Contents

Preface to the English Edition xi

Translators' Introduction xv

Chapter 1 Beyond the movement-image

1 How is neo-realism defined? - Optical and sound situations, in contrast to sensory-motor situations: Rossellini, De Sica — Opsigns and sonsigns; objectivism-subjectivism, real-imaginary — The new wave: Godard and Rivette - Tactisigns (Bresson) 1

2 Ozu, the inventor of pure optical and sound images -Everyday banality - Empty spaces and still lifes - Time as unchanging form 13

3 The intolerable and clairvoyance — From clichés to the image — Beyond movement: not merely opsigns and sonsigns, but chronosigns, lectosigns, noosigns —The example of Antonioni 18

Chapter 2 Recapitulation of images and signs

1 Cinema, semiology and language — Objects and images 25

2 Pure semiotics: Peirce and the system of images and signs - The movement-image, signaletic material and non-linguistic features of expression (the internal monologue). 30

3 The time-image and its subordination to the movement-image — Montage as indirect representation of time - Aberrations of movement - The freeing of the time-image: its dirpct presentation. The relative difference between the classical and the modern. 34

Chapter 3 From recollection to dreams: third commentary on Bergson

1 The two forms of recognition according to Bergson — The circuits of the optical and sound image -Rossellini's characters 44

2 From the optical and sound image to the recollection-image - Flashbacks and circuits - The two poles of the flashback: Carné, Mankiewicz - Forking time according to Mankiewicz - The inadequacy of the recollection-

image 47

3 Larger and larger circuits - From the optical and sound image to the dream-image - The 'implied dream': movements of world - Spectaculars and musical comedy - From Donen and Minnelli to Jerry Lewis -

The four ages of burlesque - Lewis and Tati 55

Chapter 4 The crystals of time

1 The actual and the virtual: the smallest circuit- The crystal-image - Indiscernible distinctions - The three aspects of the crystalline circuit (various examples) -The ambiguous question of the film within the film:

money and time, industrial art 68

2 Actual and virtual according to Bergson - Bergsonian theses on time: the foundation of time 78

3 The four states of the crystal and time — Ophüls and the perfect crystal — Renoir and the cracked crystal — Fellini and the formation of the crystal - The problem of film music: sound crystal, gallop and ritornello (Nino Rota) — Visconti and the decomposing crystal: the elements in Visconti 83

Chapter 5 Peaks of present and sheets of past: fourth commentary on Bergson

1 The two direct time-images: coexistence of sheets of past (aspects), simultaneity of peaks of present (accents) - The second time-image: Robbe-Grillet, Buñuel -Inexplicable differences - Real and imaginary, true and false 98

2 The first time-image: the sheets of past according to Orson Welles - Questions of depth and field -Metaphysics of memory: useless summonable recollections (recollection-images), unsummonable recollections (hallucinations) — The progression of Welles's films - Memory, time and earth 105

3 Sheets of past according to Resnais — Memory, world and the ages of the world: the progression of films — The laws of transformation of sheets, undecidable alternatives - Long shot and short montage - Topology and non-chronological time — From feelings to thought: hypnosis 116

Chapter 6 The powers of the false

1 The two regimes of the image: from the point of view of descriptions (organic and crystalline descriptions) — From the point of view of narrations (truthful and falsifying narrations) - Time and the power of the false in the image - The character of the forger: his multiplicity, his power of metamorphosis 126

2 Orson Welles and the question of truth — Critique of the system of judgement: from Lang to Welles — Welles and Nietzsche: life, becoming and power of the false -The transformation of the centre in Welles - The complementarity of short montage and the sequence shot — The great series of forgers — Why everything is not equivalent to everything else 137

3 From the point of view of the story (truthful story and simulating story) - The model of truth in the real and in fiction: Ego=Ego-The double transformation of the real and fiction - 'I is another': simulation, storytelling- Perrault, Rouch and the meaning of 'cinima-veritf - The before, the after or becoming as the third time-image 147

Chapter 7 Thought and cinema

1 The ambitions of the first cinema: art of the masses and new thought, the spiritual automaton - The model of Eisenstein - First aspect: from image to thought, the cerebral shock - Second aspect: from thought to the image, the figures of the internal monologue - The question of metaphor: the most beautiful metaphor of the cinema - Third aspect: the equality of image and thought, the link between man and world - Thought, power and knowledge, the Whole 156

2 The crisis of the cinema, the break - Artaud the precursor: powerlessness to think - Evolution of the spiritual automaton - What the cinema is essentially concerned with - Cinema and the Catholic church: belief, instead of knowledge — Reasons for believing in this world (Dreyer, Rossellini, Godard, Garrel) 164

3 A theorematic structure: from theorem to problem (Astruc, Pasolini) — The thought of the Outside: the sequence shot —The problem, choice and the automaton (Dreyer, Bresson, Rohmer) — The new status of the whole — Interstice and irrational break (Godard) - The dislocation of the internal monologue and the refusal of metaphors - Return from the problem to the theorem: Godard's method and the categories 173

Chapter 8 Cinema, body and brain, thought

1 'Give me a body, then' - The two poles: everydayness and ceremony — First aspect of the experimental cinema - The cinema of the body: from attitudes to gest (Cassavetes, Godard and Rivette) - After the new wave - Garrel and the question of the cinematographic creation of bodies - Theatre and cinema - Doillon and the question of the space of bodies: non-choice 189

2 Give me a brain — The cinema of the brain and the question of death (Kubrick, Resnais)-The two fundamental changes from the cerebral point of view -The black or white screen, irrational cuts and relinkings - Fourth aspect of experimental cinema 204

3 Cinema and politics - The people are missing ... - The trance - Critique of the myth - Story-telling function and the production of collective utterances 215

Chapter 9 The components of the image

1 The 'silent': the seen and the read - The talkie as dimension of the visual image — Speech-act and interaction: conversation - The American comedy -The talkie makes visible and the visual image becomes readable 225

2 The sound continuum, its unity - Its differentiation according to the two aspects of the out-of-field - The voice-off, and the second kind of speech-act: reflexive — The Hegelian or the Nietzschean conception of the music of the cinema — Music and the presentation of time 234

3 The third kind of speech-act, act of story-telling - New readability of the visual image: the stratigraphic image - Birth of the audio-visual — The respective autonomy of the sound image and the visual image - The two framings and the irrational break - Straub, Marguerite Duras - Relationship between the two autonomous images, music's new sense 241

Chapter 10 Conclusions

1 The evolution of automata - Image and information -

The problem of Syberberg 262

2 The direct time-image - From opsigns and sonsigns to crystalline signs - The different kinds of chronosigns -Noosigns - Lectosigns - Disappearance of the flashback, the out-of-field and the voice-off 270

3 The usefulness of theory in the cinema 280

Notes

Glossary

Index

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