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FIGURE 160 Enlarger, negative, and print.

The overall tonality of a print can be made lighter or darker by increasing or decreasing the amount of light that exposes the paper. Selected areas of the print can be darkened by adding more light to those areas.This is called burning in. If you want to make a certain part of the print lighter, all you have to do is hold back the light in that area with your hand or a tool. This is called dodging.

To distinguish between the light and dark areas of the subject and the light and dark areas of the print, subject brightnesses are called subject values. The gray, black, and white areas of the print are called print values, or tones.

Let's summarize what we have learned about emulsions, negatives, and prints:

1. The photographic emulsions of the films and prints are essentially the same. When an emulsion is exposed to light, it produces a density of silver after being developed. The greater the exposure, the greater the density.

2. A light value in the subject produces a high density in the negative, which results in a light tone in the print.

3. A dark value in the subject produces a low density in the negative, which results in a dark tone in the print.

Memorize these three principles before you go on.

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