Normal Development

For every combination of film and developer, there is a certain development time that will produce negative contrast that is equal to the contrast of the scene that you are photographing. This is called Normal Development, which is symbolized by the letter N. If, for example, eleven minutes is the Normal Development time for your favorite film and developer, that will be true as long as you continue to use that combination and don't change any of the other variables that affect development time. These variables are dilution, temperature, and the rate of agitation.

Since by definition, Normal Development means negative contrast will be equal to subject contrast, if the subject you are photographing has too much contrast, using Normal Development (eleven minutes in this example) will result in an equally contrasty negative! If the contrast of the subject is too low, Normal Development will give you a flat negative. If, on the other hand, the contrast of the subject is average, Normal Development will result in a printable negative.

Note: Paper grade 2, or variable contrast filter #2, is usually considered the standard for Normal contrast negatives. You can determine the exact time for Normal Development by testing your film, as outlined in Chapter 8.

(11 MIN.)










FIGURE 10 The effect of Normal Development on a subject with Normal contrast.

FIGURE 10 The effect of Normal Development on a subject with Normal contrast.

Figure 10A illustrates a negative being exposed to a subject with Normal contrast. Figure 10B shows that when the negative is given Normal Development, the resulting print will also have Normal contrast.

Normal Development 17

Film Making

Film Making

If you have ever wanted the secrets to making your own film, here it is: Indy Film Insider Tips And Basics To Film Making. Have you ever wanted to make your own film? Is there a story you want to tell? You might even think that this is impossible. Studios make films, not the little guy. This is probably what you tell yourself. Do you watch films with more than a casual eye? You probably want to know how they were able to get perfect lighting in your favorite scene, or how to write a professional screenplay.

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