Q What is the minimum development time that renders a fully textured Zone VII and a Zone VIII that is white with some texture

A: The Normal Development Times recommended by film and developer manufacturers are based on scientific standards such as "developed to a contrast index of 0.56." Anyone so inclined will discover that there are very rational reasons for doing it this way, but all that most photographers need to know is that a given development time will give them negatives with printable highlights.

It is always best to work with minimum times to avoid highlights that are blocked up. Higher than normal grades of papers can be used if more print contrast is needed. See Appendix H.

Standard developer temperatures and dilutions were used in the tests charted below unless the tests indicated that an alternative gave better results.

Agitation rate is another important variable that effects development time and film speed. My agitation procedure is outlined in Appendix E under Processing Notes and on pages 262 of A Primer on Basic Photography.

The following development times are suggested for diffusion-type enlargers. Reduce these times by approximately 15% if you print with a condenser enlarger or if you are processing your film in a Jobo processor. See Appendix M.

Note: Development times that are shorter than 3 minutes in certain developers are listed as N.R. (Not Recommended) because it's very difficult to avoid uneven development. Also, the times are listed in minutes or fractions of minutes.

Practical experience (and Kodak data sheets, if you look closely) indicates that T-Max developer isn't recommended for use with any sheet film. See the section on T-Max developer under Developer Notes in Appendix E.

Note: These development time charts are listed in the order of my preferences for quality.

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