Developer Dilution

A number of film developers are specifically formulated to work well at a variety of dilutions. The following is a list of some popular developers and the dilutions at which they are commonly used:

Recommended Normal Development Times and mixing instructions are provided with all these formulas.

Changing the dilution of a given developer has a dramatic effect on its characteristics and performance. As a general rule, developers that are more dilute produce negatives with softer tonal gradations and finer grain. Diluted developers are ideal for Contraction developments because of their relatively longer development times and because of the compensating effect (see Appendix E). In general, diluted developers can't be reused, and you may notice some loss of effective film speed, causing you to use a lower ASA.

Negatives developed in more concentrated "high-energy" developers tend to have greater tonal separations and coarser grain. Concentrated developers are recommended for Expansions because their Normal Development Times are relatively short. These developers will generally allow you to use a higher ASA for a given film than developers that are less energetic.

Developers containing high concentrations of sodium sulfite (D76, XTOL, Perceptol, ID-11, and Microdol-X) produce finer grain when used in their undiluted form. In high enough concentrations, sodium sulfite will act as a silver solvent and reduce graininess at the expense of image resolution.

Edwal FG7 Kodak HC110 Ilford Ilfotec HC Kodak D76

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