain the unshaven face, the muscular torso, the occasional...

Exaggeration Of Masculinity

Hrithik Roshan Fiza 2000

We can also see him laughing. In these scenes, the female side of Amaan is stressed, and thus there is a feminization of his body. This means that Amaan Roshan, with his masculine body but soft heart, is the object of female erotic desire (Preckel 2003a). Later he is even shown as a vulnerable man and as a victim. His laughing at the beginning of the film can be interpreted as a kind of passiveness and thus as a symbol of dangerous feminization since a man always has to be active (Horst and Kleis, 108 Kirk-ham and Thumin). To counter this feminization of Amaan Roshan, the hero is shown to have lost this ability to laugh in the middle of the film. After Amaan returns to Bombay, he sees a comedian in a park. Instead of joining the laughing audience, he starts to fight two villains who disturb the scene. This is the point where the process of Amaan's masculinization starts. This masculinization reaches its definitive climax when the male protagonist prepares himself for...

Masculine Stars In A Feminine

There is a hidden contradiction in the existence of macho film stars. Despite the perennial appeal of action heroes and tough guys, gangsters and cops, ultra-masculine male stars are, to an extent, feminised by the nature of their work. It is no coincidence that in French, stars are feminine (la star or h vedette). Acting is a profession of display, and hence ranks as ornamental, a masquerade, and no job for a 'real' man There is no passage to manhood in such a world. A man can only wait to be discovered and even if he lucks out, his 'achievement' is fraught with gender confusion for its 'feminine' implications of glamour and display.1 The anxiety that this generates in macho male stars is evident in their comments about acting and stardom. At the start of his career, Hollywood tough guy Robert Mitchum told his wife, 'Your husband is going to be a movie actress.' Macho French stars such as Jean Gabin and Lino Ventura felt a similar unease ' Ventura tait honteux qu'on le regarde dans...

Critical Perspectives Nation Gender And Race

While westerns, war, and gangster films have long generated critical interest, action per se began to receive sustained critical attention in the wake of its commercial pre-eminence during the 1980s. Two early 1990s studies of American action films have been particularly influential, Susan Jeffords's Hard Bodies Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era (1993) and Yvonne Tasker's Spectacular Bodies Gender, Genre and the Action Cinema (1993). Both Jeffords and Tasker foreground questions of gender and politics, drawing attention to the genre's importance as a space for the elaboration of new formations of masculinity. Jeffords's analysis situates the muscular action stars of the 1980s against the contemporary neo-conservative context, suggesting a rhetorical association between the white, male ''hard body'' and the nation itself. Tasker frames the gender politics of 1980s action in related gender terms, emphasizing the class and racial dimensions of the genre. In line with the emphasis...

Matching Staractor And Character

Detectives who ever lived, and he's being played by a scrawny comedian in plastic armor' (cited in Uricchio and Pearson, 1991 183). The 'scrawny' physique derided here appears to be a long way from the 'musculinity' (Tasker, 1993b 237) of male 'hard body' action stars such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone (Jeffords, 1994). While the comparison is not made explicit, Ellison expresses contempt for the notion of a 'heroic' body that is reliant upon plastic armour in the absence of 'real' musculature. There is, however, a common element, in that both Keaton-as-Batman and the muscle stars rely upon significant inputs to produce their particular constructions of masculinity. On the one hand, the Batsuit 'overwrites' the actor's own physique, covering up the naked body, even while gesturing at corporeal revelation by drawing attention to pectorals and abdomen (and, in Batman Forever and Batman and Robin, nipples, codpiece and, ultimately, buttocks).19 On the other hand, the...

Sam Peckinpah b Fresno California February d December

Peckinpah soon became known as Bloody Sam'' and Hollywood's master of violence.'' Perhaps too self-conscious of the labels, Peckinpah's next major film, Straw Dogs (1971), seems a strained essay film on masculinity's inherently violent nature. Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973) marked his return to the western. Like The Wild Bunch and The Getaway (1972), Pat Garrett shows

Postmodernist Turned Modernist

Inevitably, one is tempted to ask whether Greenaway, in both his cinema and installation work, is maintaining his faith in modernism, or should he be regarded as one of the cinema's post-modernists And if a modernist, does he belong to the American tradition of minimalism and conceptual art, or to the modernism that has, in poets and critics like T.S. Eliot or Ted Hughes, revived a metaphysical or Jacobean world of the extravagant conceit, of violence and masculinity Already about The Draughtsman's Contract, Greenaway said My film is about excess excess in the language, excess in the landscape -which is much too green.8 But this may be to underestimate the force and diversity of the British English concern with landscape which has proven remarkably resilient and flexible, capable of accommodating the most diverse strands of modernist thought, almost all of them shadowed by versions of pastoral, from which only the expatriate modernists (T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis) were...

Challenges And Change The s And After

With the collapse of the Production Code in 1968 and the introduction of a ratings system, Hollywood action films of the 1970s begin to push acceptable boundaries with respect to screen violence. Arthur Penn's stylish gangster film Bonnie and Clyde (1967) and Sam Peckinpah's elegiac western The Wild Bunch (1969), both controversial at the time, have been read as important markers in a move toward a clearly differentiated, adult form of violent cinema in which scenes of dramatic and bloody death are vividly portrayed. The series of films initiated by Don Siegel's Dirty Harry (1971), featuring Clint Eastwood as the eponymous rogue cop, routinely feature shocking images of death, violence, and torture. The 1960s and 1970s saw not only a more explicit rendition of violence but also a reinvigoration of various chase and pursuit formats, a process facilitated by new technologies including more mobile cameras (Action and Adventure Cinema). For Romao, films such as Bullitt (1968) work to...

The sounds of hybridity

Not incidentally, homosexuality has been read in much the same way. Diana Fuss writes that i n its popular incarnations . . . homosexuality is 'gleaned' from the surface of the body. H omosexuals are said to distinguish themselves by their extravagant dress, their exaggerated mannerisms, their hysterical intonations, their insatiable oral sex drives, and their absurd imitations of 'feminine' and 'masculine' behavior.32 Putting aside the absurdity of taking such tendencies for ontological truths, Fuss's remarks underscore the extent to which homosexual identity, so aligned with the play of appearance, finds a parallel in camp. Camp's key terms come from visual cultures clich from photographic reproduction mimicry, from mime performance and from colonial and African-American cultures. Rather than simply reconceptualize camp's surface as visual image, both Ottinger and Treut use sound and music as components of camp's material surfaces.

Postwar Sexuality On Film

World War II helped shift attitudes toward and portrayals of sexuality in the United States and western Europe. Cheesecake photography of women helped remind GIs of what they were fighting for.'' Members of the armed forces were given explicit education (including films) about sexually transmitted diseases. Roles for women in the workforce expanded to include what had been traditionally considered masculine jobs. Wartime demands for personnel even led military and civilian leaders to tacitly overlook the existence of homosexuality in the ranks or in the workforce. With the end of the war, though, there was a concerted effort to bring society back to pre-war notions of sexuality. Social pressures were placed on women to return to the role of homemaker, for example, and homosexuality was once again deemed a mental illness and a criminal act. Yet the 1950s saw increasing challenges to these attempts. While a baby boom'' erupted in the United States after the war, divorce rates also grew...

Anthony Mann b San Diego California June d April

Impotent psychic agony, and sadism pervading Mann's enclosed, masculine world of embittered rivalries. T-Men is framed as a documentary-style film about an actual Treasury Department case. Its unseen narrator, unlike the tormented narrators of many films noirs, speaks in a declamatory, newsreel-type tone, touting the glories of the Treasury Department. Shots of the department seem to belong in a different film brightly lit, frontal, with monumental exteriors of its Washington, D.C., headquarters. These differ radically from shots of the criminal world the nightmare-like, dark, cramped, sweaty images classically associated with film noir. These two styles provide contrast within the film and also presage the open landscapes of the westerns and epics to come. Although the palate of later films is broader, their oppressive universe breeding endless, useless masculine conflict and torment remains similar to that of Mann's films noirs. Smith, Robert. ''Mann in the Dark.'' The Film Noir...

Australian Film And Australian Culture

Film, Longford's The Sentimental Bloke (1919), traces the regeneration of its larrikin hero from the temptations associated with the streets of Woolloomooloo in Sydney to an orchard in the country. (A larrikin is an irreverent male who fails to take himself, or anything else, seriously. He generally prefers the company of his mates and pursues masculine interests, such as drinking, gambling and sporting activities. The idea of a career or a longtime romantic relationship is normally anathema to the larrikin.)

Vincente Minnelli b Lester Anthony Minnelli Chicago Illinois February d July

Hollywood, to the contemporary work of directors such as Francis Copolla and Steven Spielberg. As examples, Williams analyzes Vietnam films such as The Deer Hunter (1978) and Platoon (1986) as contemporary articulations of the melodramatic mode. This encompassing notion of melodrama opens up a far wider range of texts for analysis as examples of melodrama, enabling the discussion of action films such as Die Hard (1988) and Gladiator (2000) with their male protagonists and seemingly masculine concerns, within this context. This wider view ofmelodrama also makes it possible to look outside mainstream Hollywood cinema to find melodrama in, for example, popular Hindi cinema, Chinese cinema, and cinema aimed at marginalized groups in society such as gays and lesbians, testifying to the form's continuing influence and relevance as a distinctive form of cinematic expression.

Summary of the classical reading

The coda ties up the loose ends, including the restitution of Al Powell to full professional manhood. After nearly killing the hapless Argyle -and thus almost repeating his traumatic mistake - he successfully eliminates the oddly indestructible Karl. There follows the bi-racial embrace male bonding of McClane and Al, and the 'masculine' gesture of Holly socking the TV journalist.

Material Culture and Design History

Still frowned upon as frivolous by some,4 and there is a shared, unspoken assumption that all American popular culture is trash that is perceived as a threat to authentic British cultural life, most evidently in the British press (Massey and Hammond 1999). This is underscored by the discourse of linking the popular with the feminine and obsolescent and 'high culture' with the masculine and everlasting (Modleski 1986 Huyssen 1986). And it is further reflected in the gender bias in academic life, whereby the higher one goes, the fewer women there are in post. For example, only 8 per cent of professors in Britain are women and as one of those women I want to help establish a serious study of the popular that challenges these divisions.5

Postmodern Themes In Woody Allens Films

Theless, because without fictions life would be unbearable. In this film, Tom Baxter, a fictional character from a 1930s escapist film comedy, The Purple Rose of Cairo, emerges from the screen to court Celia (Mia Farrow), an abused Depression-era housewife with whom he has fallen in love because of her devotion to him. She has come back five times to see the film in which he plays a dashing Egyptologist and world-class adventurer. Gil Shepherd, the real-life actor who plays the part of Tom Baxter (both characters are played by Jeff Daniels) also courts Celia. She ends up choosing the real man over the fictional character, only to learn that the love of the fictional man was true (the ability for true love was written into his character), and the love of the real man was only a fiction. Gil Shepherd, it turns out, was only acting pretending to love her in order to persuade his fictional character, whose escape from the screen could potentially ruin his career, to go back into the...

The Subversion of the Monomyth Oedipus

According to Goux, the Oedipus myth disrupts this universal structure. It is, in his view, a myth of failed royal investiture, or of avoided masculine initiation. It is this failure that links it to parricide and incest. Oedipus's systematic disruption of the tripartite structure of the universal monomyth, its canonical schema of the triple ordeal, gives rise to three concomitant pathologies or sins. I want to interpret these pathologies in relation to the symbolic order of the law that measures them in terms of knowledge, power, and desire. Properly understood, this mythic code may lead us to a theory of the rites that accompany the ordeal of justice upon which the law is founded. Here lies the code by which to interpret the allegorical import of Lynch's dreamscape in Mulholland Drive.

From Safe by Taylor

Taylor Mac's performance art work is primarily a response to and an exploration of homogony in western culture. Combining music, spoken word, and elaborate gender-bending costume designs, he creates full-length solo and collaborative productions thatjuxtapose stream-of-conscious images from such topics as the masculine War on Terror, white appropriation of black culture, and patriarchy in romance. By showing the duality of human beings, Taylor provides a balance to our adoration of sameness. Safe is about fear and the conflicting mental acrobatics individuals go through when overcome by the 'War on Terror. Simple daily stresses and issues of love are placed alongside thoughts of war because, the author believes, physical conflict stems from our fears of a life without love and happiness. The piece is a plea for joy.

Pierrot Le Fou La

But I wonder what the crowds make of Godard now that he has become popular as well as fashionable. In 1966, when Pierrot le Fou graced the New York Film Festival along with Masculine Feminine, Godard's films never had much of a first run. The pattern was always the same. Each new film would be assailed by his detractors as his biggest mess yet, and even his friends would look a little uncomfortable. A year later, the same film would look like a modern masterpiece, and two years later, like the last full-bodied flowering of classicism.

The logic of the actions macroanalysis

This already belongs to the category of (textual, psychic, political) work, and alludes to the second kind of logic, which we called the 'logic of desire' and which is also a logic of the actions, often identified with the Oedipus complex, by which Freud specified the model of (male) identity formation, but also a contradictory relationship between knowledge and belief, between the motives for action and their conscious rationalization. The particular interplay of surface and depth structure, linear movement, and obsessive repetition at the formal level has thus been called the 'Oedipal trajectory' of classical narrative. What this implies is that, irrespective of what a protagonist thinks his goal, problem, or ambition is at the practical, everyday level, he is also engaged at the symbolic or cultural level, usually in a crisis of identity, worrying about what it means to be or to become a man, anxious about his masculinity or ethnic identity, his place in the world, and in the...

Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger Michael Powell b Bekesbourne Kent England September d February Emeric Pressburger

Another enduring British genre has been the cycle of James Bond films. While changing key actors over the years, including the lead on a number of occasions, and making changes that reflect shifting social and cultural norms, the series has remained relatively stable in terms of structure. James Bond, secret agent 007, represents a sophisticated, cynical, sexy, and stylish British masculine ideal. Starting with Dr. No (1962), directed by Terence Young, the series based on the novels of Ian Fleming

Chapter Feminism And Film Form

John Berger, Ways of Seeing (London British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1975), 47. In Ways of Seeing, Berger writes of the way representations of men and women in Western painting have divided up certain attributes according to gender. Images of men connote power or the promise of power images of women are seen and judged as sights, objects of erotic contemplation. Berger believes women are depicted in quite different ways from men, not because the feminine is different from the masculine but because the 'ideal' spectator is always assumed to be male and the image of the woman is designed to flatter him (64).

The Return of the Repressed

It is the need to resolve the conflict between a dominant yet sterile set of masculine values and a suppressed but essentially humanizing feminine principle that is most dramatically staged in the film's conclusion. Both strands of the narrative's thematic and ideological agenda come together in the need to both deliver the cattle to Abilene (the socioeconomic premise of the film) and prepare the stage for a resolution to the conflicts between characters and the sexual imbalances and tensions that have structured their relationships up to this point. The crisis arrives in the confrontation between Dunson and Matt, which leads Tess Millay to do what no man in the film has been brave enough to attempt intervene in the conflict. By breaking up the fight, Millay ensures, as Robert sklar has noted, a reconciliation between men and the Masculine conflicts are reconciled by recognizing feminine values in the final confrontation between Dunson and Garth in Red River. At the crucial moment in...

The sliding signifers

In Die Hard ambiguity, polysemy, and irony also cluster around the title ambiguous, in that a diehard is someone who does not give up easily, thus referring to McClane, but it can also mean someone who just refuses to die, which in the film applies to Gruber's out-of-control associate Karl, absurdly indestructible. Polysemic insofar as the word 'hard' refers to Bruce Willis's macho hard-body image as an action hero, to McClane being a hard man (by not saying sorry to his wife until it's almost too late), as well as to the role played by class in Die Hard (hard-hat - working class masculinity). Ironic, finally, in that - as Pfeil points out, by quoting Webster's Dictionary -'diehard' also means 'an extreme conservative', as if the film was cocking an ideological snook at its progressive critics. But let us pick a pun that at first does not seem to be one, and therefore needs special unpacking, because it is both a riddle and a mantra, the traditional ways of using enigmatic language...

Rudolph Valentino b Rodolpho Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filibert Gugliemi di Valentina dAntonguola Castellaneta Italy May

Studlar, Gaylyn. This Mad Masquerade Stardom and Masculinity in the Jazz Age. New York Columbia University Press, 1996. Walker, Alexander. Rudolph Valentino. New York Stein and Day, 1976. Hollywood constructions of gender have worldwide significance because of the global reach of the US film industry, but they are also part of American national culture. Ideologies such as Momism inflect femininity and masculinity in ways unique to US culture. Outside of Hollywood, configurations of gender are shaped by other cultural histories. In Polish cinema, for instance, representations of men and women are influenced by the iconography of the historic struggle for nationhood, in which the purity and selflessness of the mother serves and motivates the heroism of the son. In French cinema, conversely, it has been suggested that one of the most common Oedipal narrative tropes is the father-daughter relationship, in which female subjectivity is centered but also...

Bodies Voices And Identity In Batman Forever

There is certainly an element of truth in Kilmer's remarks about the importance of the film's production design and its links to licensed merchandise. But his comments should not be taken entirely at face value. Batman's masculinity in Batman Forever is constructed in part via Kilmer's performance, including his bodily movements under the constraints of the Batsuit and the significance of the voice housed in the suited body. Both of these factors, in combination with script and direction, serve to distinguish Batman's particular masculinity from that of other key males in the film.28 Voice functions as an index of stability and authority in the film. While Batman possesses these attributes, the two villains with whom he battles, Two-Face (played by Tommy Lee Jones) and the Riddler (Jim Carrey), are unbalanced, literally and figuratively. This is signalled in part by their voices' much greater variances in volume and pitch.29 They whisper, shriek, groan and give vent to their rapid...

Analysis of Individual Films

The so-called Oedipus complex is one example. According to classical Freudian theory, in order to become fully socialized (heterosexual) adults, male and female infants have to (eventually) renounce their primary love-object (their opposite-sex parent) and accept that another man or another woman will do instead. To oversimplify, the boy typically 'feels' a sexual attachment to his mother, would like to eliminate kill his father who is his rival, but has to 'learn' the difficult lesson that the father-figure represents 'the Law' and that he cannot himself take the father-figure position unless he accepts symbolic 'castration' and submits to the 'Law of the Father'. He must (symbolically) lose his masculinity (by submitting to a father-figure) so that he can in turn wield the phallus (and the patriarchal power that goes with it) himself. A similar (but different) journey awaits the infant girl. This 'Oedipal journey' results in adulthood.

Conclusion Beyond Machismo

But are there elements within the star images of Belmondo and Delon that go beyond the hypermasculine, which reveal something beneath the leather jacket or the armour-plated car At first, both men appear locked into a form of masculinity that celebrates autonomy while leaving little space 'for dependency, relationship or feeling.'54 Belmondo cried on screen for the first time in Itin raire d'un enfant g t , in 1988, thirty years after his screen debut Delon appears fixated on trials of strength, and has been equated with the enclosed 'autistic masculinity' of his hit-man character in Le Samoura .55 As he himself has acknowledged, 'Le Samoura c'est moi 56 Both on screen and off, fatherhood may seem the only alibi for the expression of these stars' feelings. However, this reduced vision of masculinity is 'a false conception' it can be challenged by star images that 'displace false polarities', and present themselves as 'both dependent and independent, emotional as well...

Classical Hollywood Elements

In The Bicycle Thief, De Sica gives us the classical Hollywood pleasure of identifying with a character in a quest to recover something he has lost, but in this film the lost object in and of itself is supremely important, and not just a device to set the plot in motion. Although the policeman in charge of Ricci's case dismisses his loss as just a bicycle, the comment is heavily ironic in the context the film establishes Ricci needs the bicycle to be able to work and feed his family. De Sica suggests that even more is at stake than unemployment and hunger by giving the lost bicycle the brand name Fides, which in Italian means faith. Unemployment threatens Ricci not only with physical hunger but with a terrible spiritual despair. This despair is hinted at, as we noted above, in Ricci's suicidal remarks to his wife when he fears he will not be able to take the job. Once his bicycle is redeemed, so is Ricci. He becomes happy and hopeful, sexually playful with his wife, and at last a...

Mike Wallace The Grand Inquisitor of Television Talk [

If Arlene Francis was in some ways the fifties ''ideal woman,'' Mike Wallace represented the decade's ideal ''masculine'' image. That image proved durable for Wallace for over five decades of network television. The November 1993 cover of TV Guide carried a beaming picture of the well-known host, his face in front of the 60 Minutes stopwatch, with a headline celebrating ''25 Years of Tough Guys and Gritty Scoops.''42 Though confrontational hosts had come and gone in the years between Wallace's first Night Beat and the 1993 TV Guide cover Joe Pyne, Alan Burke, and Morton Downey Jr., to name three of the more notorious only Mike Wallace had been able to transform hard-edged confrontation into a durable talk commodity. Wallace's career spanned the period of the founders of talk in the 1950s, the corporate era of the 1960s, the emergence of new talk formulas in the 1980s, and the new cycle of talk spurred by the technological and economic developments of the 1990s. He survived in part...

Drunkard S Reformation

What Drink Did 1909

Sacralized children were central players in the reformation of masculinity in many of the temperance films, playing central roles in resolving narrative conflict and containing transgression. In Father and Drunkard, for example, the son is sent by the mother to bring the father home from the saloon but is thrown roughly aside and falls into a river. Seeing his son struggle, the man in him plays strongly, and the father saves the child.181 In the final scene the father smashes the liquor bottle and earnestly vows never more to drink. The family is reconstituted through the reformation of the father from drunkard to father, as it were that is initiated by the child. And the last scene exemplifies a new emphasis on narrative closure emerging from 1908, which so frequently represented a reunited family embracing as film entrepreneurs self-consciously sought to initiate similar reconciliations in the spaces of their auditoriums.182 The scene of the reformation of the drunkard was central...

Generic Conventions and Gender

Yet such objections aside, the implications of Red River are clear the sexual symbolism on which Hawks structured his story inescapably leads to a critique of the masculine values at the center of both the Western as a genre and the director's personal vision. The film suggests that men who think they can live without the companionship, guidance, and help of women who are their equals often are doomed to an obsession with work (read career) that isolates them from a larger community of shared human values to which women provide access. The excessively masculine ethos of Dunson (his impulse to dominate and control the all-male group, his belief in the technicalities of ownership and legal obligation) is shown to be sterile, literally a historical dead end the feminine presence of Millay and, as coded in the film, Matthew Garth provides a humanizing set of values essential to nation-building, a central idea in this film and a recurrent theme within the Western genre. Red River is...

An Enlightened View of Immigration

Among the latter, more distinctions are made with respect to skilled and unskilled ones, and then further distinctions operate, regarding whether the immigrants come from countries that have family values which make all the members economically productive and upwardly mobile, such as the Chinese and the Indians, and those that keep their women indoors and illiterate, and raise their male children in the patriarchal code of macho-masculinity. This vision of distinctions and differentiations, of filters and safeguards, appears as one of the ways the European Union is trying to steer towards a consensus, which it is hoped can lead to legislation or at least to a unified immigration policy.10

Note On Personal Pronouns

Every writer of instructional manuals today encounters problems with personal pronouns. How should I refer to the actor or the student, since the singular pronouns include both he and she In the past, authors had simply used the masculine pronoun, referring to every generic usage as he. But these are more liberated times, and I have a problem with using only he, since approximately half of my students are female.

Women and the Role of the Feminine in Howard Hawkss Red River

The films of Howard Hawks have long presented feminist critics with a paradox they are famous for their recurrent staging of the social rituals of male bonding and camaraderie, and yet then frequently offer images of strong, independent women who undercut the authority of the male group and call its self-sufficiency into question. His action-adventure and Western films such as The Dawn Patrol (1930), Only Angels Have Wings (1939), and Red River (1948) are intensely masculine dramas in which tight-knit groups of men routinely face danger as part of their job, displaying a typical Hawksian code of ethics that includes an obsessive devotion to profession, a stoical resignation to hardship and adversity, a fierce loyalty and commitment to male comrades who work together in pursuit of a common goal, and the ability to exhibit what the novelist Ernest Hemingway called grace under pressure. In films about aviators, soldiers, race car drivers, private detectives, and cowboys, Hawks offered a...

Timetravel and the superegos demand

Whatever this trouble is in the sequel (and it seems a fair bet that Biff will have a role to play in it), our analysis has uncovered a complex network of relations that ties paternity and masculinity in this film not so much to gender (as is traditionally the case in classical Hollywood) but to race and international politics, centred on shame and humiliation, of which the reverse side, according to the New Lacanians, is the 'obscene enjoyment' of the superego. What distinguishes Back to the Future, furthermore, is that few Hollywood films from the 1980s get as close to hinting at a truth about the nature of American race relations, namely that it is centred on rituals of humiliation, which is its way of suggesting - albeit in the form of the symptom - that some sort of debt may have to be acknowledged. While in one sense Back to the Future could be seen as covertly making use of race, in order to shore up a very traditional all-white American masculinity, in another sense the film...

Disintegrating Indian Nations

In Devil's Doorway, the successfully assimilated Indian is rejected by whites in power, and those Indians who have gone to the reservation are driven in desperation to leave it, saying, We will die, but we will never go back to the reservation. This is the double bind that Devil's Doorway presents Indians cannot assimilate and cannot be contained, but instead are forced into a hopeless and violent conflict with the settler community. In the film, prejudicial laws and attitudes bar Lance from participating in the American Dream and the frontier economy of masculinity that are so central to the traditional hero of the Western genre. Indians are prohibited from buying alcohol, owning or homesteading land, and living away from the reservation even legal recourse is nearly beyond their means. Territorial Wyoming is no longer the egalitarian society in which the assimilated Lance can build his cattle business. Devil's Doorway reveals white-initiated violence and racism to be institutional...

Violent Women in the Hong Kong Kung Fu Film

The quote in the title of this chapter appears in the promotional blurb for the videotape of Wing Chun (1994), which stars one of Hong Kong's most popular actresses, Michelle Yeoh.1 Like virtually all recent kung fu films featuring female martial artists, Wing Chun presents its audience with a satisfying image of a powerful woman. The eponymous heroine is a skilled, aggressive, and effective fighter, who dispatches crowds of thugs with grace, style, and humor, and defends not only herself but also her female friends from the advances of lecherous men. But like many of these recent films, Wing Chun also problematizes the (ir)reconcilability of femininity and fighting the heroine's masculine martial arts skills are at odds with her yearning to be accepted in her community as a desirable woman. The promotional blurb reduces to a simple either or equation the thorny constellation of issues that arises when women are the subjects of violence in the kung fu film, as these films continually...

The emblematic cluster

In an opening scene or sequence, we often find a privileged image or composition which in a sense gathers together diverse and heterogeneous elements in a single configuration, whose meaning will only become fully apparent in retrospect, and which thus functions rather like an emblematic picture, or a condensation of the various narrative motifs, as well as implying a temporal structure of anticipation and foreshadowing. In Die Hard's opening there are a number of such constellations, chief among them the verbal exchange between McClane and the passenger sitting next to him on the plane as they land in LA. The passenger, noticing how tense McClane is before and during touchdown, gives him a piece of advice 'When you get home, take off your socks, and curl your toes into a fist.' The phrase represents, in figurative form, three central oppositions (or enigmas) which the narrative sets itself1 he task to resolve the culturally difficult relationship between masculinity and the exposed...

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

The style was equated with feminine narcissism and camp, with gazing idly in mirrors or posing against complementary backdrops. The moderne was also used for the design of buildings for mass entertainment or shopping, and was thus perceived by the critics as a style catering for the despised lower-middle and working-classes. In complete contrast, Modernism was masculine, radical, pure, strong, heterosexual, elite and overtly politicized. Hence a minority of female aristocratic patrons chose to refurbish their traditionally styled new or inherited homes in a glamorous, Hollywood style, but not using Modernism. full cowboy and cowgirl gear (Figure 38). Lord Mountbatten remained a lifelong film fan and brought back films, projector and jazz records from Hollywood to show in his own private cinema. The couple travelled to America twice more during the inter-war years and enjoyed a heady lifestyle as part of the Prince of Wales's entourage, but transgressed traditional notions...

The Action Hero in Trouble or The Child is Father to the

Another feature of 1980s Hollywood thus gains extra political significance -even if its analysis is open to different kinds of explanation - namely, the resurgence of mainstream movies featuring children as protagonists. The popularity of Star Wars, E.T., Close Encounters of The Third Kind, Gremlins, Home Alone, Back to the Future showed that more was at stake than the prolonged adolescence of one or two directors, or even the demographics of a younger audience. The films that were to come to dominate the 1980s and 1990s, such as the many fairy tale or adventure stories even outside the Disney orbit featuring young boys, show a marked tendency to endow them with a deeper knowledge than the adults. They are also entrusted with cosmic missions and communicate with non-human powers, as if they were being groomed for 'inheriting' the universe, albeit that of fantasy and of self enclosed worlds. Following the different manifestations of non-normative masculinity in Hollywood, one arrives...

Feminism and film theory

Virtue not only of the dominant forms of visual pleasure - voyeurism and fetishism, traditionally analysed as male perversions - but also by the close formal convergence of narrative progress (the desire to see and to know) with the filmic process itself as exemplified in the workings of the cinematic apparatus or 'dispositif (see Rosen 1986). As Mary Ann Doane put it, reviewing the debate some ten years later 'With respect to a narrativization of the woman, the apparatus strains but the transformation of the woman into spectacle is easy. Through her forced affinity with the iconic, imagistic aspects of cinema, the woman is constituted as a resistance or impedance to narrativization' (Doane 1987 5-6). The conditions of female spectatorship in narrative cinema are therefore either submission to the regime of the gaze, the perversion of a perversion so to speak, or involve taking pleasure in the subject effects of a sexual identity not her own 'Confronted with the classical Hollywood...

Swinging London Hollywood and

Article that Paul Reilly wrote for Architectural Review in 1967. Reilly was Director of the COID at the time, and acknowledged that the old style values of the classic modern movement had been usurped by a new, young, pop aesthetic. 'Carnaby Street and King's Road, Chelsea, with their meagre buildings, ephemeral graphics and idiosyncratic fashions, are the world-wide symbols of a new, emancipated, classless generation' (p. 256). America looked to Britain for leadership in terms of youth culture. Time magazine featured 'London - The Swinging City' as its main feature and cover story in April 1966. This revolution in taste and style was partly played out through film. The Beatles had three number one hits in Britain in 1963, and toured America in the following year. They had originally dressed in the conventional attire of the rocker, with black leather bike jackets and T-shirts. However, their new manager, Brian Epstein, smartened the band up in 1962. Made by show business tailor...

Introduction Reclaiming the Personal and the Popular

On one level, the idea that we are constructed in the male gaze is reassuring. We remain somehow not responsible for our actions, as thought we were mere puppets to masculinity. It strikes me as easier to take apart a beautiful image, blame patriarchy, and yet hold on to that image (Yes, yes, I am that really) or to point to a void as its other side than to examine what else may lurk there beneath (1991 36).

Leo Braudy And Mark Crispin Miller

I get asked the question often and first I try not to answer because I say, Look, I don't know how to answer, but then I think about it and I say, Why do I keep doing that, why do they not get together And usually I have to go back a ways and say I do a film because I don't understand something. That's the only way I can get motivated to do a film. I would never make a film that says something that I wanted to tell you because I would be bored and so would you, if I had to spend a year and a half doing something I already knew the answer to. I would probably end up lecturing you in some way. I do the films because they're a way of exploring an argument that I'm not quite sure of the answer to. In Tootsie, it has to do with masculinity and femininity are the similarities more important than the differences finally What precisely are the perimeters of masculinity and what precisely are the perimeters of femininity I don't know the answer to those questions. If I...

Text Interpretation

Directors tend to emphasize different issues in their interpretations of scripts. For a director such as Ridley Scott, masculinity and its habitual need to prove itself is a presence even in his films about women (Thelma and Louise and GI Jane). The value that prevails in a Scott film is the positive value of masculinity. What is valued most in a Paul Mazursky film is the struggle for independence. What is valued most in a John Cassavetes film is the tug of war between the life force and the death force in each character. My point here is that directors have core beliefs or issues that they work with in their films. For Ernst Lubitsch, that core issue is romance.

The Portrait of a Lady

Idealized masculinity, Campion's lady thwarts her own desire to escape the bonds of femininity by marrying a two-bit sadist who has contempt not only for her aspirations but for her very sex. And though her prison is a Roman mansion, she, like the boxer, is reduced literally to banging her head against its walls.

Gendering Concepts of Law and Political Victimization

Death and the Maiden's explicit association of a formalistic, positivistic notion of law with a male character while it links a more compassionate, humanistic form with a female character clearly genders these two concepts along familiar lines, invoking a jurisprudence featuring a feminist ethics of compassion and care.32 Gerardo's masculine perception claims to be neutral, objective, pragmatic, utilitarian, professional, and free of emotional biases. In comparison, Paulina's law is one through which a wronged person can claim and regain her personhood and dignity. Further, it is law that em The dialogue or confrontation between the competing masculine and feminine concepts of law is clearly a challenge posed to the traditional masculine concept of law by a feminist jurisprudence of care. But the film does not privilege the feminist jurisprudence of care over more radical femi

The Law Of The Father

Paternal authority is not, however, a natural given. It is an essential part of western culture, a construct derived from Enlightenment thinking, which holds that reason and authority are masculine, while nature and emotion are coded as feminine. This has The POW became a stand-in for all the ways the postwar sons had been deserted by their 'commanding officers' . For many of the men who responded so dramatically to the Rambo myth, those 'stinking bureaucrats' may have brought to mind all the anonymous post World War II fathers who had abandoned them on the fields of masculinity.45 Kristin Ross has traced this process in detail, and has identified the late 1950s and early 1960s - the moment of Belmondo and Delon's entry into stardom - as crucial in the formation of a new technocratic and corporate vision in France. The process found expression in the figure of the executive, whose qualities - 'adaptability bordering on passivity, serviceability, and being on the whole devoid of...

Manchild Persona Of Robin Williams

Films in which he has starred, characterises many of the tendencies of recent Hollywood cinema. The central conflict which Williams serves to reconcile is between adult and child, synthesised in what might be termed his 'man-child' persona. While serving to stabilise various generic problematics inherent within the contemporary family film, this merging of adult and child has significant ideological dimensions, in terms of Hollywood's representation of men and masculinity, and children and childhood.

Clint Eastwood b Clinton Eastwood Jr San Francisco California

In an acting career spanning more than five decades, Clint Eastwood achieved stardom by epitomizing tough masculine independence. This image was the product not only of the characters he played, but of a performance style that remained emotionally impassive and contained. Although Eastwood played a variety of roles, his stardom was defined by those he took in westerns directed by Sergio Leone and police thrillers directed by Don Siegel. Dyer's star-image approach considered how the meanings of star images are formed through, and reproduce, wider belief systems in society. At one level, star images provide us with the identities by which we are able to conceptualize distinct individual star identities, for example ''Zeenat Aman,'' ''Amitabh Bachchan,'' ''Theda Bara,'' ''Maurice Chevalier,'' ''David Niven,'' ''Shirley Temple'' or ''Bruce Willis.'' Each name represents an individual unique star identity. Equally, however, and in a contradictory manner, star images are also important for...

Image Not Available

Current star studies seek to analyse these meanings in relation to ideologies of class, race and gender. Typically, the female actor body has been the focus of many star studies, including those of Marilyn Monroe, Greta Garbo, Shirley Temple, Jean Harlow, Rita Hayworth, Kim Novak, Judy Garland, Mae West, Bo Derek and Demi Moore in the west, and 'Fearless Nadia', Nargis Dutt and Smita Patil in the east. In many cases, it is argued that female stars are constructed to appeal to male desire (voyeurism and scopophilia), but such studies have been criticized for their assumption of a male spectator and masculine viewing position. What if the spectator is female and the observed a male Recently, there has been an increased interest in masculinity as viewed from both female and male perspectives. For example, what are we to make of the frequent close ups of the body of Brad Pitt within genres that primarily appeal to young males

An Abyss Of Moral Turpitude

Issues of pleasure and respectability were central to the reporting on the scandal. Initial press reports focused on Stanford White's alleged immorality and debauchery, producing what Harper's Weekly termed a postmortem defamation via a trial by newspapers.24 This included details of White's alleged relationships with young actresses, his role in bachelor parties where naked women emerged from cakes, and the exoticism of White's design for Madison Square Garden and his apartment within it (the central tower of the building was based on Seville's Giraldo Tower and was topped with a statue of a naked Diana, chaste goddess, that had drawn criticism for its public display of female nudity).25 Much of this commentary counterpoised White to prevailing notions and traditions of character that were, historians Kevin White and Gail Bederman suggest, an essential component of bourgeois manhood, involving above all else the cultivation of morals.26 Clearly this cultivation was absent in what...

Another View of Brooklyn

The closing scenes of Chokers are unconvincing dramatically, but they do serve as a restatement of Spike Lee's usual themes. Solidarity and mutual support provide the key to success of the black community. Victor emerges from the Brooklyn Correctional Facility and into the arms of his mother, wife, and children. The children have not grown, so in Lee's world, a good family man can be acquitted or will serve a brief sentence, even after pumping four shots at close range into another black man because he was depressed. Rodney has smashed Strike's car with a baseball bat, apparently in a police station parking lot, and yet he remains at large, free to pursue Strike, despite the drug charges amassed against him. Tyrone and his mother, Iris, have gone along with the falsified statement Rocco has concocted for them, and Tyrone has been returned to the streets without any psychiatric counseling, even after he has killed a real man who happened to become part of his video game. In helping...

Foucault

Finally, Foucault was a forceful critic of normativity of any kind, and an advocate of transgressive action and limit-experiences. He has therefore been a valuable ally to be invoked by minority groups of very different kinds. His key insights regarding the questions of sexuality and gender can be found in his History of Sexuality and The Birth of the Clinic. In both works, Foucault thinks of sexuality in terms of the institutions that define it, and not in the first instance as bodies with specific sexual preferences. The latter are only of interest to him insofar as they are connected with and articulated through discourses, which via compulsive heterosexuality try to regulate bodies and identities across the flows of power and pleasure mobilized by these practices 'Sex was, in Christian societies, that which had to be examined, watched over, confessed and transformed into discourse' (Foucault 1989 138). As a homosexual who militated for gay rights, he has been a valuable figurehead...

Safe Topics

Carson's hold on late-night television talk-show ratings remained secure through most of the mid-1960s, but toward the end of the decade he faced a series of new challengers. Some of these challengers were willing to take on the controversial issues Carson avoided. The other two network hosts who rose to the top in 1960s television, Mike Wallace and Barbara Walters, were able to bring controversy to news talk, but at the same time make those forms of controversy palatable to a national audience. Mike Wallace employed a hard, head-on, ''masculine'' style of confrontational interview and Walters developed a softer, but still assertive ''feminine'' approach to her political and lifestyle interviews.

Boomtown

Decelerated to sound more masculine, and combined with a fantastically contorting visage the film garnered a 1988 Oscar nomination for Best Animation, propelling Bill's career furiously forward. His work began appearing on MTV and in the increasingly popular touring animation festivals. Your Face became one of the most profitable short films ever made, still showing the world over. Fortunately, Bill was wise enough to retain ownership of the project.

Why Mean Women

Sometimes violent female characters are malicious villains other times they save the world from destruction or just uphold the law. In almost all cases, however, somebody will imply that such action, because done by a woman, falls below standards of human decency. This is why we call them all mean women. Depictions of women's violence seem more horrific to many people, perhaps because we find far fewer of them than we find scenes of male violence. Moreover, cultural standards still equate womanhood with kindness and nonviolence, manhood with strength and aggression. Controversies abound over the potential for imitative violence (e.g., Natural Born Killers, Thelma and Louise), the use of women as agents of sexist or racist oppression (Aliens, The Silence of the Lambs), and the deviant status of sexually assertive women (Basic Instinct, Eve of Destruction, Fatal Attraction). The contributions gathered here analyze violent women's respective places in the history of cinema, in the lives...

Scott Henderson

Barry Keith Grant has noted that rock music quickly became part of Hollywood's representation of youth, despite its apparent codification as oppositional. As Grant points out, rock's ideology of resistance and rebellion was part of Hollywood's efforts to attract a teenage audience 'rock 'n' roll, which initially was antithetical to both the musical's themes and conventions, was rather quickly fitted to its generic strategies'.2 It is evident that this use of rock music has continued into contemporary youth films. This should not be surprising, for rock music, despite its apparently oppositional nature has been 'generally patriarchal, heterosexual, and romantic, thus reinforcing (at least until some New Wave music) traditionally sexist distinctions between masculine sexuality as aggressive and dominant, and feminine sexuality as passive and submissive'.3 It is in the displacement of this musical identity, through female performances of these traditionally 'masculine' songs, that the...

Alison platt

Take a successful formula and 'continue mining the same seam' (p. 4), a view particularly applicable to Stephen Daldry's Billy Elliot (2000), which surely looks back to Ken Loach's Kes, recycling a motif that worked in 1969 but is stale in the year 2000. It is a manipulative pretence of realism that mars Billy Elliot (streetwise kids of the 1980s never attempted to erase spray-painted graffiti off gravestones by licking their sleeves and rubbing) and in the general scheme of things it feels like a greater achievement to watch Billy Caspar rear and train a wild kestrel in a mining district than to see Billy Elliot gain a place at the Royal Ballet School, even if, as Billy's father points out, 'lads do football or boxing or wrestling not frigging ballet'.3 Perhaps it's not simplistic to propose that Billy Elliot, so to speak, trusts ballet less than Kes trusts falconry or, more importantly, Leacock's The Spanish Gardener trusts gardening. The ancient sport of falconry and the primal...

Gilbert Moses

Roscoe Orman

Although the film found an audience, strong criticism pierced at its images. A rather harsh assessment came from critic Ed Eckstine, who dismissed the movie pronouncing ''It is demeaning to me as a Black man to see such a statement of life and manhood as is projected in the film.''36 From another perspective, in his recent cult study of ''blaxploitation'' films, author Darius James looks back on Willie Dynamite with more praise Willie Dynamite is the hands-down winner of the all-out best blaxploitation movie of the seventies. With a metaphor not unlike the one found in Barry Michael Cooper's script for New Jack City, Willie Dynamite is a sly satire in the toast made on the impulses that drive corporate America.''37

Feminist Critique

The resulting critique has been developed in two leading directions. In attempting to make room for women in film noir, Elizabeth Cowie has challenged the tendency to characterize film noir as always a masculine film form by valorizing the female unwilling killer of The Accused (1948), the obsessional heroine of Possessed (1947), and the fatally smitten heroine of The Damned Don't Cry (1950).53 More often, feminist critics have sought to make room for female audiences by unmasking patriarchal motives behind noir conventions, even at the price of arguing that noir heroines onscreen are mere functions of male desire. Mary Ann Doane defines the femmes fatales who descend from Brigid O'Shaughnessy (Mary Astor), the treacherous client who nearly undermines Sam Spade (Humphrey Bogart) in his manly resolve in The Maltese Falcon, as an articulation of fears surrounding the loss of stability and centrality of the male self The power ac- corded to the femme fatale is a function of fears linked...

Gender

Within the utopian narrative typical of American sports films, the heroic individual who overcomes obstacles and achieves success through determination, self-reliance, and hard work is most often male. The primary notion of masculinity in sports films is that this male protagonist defines and proves himself through free and fair competition modeled on American society, which promises rewards to the most deserving individuals. The competitive opportunities offered to male athletes in most sports films justify patriarchal authority by naturalizing the idea of men as more assertive and determining, while women generally appear in the secondary roles of fans and dependent supporters. Differences in social position are therefore naturalized as evolutionary rather than depicted as a result of a lack of competitive opportunities. The competition involving men that sports movies generally showcase provides an opportunity to validate assumptions of male superiority. These films seldom...

Naturalism

This is the essential point the two will not let themselves be separated and do not take on distinct form. The originary world has no existence independent of the geographical and historical milieu which serves as its medium. It is the milieu which receives a beginning, an end and above all, a slope. This is why impulses are extracted from the real modes of behaviour current in a determinate milieu, from the passions, feelings and emotions which real men experience in this milieu. And the fragments are torn from objects which have effectively been formed in the milieu. It might be said that the originary world only appears when the invisible lines which divide up the real, which dislocate modes of behaviour and objects, arc supercharged, filled out and extended. Actions go beyond

Mans Favorite Sport

Hudson works as a salesman in the sporting goods department of Abercrombie and Fitch. He has written an authoritative book on fishing, although he has never gone fishing in his life and finds the idea repugnant. His professional standing, therefore, is a hoax. Or, in the vocabulary of sexual allegory to which the film implicitly alludes, Hudson is a virgin, who has written a how-to book on sex while harboring a deep, fastidious horror of it. His masculinity is a lie. (Interestingly, he is engaged but has never told his fianc e he can't fish.)

Bruce Babington

The sexual ethos of Country music is conservative. Even where there is a critique of gender relations - as in Lynn's proto-feminist songs - it is protest in the context of necessary heterosexual relationships, and sexual ambiguity comes no closer than Charlie's threat in Sweet Dreams to declare himself 'a homo' in order to evade military service. On the one hand, this is presented as a pastoral quality, which is an enviable departure from urban gender confusion. On the other, though, these deeply held identities promote tension as the violent instability of the 'ramblin' man' conflicts with the female star's desire for domesticity (Cline's 'house with yellow roses'), rendering sexual relationships tumultuously precarious. Sexual need is accompanied by sexual antagonism, as in Patsy's mother's schooldays confession of sticking a pen into a boy's genitals. If the traditional roles are reversed and the woman is the star, then the men are likely to feel emasculated. Ironically, the women...

Delon Versus Bbel

Along with Ventura and the mature Gabin, Belmondo and Delon are the key macho stars in modern French fdm. For the period 1956-1992, cumulative box office figures in France rank Belmondo at number 3, Gabin at 4, Delon at 6 and Ventura at 7.8 Hence, four of the top ten stars of that period have a macho image, suggesting that machismo appeals to a vast number of cinemagoers. Certain ultra-masculine archetypes, most notably expressing the ideals of independence and authority, are mobilised by these stars. There is also a historical specificity fuelling such archetypes, as we shall see. The appeal of Belmondo and Delon can, moreover, be attributed to their association with popular genres, the thriller in particular, and appears related to the gender identity of their audience (see below). In this repect, Delon compares himself repeatedly to Burt Lancaster, Gabin and Ventura, pointing out that each of these actors arrived fully formed on screen, without training, from their previous jobs as...

Terms of Circulation

In contrast to Broken Arrow's self-consciously talky style, Devil's Doorway tells its story primarily through visual composition, noir stylistics, and costume. Jeanine Basinger calls Devil's Doorway and The Furies (1950) Anthony Mann's transitional films as he moved from his noir period (T-Men 1947 , Raw Deal 1948 ) of the late 1940s to his Western genre decade of the 1950s. Mann directed a series of films in the late 1940s and early 1950s with startlingly similar themes involving illegal or out-of-control circulation (of money, laborers, women, and guns), racial boundaries, and masculine bonds T-Men deals with undercover Treasury agents tracking a counterfeit ring Border Incident (1949) with undercover Immigration and Naturalization Service agents tracking illegal immigrant papers and migrant workers Winchester 73 (1950) with the circulation of a much-desired rifle The Furies with a rancher who pays his workers with his own currency and Devil's Doorway. In Devil's Doorway, the term...

Ivan Dixon

Kay Graham Washington Post

Dixon's movie career included appearances in Something of Value (1957), Porgy and Bess (1959), A Raisin in the Sun (1961), and A Patch of Blue (1965), but his big-screen presence ignited when he won the lead role in the 1964 independent film Nothing But a Man. The film, still considered by many critics to be one of the most outstanding black male screen depictions, explores the odyssey of a southern railroad worker who faces and overcomes challenges to his dignity and manhood. Dixon's performance earned him the Best Actor award at the First International Festival of Negro Art in Dakar, Senegal.10

Estella Tincknell

Crucially, Pulp Fiction is too strongly marked by a discourse of emotional detachment for this affective moment to extend beyond its immediate performance, and the film resists the more conventionalised tropes of nostalgia that mark other texts discussed here. But this does not mean that its soundtrack is 'innocent', as I have indicated. Perhaps most importantly, the film explicitly allies its ironic discourse to the performance of masculinity, both in its narrative emphasis on different kinds of male power and in its use of iconography allied to specific musical numbers. In the final scene, having successfully routed an armed robber in a coffee shop, Vega and his partner, Jules Winnfield (Samuel L. Jackson), stroll outside and into the end credits to the sound of 'Surf Rider' by The Lively Ones their jaunty swagger a significant reassertion of masculine power that is all the more potent because we have seen Vega gunned down an hour earlier in the film in a scene that takes place -...

Everybody Is A Star

For example, in Beyond Asiaphilia images of Jet Li's Hong Kong movies provide a visual background to interviews with Asian American men. Positioned in the foreground of the frame, as befits their 'star' status and billing in the short, these men provide alternative perspectives on Asian movies, talking about why they respond so positively to their compelling representations of masculinity. Similarly, director Valerie Soe positions herself as a further centre of narrative interest, explaining at the start of the film that she can not figure out why she, a Chinese American woman, has after two decades of pursuing blue-eyed White boyfriends, suddenly fallen in love with Chow Yun-Fat. In this way, the iconic

The Editing Process

In my automobile accident film, I had a series of interviews five minutes into the picture in which people talked about the effect of accidents on their lives. During the rough cut, I realized that I had too much and cut out two of the interviews. One I abandoned completely the second, in which a father talks about the loss of his son, I held for later use, though I wasn't quite sure where. In the middle of the film, I had a good sequence but realized as we edited it that it had no climax. The sequence showed cars racing along roads, cut to cars on a racing track, and ended with a man looking at bikini clad women decorating sports cars in a lush showroom. Meanwhile, the commentary talked about the car representing power and masculinity. Looking at the sequence, I realized that it would work more effectively if we dropped the showroom, went from the racing cars to a rollover crash, and then cut in the interview of the father talking about the loss of his son.

Writing Sharon

The perspicacious (and seemingly valid) thrust of these observations sets the real Sharon Stone at an existential distance from her persona. It is not difficult to discern, and this may be intended, the notion of femininity as a masquerade - a decorative layer which conceals a non-identity (Doane, 1988). Stone has embodied, on-screen and in auditions, the script of masculine desire, the better to gain control of her career and, it is tempting to assume, her personal life. 'Being a blonde is a great excuse when you're having a bad day' - even if as she subsequendy admitted, she is definitely not a natural blonde.

Andrew Spicer

The figure of the man-about-town, the leisured British, West End gentleman whose easy-going charm is equal to any situation, is now either nostalgically redolent of a vanished and more 'innocent' age, or a symbol of outmoded class privilege. Yet, historical analysis reveals the type to be both complex and highly significant as the central image of British masculine consumption and modernity from the 1880s through to the late 1930s. The focus here will be on the star Jack Buchanan, who dominated the interwar period, establishing himself as an international icon through his musical comedies on stage and screen. Buchanan's performance style will be explored through an analysis of his film roles, concentrating on the function of the song and dance routines. Although his films were designed for both the UK and US markets as competition to Fred Astaire, Buchanan's manner and mode of address were highly distinctive, as his films retain a strong element of burlesque. In this he resembled his...

The Designer Decade

By the 1980s the independent film-makers of Hollywood were dominant. The influence of Hollywood beyond the screen in the 'designer decade' was through the promotion of well-cut clothes and accessories. The bohemianism of the 1970s was superseded by the reassertion of the importance of the designer. In Annie Hall (1977) Diane Keaton plays the insecure female lead in well-cut but plain Ralph Lauren outfits. The transposition of male clothes to the female body, transmitted through the pages of Vogue, was immensely influential. It was simple enough to emulate the look by wearing second-hand men's jackets and jumpers and shirts with sleeves that drooped over your hands and had to be rolled back. Men's trousers in loose flannel with waistcoats could also be worn by women. As Bruzzi has argued 'There was something paradoxically feminine about the Keaton-inspired fashion which pervaded every type of women's clothes shops in the late 1970s. By not being fitted and not accentuating the feminine...

The British Reaction

A similar pattern of development in the identification of glamour with Hollywood and art deco took place in Britain as had occurred in America. Orientalism was as popular amongst British audiences as American up until the mid-1920s, when art deco as the representation of modernity took hold. The 1925 Paris Exposition reinforced France's leadership of the luxury end of the market, defining fashion in terms of expensive clothing and interior decoration. Art deco enjoyed limited popularity, mainly amongst the young, rich and aristocratic, during the 1920s in Britain. A sturdy, masculine and nationalistic Arts and Crafts mindset still prevailed among designers, and was reinforced by the activities of the Design and Industries Association (DIA). Liberty's was as popular as ever, and figures like William Lethaby were still highly influential. While art deco was enthusiastically received in America and reconfigured to meet that country's needs, it was regarded as suspect among practising...

The War Experience

After all, how often were they forced to give up terrain they had conquered only just before In recent analyses, this condition has been interpreted as a 'crisis of masculinity' 'A gender crisis ensued within the male self when the irresistible forces of conventional martial courage ran up against the unmovable object of stalemated war.'7

Chapter arrangement

Veys the first three decades of German film history, with a strong emphasis on historical films, the following chapters discuss the films that have been researched for this project. The second chapter deals with films that represent the run-up to the war, and the third chapter discusses the 'war documentaries'. Since two of those documentaries give a filmed account of the entire war, the history of the war is shown predominantly from a German perspective. The other chapters follow a less chronological order. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with films that are tied to specific locations, films that are set on the mainland and films where the action takes place at sea. The final chapter deals with the issue of gender in war films by discussing the representation of the home front and the images of femininity and masculinity that the war films construct. The study closes with a concluding epilogue.

The Jump Ball

By the same token, if the man's life need were to prove his manhood and his scene need were to free himself, then the choice of to challenge as his jump ball action might be a useful one. However, if his scene need were to get rid of guilt with that life need then his first action might well be to apologize. So you see, a simple opening line can be invested with all kinds of meaning or motivate many forms of behavior depending on the choice of action. The goal is to put the ball into play or, in our terms, start the moment-to-moment interaction.

Failure

Tensions Or perhaps we have looked for too tidy relations between stars and ideological processes The most promising case since Dyer on Monroe has to be the many studies of 'musculinity' in 1980s action movies, which has been widely theorised as pointing to a crisis in masculinity 'contained' and perhaps magically resolved in the bodies of action heroes (see Tasker, 1993a Kirkham and Thumim, 1993 Jeffords, 1994). The problem is that the 'crisis' is almost entirely an imputed one. Nothing like Dyer's careful research into wider discursive patterns of Monroe's period is to be found alongside the analyses of action movies his study stands worryingly alone.

Cynthia Baron

The continuous adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's 1886 allegorical shilling shocker, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, can, as Brian Rose suggests, 'serve as a tracer of shifts in attitudes' (1996 1). Analysis of even a small sampling ofjekyll and Hyde adaptations reveals that the films' representations of two passages in Stevenson's novella are especially pertinent to inquiries into shifting constructions of masculinity. The first concerns the secret pleasures that led the doctor to see the duality of his identity long before the invention of Hyde in recounting his tale, Jekyll explains These moments of revelation that establish JekylTs inherent duality and the necessity of a female witness to establish Hyde's potency, are defining features of the four films I will discuss. These are all films that have been shaped by the picture personalities1 and performances of their stars John Barrymore, Fredric March, Spencer Tracy and John Malkovich. Studying them, I have been struck...

Antecedents

The films' developing emphasis on Hyde's sexual sadism parallels the emerging emphasis on Jekyll Hyde's love interest. It also reflects a process of accretion that has shaped the novella's adaptations ever since Mansfield's London productions were linked to the coincident outbreak of the Jack-the-Ripper mutilation-murders in London's East End.7 By conflating Stevenson's story of a discontented, middle-aged bachelor ashamed of his 'impatient gaiety of disposition' with the lurid accounts of prostitutes murdered by someone with a knowledge of surgery, the film adaptations have been able to mask the effeminate or homosocial or homosexual implications of Drjekyll's secret pleasures and, at the same time, give expression to the troubling connections between violence (especially against women) and prevailing constructions of masculinity.

Feminism

There was the flood of research by minority and women of the Third World (itself a problematic and much-debated term). Masculine studies, inspired by feminist theory, emerged, as well as queer studies, which severely challenged some of the concepts basic to feminist film theories. Finally, the introduction of new interdisciplinary fields like visual studies and digital media, related to film studies, had the effect of broadening the somewhat narrow gaze-related theories to consider historical, technological, and institutional contexts given short shift in cine-psychoanalysis. Second-wave feminist theorists have further revised gaze theories.

Repetitionresolution

Part of this work, as we have stressed several times, is a certain excessiveness. This makes Die Hard also an example of what Colin MacCabe or Stephen Heath have analysed as a necessary instability of the classical system, its constant breakup of the configurations and their reassemblage. Heath, in his essay 'Narrative Space' (1981 19-75), traces the different kinds of excess and instability in Hitchcock's 'geometry of representation', as they can be seen, for instance, in the different function of two paintings in Suspicion. This necessary instability, it might be argued, manifests itself in Die Hard as an emphasis on special effects, on the pyrotechnics of violent assault on bodies and buildings, typical of an action film but here staged in such a flamboyantly self-confident way that one suspects an underlying panic to be part of its violent urgency. For this kind of excess only serves to displace and cover up others kind of instability the skewed 'relations' between male and female...

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