Photography Masterclass Online Course

Photography Masterclass

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Photography Masterclass Overview

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Modern Telephoto Lenses

The term telephoto lens is generally used to describe any lens, regardless of its optical configuration, which magnifies the image at least 50 more than the normal lens on any specific camera. The term true telephoto refers to lenses designed for physical compactness, yet having an effective focal length (EFL) longer than the physical distance of the optics from the image plane. This type of lens employs a negative rear optical component. The term tele-lens is becoming more common than telephoto lens. Many of the telephoto lenses in use today (over 180mm EFL) were originally designed for use with 35mm single-lens reflex still cameras. Several major still camera manufacturers, in efforts to satisfy the unique telephoto lens requirements of professional sports photographers, have designed superior quality, high-speed and zoom lenses using newly compounded, low dispersion optical glass (in some cases crystal substances such as fluorite). Through the use of state-of-the-art computer-aided...

Mechanics of Zoom Lenses

Perhaps the single most important factor in preparing a zoom lens for use is the mounting procedure. Unlike fixed focal length lens, a zoom will not perform correctly if not seated properly in the camera. The distance from the seat or flange of the lens mount to the film plane (known as the flange focal distance) is hypercritical. If not set to the prescribed dimension (17.52mm for Standard C mount, 40.0mm for Aaton, 52mm for Arriflex Standard, 38.1mm for CP, 48mm for Eclair) out-of-focus images will result when zooming from long focal lengths to short focal lengths. This phenomenon is a result of the depth of focus, the lens-to- film tolerance being greater at the long focal length than at the short focal length. To avoid mounting problems, both the lens mount and camera socket should be cleaned before inserting the lens into the camera. It must be pointed out that professional zoom lenses must be adjusted to an extremely small tolerance specified by the lens manufacturer, which...

Zoom Lens Flexibility

There are a number of attachments available for zoom lenses to increase their flexibility. These attachments can be used to further change the angle of view, working distances, color and contrast, as well as protect the lens. One of the most commonly used front-mounted attachments is the close-up lens (sometimes referred to as a diopter). These attachments fit on the front of a zoom lens, permitting a closer than normal focusing range, as well as the full use of the zoom. Its prime limitation is that focusing to infinity is not possible. One of the most recent front-mounted attachments is a unit to increase the focal length of a zoom. This telephoto attachment, while increasing the focal length, may reduce

Preparation of Motion Picture Camera Equipment

All motion-picture camera equipment must be periodically inspected and maintained to insure proper performance in production. Camera rental facilities employ skilled technicians to service and repair equipment after each use. Once the equipment leaves the rental house, however, the camera crew must service that equipment throughout the production. The camera assistant must be prepared with the right knowledge, skills, tools, and reference materials to properly maintain all equipment in the camera package. The following is a list of procedures for the preparation of camera equipment needed to photograph a motion picture. It is the responsibility of the camera assistant to assure that all equipment and supplies needed and requested by the director of photography are present, in working order, at the start of production.

Extension of Prime Lens

As the prime lens is moved forward, less light is transmitted because the effective T-stop is progressively diminished by its distance from the film. At a subject-to-lens distance of about 10 focal lengths (field width of 8 for 35mm, or 4 for 16mm) this begins to become noticeable. The table shows the amount of illumination increase required to maintain full exposure in terms of image scale factor.

Special Purpose Lenses Swing Shift Lens

The Clairmont Swing Shift Lens System consists of a multi-axis moveable lens board receiver attached to a Arriflex style PL lens mount by a rubber bellows. Specially modified lenses are attached to the receiver board by two captive screws. The assembly is able to move the entire lens in the following directions tilt up and down, swing side to side, shift position and focus right to left, or up and down. Tilting swinging the lens plane alters the focus tilting swinging the film plane alters the shape. By combining the various parameters of movement, different and

Digital Image Sensor Pixels

The size of pixels on the surface of a digital image sensor inside of a camera is also rigidly fixed. The amount of information recorded by a 6 megapixel sensor is enough to create an approximately 9 x 12 image that prints with 240 dots per inch on an ink jet printer. In terms of digital image quality, this resolution number is the one that means the most.

The Adobe Camera Raw Advantage

(See Appendix S for reference to a book that will fully explain the details of working with images in Adobe Camera Raw.) The important implication of all of this is that any image corrections you make at this stage of the process are fundamental and generally much less damaging to the quality of your image than editing done in Photoshop. There are also ways that you can color-correct and otherwise manipulate images during the conversion process that simply can't be duplicated in Photoshop. This is the reason for the next cardinal rule for digital photographers Note Scanners can't currently produce raw-formatted files that can be opened and edited using the Adobe Camera Raw utility. This is because scanners are creating digital images from sources that have already been through the conversion process either as the negative or slide you are scanning, or the print made from that film. This means that the .nef files produced by Nikon film scanners aren't the same as the raw files captured...

Studio Photographers

Virtually any town (and all cities) have professional studio photographers whose services may include portraiture, advertising, print restoration or corporate promotions. The first step to taking advantage of this resource would be to arrange a presentation or field trip, inviting one or more photographers to visit the class and discuss their work or to host the class in the studio or on location. Additional variations might include arranging for small groups of students to spend an extended period of time observing a professional photographer at work. It may also be possible to set up workshops in which students can refine their darkroom skills, learn about studio lighting or receive specialized instruction in some other aspect of professional photography. Local photographers may also be willing to serve as judges for photographic competitions or as a panel to critique student work on a regular basis. Depending on the size of your class and the number of professional photographers in...

Zoom Lenses

In order to understand why we use a zoom lens, it is best to first understand what a zoom lens is. By definition a zoom lens is a precision optical mechanical system, which can change its field of view without noticeably changing its aperture or focus. This is made possible by the use of complex cams and followers controlling precisely designed and manufactured optical components. Today the zoom lens is used mainly as a variable prime, meaning that the zoom lens carries within it an infinite number of focal lengths which can be utilized for the specific composition required. The cinematographer has available almost every conceivable focal length and aperture found in fixed focal length lenses. Cine zooms have ranges up to 25X now, with focal lengths of 7.5mm to 625mm and apertures as high as f 11 currently available, leaving very few requirements for fixed focal length lenses. In addition to these properties, the zoom lens can achieve special effects by ever-changing the field of...

Honoring The Credit Crawl

Those skilled individuals who work in production and as part of the crew are often referred to as below-the-line expenses, as mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Below-the-line are labor and technical expenses, such as set construction, camera equipment, film stock, and developing and printing. (As opposed to above-the-line costs, which cover all of the major elements of a film, such as the writer, director, actor, producer, and the script and story development costs.)

FOCUS New British Cinema Cultural Forms Montage and Narrative

It is fair to say that Performance shows little similarity to Cammell's later work, whilst, in the cinematic elements of camera zoom lens use, lighting and the provocative style of editing montage, it bears Roeg's unmistakable creative signature. Regardless of its own merits, the film heralded the arrival proper of one of Britain's greatest film-makers. Roeg's next films consistently displayed his great fascination with (and handling of) time, fantasy, reality, memory and meaning and he made some of the most important British films to date, including his next feature Walkabout (1971), Don't Look Now (1973), The Man who Fell to Earth (1976) and Bad Timing (1980). Even when less successful, Roeg's films quite literally make most other Western directors' work look conventional.

FOCUS Black American Cinema Political Cinema Race

'cool off' in the heat, which gets worse as the day wears on, from the Mayor's feverish mission to buy a cold beer, to Mookie's aggravated partner Tina cooling her face in a basin of water. But, beyond these pointed images, the entire film is saturated with the impression of unrelenting heat by the warm, glowing, sometimes bleached-out tones of Ernest Dickerson's highly luminous colour cinematography, its oppressive glow compounded by the very strong presence of the colour red in key scenes, and even further by frequent and striking use of low wide-angle lenses when shooting people in verbal conflict. The lens effects are extreme, and Do the Right Thing does not aim for subtlety. The clean portrayal of neighbourhood shows little interest in documentary realism, and seems designed to enhance the sensual evocation of heat, while ensuring that location social setting remains less important dramatically than human interaction and politics. These elements' consistency guaranteed Do the...

Movement from a Fixed Point

The zoom shot relies on a lens that can be moved from a wide-angle shot to telephoto or the reverse. In both cases, the zoom is used to avoid cutting from a long shot to a close-up. Aside from the economic benefit of one setup instead of two, numerous directors from Visconti to Altman, from Kubrick to Peckinpah have used the zoom shot to lengthen a shot. Each had an aesthetic goal. In Kubrick's case (for example, in Barry Lyndon), he wanted to slow down our sense of time. Barry Lyndon is a film about an 18th-century character made by a 20th-century filmmaker aware that slowing down the film by using zooms will slow down the

Just an Old Fashioned

I've always thought of myself as a very old-fashioned kind of filmmaker. For me narrative is everything. A lot of films today seem to dispense with that. There's not actually that much that's sexy in my movies in terms of flash, not a lot of explosions. There's not a lot of dizzying cutting or extreme camera work. And then all of this stuff that kind of passes for hip today. Some of that stuff actually gives me a bit of a headache. I'm a real traditionalist, an old-fashioned guy. I grew up watching John Ford movies and David Lean movies and Frank Capra movies and Billy Wilder movies. Their films always focused so much on the story and on the characters, you never really saw the director's hand in it, necessarily. You never saw the director doing what a lot of directors seem to do nowadays, which is jump in front of the lens and say, Hey, I'm the star here, not the story, not the actors. It seems like a lot of people want to prove something about their directorial style.

The Purpose of the Script

The script is also essential to both the cameraperson and the director. It should convey to the cameraperson a great deal about the mood, action, and problems of the camera work. It should also help the director define the approach and the progress of the film, its inherent logic and its continuity.

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

The questionable morals of modernity linked with the scandalous behaviour of the young depicted in films such as Our Dancing Daughters and Our Modern Maidens inflamed extreme reactions in Britain and America. In the US this led to the adoption of the Production Code in 1930, covered in Chapter 2 but a swifter reaction came from the British Parliament in 1927, with the passing of the Cinematograph Film Act. The Act attempted to limit the quantity of imported American films and boost the British film industry by imposing quotas for their exhibition. Before 1909 the British were at the forefront of film production and the manufacture of projection and camera equipment. However, by 1920 only 15 per cent of films screened in Britain were British in origin. This was largely due to the American decision in 1909 to market and distribute their products effectively abroad, with Britain as the prime target. By 1925 there were 22,000 cinemas in the USA and 4,000 in Britain, with screenings...

Location Location Location

A famous actor's schedule may be taken into consideration when planning a production, but this can only be done to a certain extent. It's only the bigger-budget movies that can afford a big name actor to begin with, and furthermore, to wait for that actor to become available. Most productions do not have that privilege. Location and the technical needs of the script will reign supreme when planning a movie's shooting schedule. The actor's performance is rarely considered, simply because the actor, a human being, can be reasoned with, directed, cajoled, and convinced. This is not the case with camera equipment or the weather.

Architecture Environment

Don't restrict yourself to an eye-level perspective. Get up high and look down. Lie flat on the ground and look up. Go off to one side or another. Step back into an alley or side street. Get in close. Move far away. If you have more than one lens, use them. Try a wide angle lens up close, a telephoto from a distance.

Rule Break a rule for a good reason While it can feel liberating to

Break rules just to break them, the thrill isn't likely to last very long. Sooner or later, it all begins to seem like random shots in the dark. Stick to the rules until you have a good reason not to, and your results will probably be more interesting. For example, one common mistake made by both photographers and other artists is to confuse novelty for insight.

Ground Glass Focusing Screen A

Telephoto Lens Any lens that reproduces a smaller than normal portion of a given scene, so objects seem closer and larger than they actually are. Zoom Lens Any lens of variable focal length, i.e. with an adjustable angle-of-view. A 35-150mm zoom lens, for example, provides the same focal-lengths as a 35mm, a 50mm and a 150mm lens, plus all the focal lengths in between.

Galleries and Exhibits

One emerging trend is for restaurants to use the work of local artists and photographers to decorate their walls. If this is common in your community, it is yet another way of locating photographers who might be willing to assist you in some of the ways outlined above. A nature photographer, for example, would be another good choice for a class presentation and may also be open to escorting your class on a field trip to a local scenic area. Any gallery or other exhibit that includes a substantial number of photographs is a fabulous opportunity for students to be exposed to the work of other photographers. Plan a field trip and follow it up with a critique session, encouraging students to voice their responses to the work they have seen. Better still, you might be able to arrange for a private viewing (at a time when the gallery or exhibit is officially closed or expecting low attendance) and do the critique right then and there. (This is of course preferable to having to remember what...

Reteaching Options And Productive Play

For example, one potential problem area that all photographers must confront to some degree is a high level of interaction with others (often total strangers) which can be extremely uncomfortable and until identified may be the source of an otherwise inexplicable inability to capture effective people pictures. Creating a safe environment, such as encouraging the use of friends and family members for set-up shots, may be all that is necessary to solve this dilemma. Extensive use of self-portraiture may be another useful approach to try, especially for highly introspective students who may lack effective social skills.

What part of the process is the most challenging for you

If I could turn it around, I have three things that just make me glad to be alive. There's a moment when I'm out shooting. It's usually late, late at night or early, early in the morning and you're carrying heavy equipment and suddenly the light is just so and you're able to frame a shot that you know will get into the film somehow. And there's a great exhilaration. It's not dissimilar to the same exhilaration when you're in a dusty old archive and you've got your easel, which we've been using for twenty-six years with little magnets from the hardware store holding up a still photograph. It's not even an easel it's just a sheet of metal placed into a two-by-four with a groove in it that we made in 1978. And you're moving your tripod and the prime lens with a close-up attachment and you're inside a photograph and you realize you're gonna spend half a roll taking maybe ten or fifteen shots within that old photograph. Say you're at the Library of Congress that...

Light and Photography

This will balance the light source and the film. A filter absorbs its complementary color. It is subtractive because it absorbs or removes wavelengths of light. To compensate for this loss of light, the lens aperture must be opened up two-thirds of a stop (with an 85B filter) for proper exposure. Videotape or digital storage media has no color temperature rating, but a video camera's electronics do. By activating the white balance on a camera, its electronics will compensate and make the incoming light appear neutral and white. Some video cameras can automatically white balance by reading the ambient light coming into the lens and instantaneously adjusting the video system's electronics. Many photographers mix color temperatures to create a more natural or varied look for a scene. In the real world we mix color temperatures all the time. A room, for example, may be lit with daylight coming though a window and a 60 watt reading lamp. We may not notice the color differences as quickly...

West Germany France Director Wim Wenders

Executive producer Chris Sievernich producers Don Guest, Anatole Dauman screenplay Sam Shepard assistant director Claire Denis photography Robby Muller assistant photographers Agnes Godard, Pim Tjujerman editor Peter Pryzgodda assistant editor Anne Schnee sound editor Dominique Auvray sound recordist Jean-Paul Mugel sound re-recordist Hartmut Eichgrun art director Kate Altman music Ry Cooder.

Buffalo Bill and the Indians Or Sitting Bulls History Lesson

We used long lenses on just about everything we shot. For example, Sitting Bull's entrance was five miles off the main road down to our camp on a trail. And I had them start out of sight with maybe a hundred people, horses, and wagons as they're bringing Sitting Bull into the camp. It took them twenty minutes to make that trip. It was a long way. I had two or three cameras going all the time and we did it twice. As a result we had film stacked up to the ceiling. The day we were going to watch those dailies is the day that producer Dino DeLaurentiis decides to visit the location with one of his big backers from Italy. So, our dailies that day ran six or seven hours. They were nothing but these long-lens shots of Sitting Bull riding in. Well, it was a disaster. Dino says something about how they are not riding very fast, and I try to explain to him that all that footage won't be in the film.

How the Camera Shaped Tonight

Two sure-fire jokes23 culled by his writers from a perusal of over sixty newspapers and periodicals.24 The camera remained absolutely fixed and frontal on Carson during his monologue, with no movement in the frame except that of the host. Carson's gestures were familiar to his audience as he nervously touched his tie, pulled at his sleeves, clasped his hands together or thrust them behind his back. Though static, the camera work suited Carson. His physical presence was, like the camera, formal, reserved, buttoned-down, vertical. It was as if the rectangular frame in which he operated was designed to contain the bursts of energy and gesture that darted from the perimeter of his body.

Subject Contrast and Photographic Papers

It used to be that photographic papers were much more forgiving of negatives with excessive contrast. It's fascinating to look at old glass plate negatives and notice how amazingly dense and contrasty they could be. This is because legacy photographic papers were formulated with emulsions that were much less sensitive to light when compared to contemporary papers. It wasn't unusual for exposures to be many minutes under bright sunlight. This of course meant that the images couldn't be enlarged so the large plate negatives were instead contact printed in glass frames. The trade-off was that, in exchange for being slow, photographers were able to beautifully print negatives that had an amazingly wide range of contrasts.

Measuring Subject Contrast with InCamera Meters

In-camera light meters have various ways of telling you that, this is the correct exposure. When they are set to any of their automatic modes they simply read out a given combination of aperture and shutter speed. When they are in a manual mode you have to change your aperture or shutter speed until your electronic display is centered. As we learned in the previous chapter, in either of these cases, the exposure that results will cause what the meter is seeing to print as Zone V. To simplify the process of comparing these two readings, think of either your shutter speed or your aperture as the Reference Reading that will remain the same from one reading to the other. I normally use the shutter speed as my fixed Reference Reading and apertures as Measurement Readings that change, as you will see in the following example.

Q I can understand how the Zone System would be easy to use with a view camera where each frame is developed

A The process for using in-camera light meters along with the Zone Metering Form that I outlined in Chapter 6 makes applying the Zone System to roll-film cameras relatively simple. But, now that you are aware of the relationship between the contrast of your subject and the negative's development time, you will find yourself automatically adapting your shooting methods to ensure that the roll for each subject is developed properly. The problem most photographers have is that they are unaware that this connection exists at all. In most situations, this won't be a problem. For example, if you are shooting outdoors on a clear day, you will find that the contrast won't change very much. Take one set of readings, shoot the whole roll, and indicate on the cassette how it should be developed. If you are in the middle of a roll and you find that the contrast is changing, either because you have to change locations or because of a change in the incident light, you have two choices. You can...

Q What problems will I encounter if I cant use a spot meter

To measure the overall contrast of the subject, you will have to fill the frame with the Important Highlight Area, center the needle, and make note of how many stops difference there is between the shadow reading and the highlight. If the meter recommends an exposure of f 1.4 at 1 30 when you meter the shadow area and f 5.6 at 1 30 when you meter the highlight, you know that there is a four-stop difference between the two areas. Obviously, this system will work, but at best it is complex and cumbersome. If you find yourself having to do this very often, you would probably be better off investing in a decent spot meter. The 35 mm camera is a specialized tool that is designed to be quick and easy to use. With practice and an awareness of how the in-camera meter is designed, it won't take you long to develop working methods that are efficient for your shooting habits. Often you will see experienced 35 mm photographers taking a meter reading from their own hands before shooting. By...

Q What role do ASAs play in applying the Zone System to my photography

A Most photographers think of ASA as simply a rating of a given film's sensitivity. This is true as far as it goes, but there is more to it than that. Earlier I said that ASA numbers can be related to f stops and shutter speeds in the following way As the ASA number gets smaller, the amount of exposure needed increases. Keeping in mind that the amount of exposure determines the negative's shadow density, we can state the above rule in another way The lower the ASA number you use for a given film, the more density and detail you will get in the shadow areas of your negatives and prints. Taking this into account, you can see that the important question is what ASA should I use with my film to get the best shadow detail Many photographers have discovered from experience that the manufacturer's recommended ASA doesn't give them the amount of shadow detail they need in their work. In other words, after carefully placing a shadow reading on Zone III using ASA 400, you may find that the...

Q What is the highest film speed that renders a fully detailed Zone III and a Zone II that is black with texture

A Film manufacturers must necessarily use consistent and scientifically objective criteria for determining the ratings of their films. Photographers, on the other hand, need A fundamental principle that all photographers should understand is that the effective speed of a given film varies depending on the developer used. Notice for example that 400TMax is rated as ASA 200 when developed in Ilford Perceptol, and ASA 400 when processed in Edwal FG-7 with a 9 percent solution of sodium sulfite.

Q What is the minimum development time that renders a fully textured Zone VII and a Zone VIII that is white with some

A The Normal Development Times recommended by film and developer manufacturers are based on scientific standards such as developed to a contrast index of 0.56. Anyone so inclined will discover that there are very rational reasons for doing it this way, but all that most photographers need to know is that a given development time will give them negatives with printable highlights.

Film and Developer Questions and Answers

Students and friends inevitably ask a number of general questions regarding film and developer combinations. The following are my answers to these questions. Keep in mind that these are very subjective responses based upon years of testing and working with these products. Other photographers may have different preferences that are appropriate for their work.

Word about Structure and Understanding

The second consequence of relying on automatic systems is that they prevent you from engaging with and really understanding the details of important photographic techniques. This is especially true with digital photography where there are layers of technical concepts that will be new to most photographers. Most serious photographers will find that the time spent learning more about their systems is worth the effort. Unless you're a very experienced digital image editor and printer, it's probably a good idea for you to read Appendix A on the subject of Color Management before you attempt to apply what you will learn in this chapter. Color Management is the term used to describe the process of calibrating and setting up your system so that your printer produces images that match what you see on your monitor. Many photographers new to digital processes take this step for granted and end up frustrated and waste lots of ink and paper attempting to produce predictable results.

Digital Camera Choices

The digital camera I used for the examples in this chapter is the Nikon D70, one of the first DSLRs to provide both professional-level features and quality at a consumer-oriented price. There are many other digital cameras that fall into this category, most notably the Canon EOS 20D but, once again, all of the principles I cite apply in very similar ways to cameras in this price and feature range. In general, point-and-shoot type cameras aren't capable of producing images that will work with these techniques.

The Quality of Digital Images

In purely technical, and very general terms, most digital photographers would agree that Figure 71 is an example of a high quality image and Figure 72 is an exaggerated low quality version of the same photograph. Using these two gradations as examples, we can now say that what digital photographers mean when they speak of image quality is the goal of reproducing smooth, gradually continuous gradations that are typical of analog imaging media like film.

Digital Exposing for the Highlights

This is a quick and very simple exposure method (and this is what many digital photographers actually do), but there is one issue that, if you're shooting raw image files, makes this approach less precise than it appears to be. As I mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, digital camera previews are generated based upon assumptions about how you will eventually want to use the image. One of those assumptions is that you're shooting for JPEG images that are compressed. If you are shooting in raw format, which you should be, this means that the histogram the camera creates won't precisely match the one you will eventually be working with. This issue also applies to the flashing out of gamma highlight warnings that are a function of many digital SLR cameras. When your preview is set to this function it can give you the alarming impression that your highlights are blown out when, if you are shooting in raw format, they may be recoverable. A more precise exposure approach would be one...

Custom Camera Profiles

One reason for my strong recommendation to use Adobe's Camera Raw application is that it provides one of the most practical software solutions available for the problems associated with high-contrast digital photography. Note As of this writing there are a number of excellent raw conversion applications available including Apple's Aperture, Capture One, Bibble Pro, the DxO converter, and my favorite, Adobe's versatile new Lightroom application. All of these have features that recommend them, but for the purposes of this text I will simplify this issue by referring only to the functions of Adobe's Camera Raw Utility. One reason for this is that its tight integration with Photoshop means that it allows for the establishment of a coherent workflow that's efficient. Another reason is that it simply does an excellent job and the features covered here are more or less transferable to all of the other applications. First of all, when you open a raw digital image with the Adobe Camera Raw...

Dealing with High Contrast Subjects

One very useful feature in this regard is Adobe Camera Raw's Highlight Recovery feature that is specifically designed to pull any detail that there may be in what otherwise appear to be totally clipped highlights. Remember that this process only works on images shot in raw format.

Films Developers and Processing

As you begin this process it's easy to feel that you may never learn enough about all of the various developers and films available and their effects. There is in fact a much more direct and practical way to approach this problem. What most photographers actually do is look at the work of a photographer they admire and use the film and developer that that photographer uses, at least as a starting point for their own work. This approach not only gives you a concrete model to follow, but you also can learn the pitfalls and limitations of a particular film developer combination. Once you have chosen a given developer and film, stick with them until you're sure that you understand their advantages and disadvantages only then should you begin experimenting with different variations. In the end you will find that the simpler your tools and methods, the easier it will be for you to accomplish your photographic goals.

Inspection Development

This classic technique allows you to examine the film for a few seconds while it is developing using a very dark green Kodak Safelight filter 3. The purpose is to give photographers an empirical method of determining when the negative's highlights are developed to the proper density. The film has to be at least two-thirds developed before you can safely turn on the light without danger of fogging the film. Read the directions that come with the filter very carefully.

Condenser and Diffusion Enlargers

The more a negative is enlarged, the more contrast is lost due to the scattering of light between the enlarging lens and the printing paper. Condenser enlargers compensate for this to a certain extent, which makes them very useful for printing small negatives, but there is a noticeable loss of tonal gradations, especially in the highlight areas of the print. Grain and dust are also more apparent with condenser enlargers. The extra contrast you can expect from condenser-enlarging light sources means that your Normal Development Times will be shorter when compared to photographers printing with diffusion enlargers. It usually requires approximately 15 less development to compensate for this factor. DIFFUSION ENLARGERS. As a rule, diffusion enlargers require that you produce negatives with more contrast than if you were printing with a condenser enlarger. This means that your Normal Development Time is likely to be longer. They are also dimmer and thus require...

Examples Zone System Applications

Five participating photographers were asked to describe in their own words how the Zone System contributed to the creation of their images. These statements represent very personal approaches and illustrate how, with experience, the Zone System can be adapted to a wide range of photographic problems.

The Beginnings Of Photography

In 1851 the brothers William and Frederick Langenheim, noted Philadelphia photographers, projected their photographic slides, initially called hyalo-types, at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London. Their exhibition featured hand-colored images of notable landmarks and locations from around the United States. In the 1860s projected photographic or steropticon slides enjoyed particular commercial and critical success in New York City. As with earlier demonstrations, the slides featured photographs of landscapes, architecture, landmarks, and works of art from all over the world. Other steropticon shows featured images from the Civil War, including photographs of battlefields and military personnel from the Army of the Potomac. Reviewers marveled at the realism and detail of these images the reality effect of painted magic lantern slides paled in comparison. Indeed, the introduction of photographic slides endowed the projected image with such unprecedented

Kubrick New Worlds And Old

The first shot of Barry and Nora lasts 32 seconds, the second shot lasts 36 seconds, and the third lasts 46 seconds. When Barry and Nora walk in the woods to discuss her marriage to the captain, the shot is 90 seconds long. By moving the camera and using a zoom lens, Kubrick was able to follow the action rather than rely on the editing. The length of these initial shots slows down our expectations of the pacing of the film and helps the film

Pros and Cons of and Super Film Formats

As a clarification in this discussion, Full Aperture will refer to the total area between the 35mm perforations, including the area normally reserved for the soundtrack (this Full Aperture area is also referred to as the camera aperture). Academy Aperture will refer to that area of the negative excluding the soundtrack area. Academy Aperture got its name when the Motion Picture Academy established the standard for where to place sound and picture information when the first talkies were produced. While all 1.85 composed films are achieved with normal, spherical lenses, the 2.35 aspect ratio can be achieved in two ways. The most common method is with the use of anamorphic lenses that squeeze the image to fit within the Academy Aperture (see Illustration 6). The alternate method (Super 35, Super Techniscope) uses normal lenses without any distortion of the image. Both methods will be discussed here.

Understanding an MTF Chart

To interpret the MTF curve, we must first understand that the horizontal axis of the chart normally indicates the spatial frequencies in cycles per millimeter and the vertical axis provides the modulation transfer factor or contrast values with a maximum of 100 . The basic criteria for interpreting an MTF curve are that the higher the curve and the straighter it is, the greater the contrast of the image and the more uniform the image quality. Whereas no lens can deliver 100 contrast, an MTF chart showing a relatively flat curve above 70 would indicate an excellent lens. Consideration must be made for the higher frequencies (right side of the horizontal axis) as even a high-quality lens cannot render an MTF (contrast) of more than 50 at a frequency of over 50 cycles.

Catadioptric or Reflective Systems

The primary requirement for achieving maximum resolving power and finest image quality with a tele-lens is careful focusing. Long focal length lenses possess inherently shallow depth-of-field characteristics. This is a law of physics and cannot be changed therefore, some means of focusing through the lens must be employed. Secondly, camera steadiness must be assured by rigid lens mounting and absence of vibration. Thirdly, the finest quality filters, carefully chosen to fit the filming conditions, should be employed. A long lens shade is essential. It should be carefully designed so as not to restrict the angular coverage of the lens. It must also have a totally non-reflective interior, as should all surfaces of the lens mount that are exposed to the image-forming light. Modern telephoto lenses have proven to be one of the most useful tools for creative cinematography, often rendering subject details, compression, and selectiveness that might otherwise have been impossible.

Other Filter Considerations

Filters are available in round and rectangular shapes in many sizes. Round filters generally come supplied with metal rings that mount directly to the lens. Frugal filter users might find it preferable to employ adapters allowing the use of a set of filters of a single size with many lenses of equal or smaller sizes. Round filters also can be supplied with self-rotating mounts, where needed, as for polarizers. They can be readily stacked in combination. Rectangular filters require the use of a special filter holder, or matte box. They offer the additional benefit of allowing slidability for effects that must be precisely aligned within an image, such as gradated filters. In all cases, it is advisable to use a mounting system that allows for sturdy support and ready manipulation. In addition, the use of a lens shade at the outermost mounting position (from the lens) will minimize the effect of stray off-axis reflections.

Reflected Light Meters

These are the meters which are designed to measure the average brightness of an entire scene. Such meters are usually used at camera location and pointed at the scene. For a discriminating observer, this method appears to give acceptable results only in the case of a very limited category of scenes, those which have front-lighting and a foreground subject of medium tone as well as a background of medium tone. In other types of scenes, which include side-lighting or backlighting, or very bright or dark backgrounds, or large areas of sky, the exposure results are questionable. This is because the meter, when used by this method, is affected not only by the unit brightness of each portion of the scene, but also by the relative area of each. Thus a large area of sky would influence the meter to dictate a small lens aperture which might result in an underexposure of the face of the principal subject in the foreground. Any backlight may strike directly into the meter cell and cause...

Problems of Grain in Front Projection

If, for example, both the camera and projector films are 35mm, and if the entire projected scene just fits the full aperture on the camera ground glass, then there is a one-to-one relationship between the image on the projected film and this same image as it is being exposed in the camera. In this case we have a 1 1 copy ratio. If one now zooms to twice the initial focal length, only XA of the width and Vi of the height (or Va of the area) of the projected print is being copied. This is in reality a 16mm area. Owing to the loss of

Special Considerations

Some lenses and filters will also fluoresce under ultraviolet radiation. Hold the lens or filter close to the ultraviolet lamp to look for fluorescence. Fluorescence of the lens or filter will cause a general veiling or fog in your pictures. In severe cases, the fog completely obscures the image. If a lens or filter fluoresces, you can still use it for fluorescence photography if you put the recommended ultraviolet-absorbing filter over the camera lens or the filter that fluoresces. It also helps to position the ultraviolet lamp or use a matte box to prevent the ultraviolet radiation from striking the lens or filter.

Abel Gance b Paris France October d November

He made his screen debut in Moliere in 1909, at the same time reluctantly accepting a job in a law office and hoping to make his mark on the stage. Struggling through poverty and illness, Gance set up a production company in 1911, and that year directed his first film, La Digue. Kept out of the war by continued illness, Gance achieved renown for his innovative optical effects (it is said that he introduced the close-up to French cinema) and mobile camera work as a director for the Film d'Art company with Mater dolorosa (The Torture of Silence, 1917) and La Dixieme symphonie (The Tenth Symphony, 1918). These films were commercial and artistic successes, despite the concerns of his management that his visionary camera techniques were outlandish.

Lenses and Lens Ports

Ports are available both with a flat surface and as a corrected dome. With a flat port the magnification created by the water (air to water refractive index is 1.33) causes the camera lenses to assume the characteristic of slightly longer lenses and objects appear closer by 4. The corrected dome port permits the lenses to function with their true focal lengths. The dome radius is critical and its center must be on the nodal point of the lens to function correctly, if not diopters will be necessary, usually a +2 will bring objects into proper focus. The dome port can be of advantage when working in areas of low visibility or in a confined space or with extremely wide-angle lenses. Other lenses up to 75mm are useful for close-ups. Corresponding lenses for 16mm photography are 10mm and 8.9mm the 10mm is relatively distortion free. For 35mm anamorphic photography, the 30mm and 35mm lenses are preferred. A flat port is recommended for anamorphic lenses. Accurate underwater focusing...

Vari Con Adjustable Contrast Filter

The system consists of a light source, the VariCon Glass Emitter, the 6.6 X 6.6 VariCon frame that holds the Emitter (with a built-in slot for an ND filter), a digital meter for precise setting of contrast ranges, and a dual-level output Power Supply. With the VariCon placed in the 6.6X 6.6 stage closest to the lens, it will cover virtually all wide-angle and long focal-length prime lenses, and most zooms. With the VariCon in position and switched OFF, it will not affect image quality or require f-stop compensation. Standard Aspect Ratio Zoom lenses 18mm on up Prime lenses 10mm, 12mm, 16mm on up Super 35 Aspect Ratio Zoom lenses 20mm on up Prime lenses 12mm, and 16mm on up

Haked World Harrison Marks

Harrison Marks Photo

If Harrison Marks was Britain's R Meyer, Diana Dors (1931-1984) was tsl Marilyn Monroe. Taken to the mov*ll and given dance lessons from a age, Diana Mary Fluck became o with Hollywood in her early teens. Looking older than her years, she entered a beauty contest at fourt giving her age as seventeen. Shewonfl prize and her photo was printed in the local paper. This led to weekly work asaj photographer's model which, in turn,q to her involvement in local theam productions. When she was still only fourteen, she gained a place at the London Academy of Music and Dra Arts she was the youngest full-time student they had ever accepted. To h fund her way through college, she p nude for art shots, still lying about her age. The same glamorous and sed look that made her popular with photographers, secured her her first fil role in The Shop At Sly Corner 1947) where she was given a small part as a sexy coquette. It was at this point that she changed her name to Diana Dors. In the mid-40s, she...

Continental Camera Systems Remotely Controlled Pitching Lens f Optical Relay

Concept A system to remotely control a prime lens that is mounted at the end of an optical relay tube. In normal configuration the 18 tube extends downward from the camera. The prime lens is mounted at right angles to the tube and can tilt 15 up to 90 down. The entire system rotates 380 . This allows lenses such as Nikkor or Arriflex to get into very small areas. Use of an anamorphic element between the end of the relay tube and camera allows a spherical lens to produce an anamorphic image on film. Because focus is controlled in the relay tube, it is possible to continuously follow-focus from Vi inch to infinity, thus greatly extending the normal focus range of most prime lenses. The system may also be mounted vertically (as in a submarine) or extended straight out in a horizontal position. Optics Nikon mount through adapter rings can use a wide assortment of Nikkor and Arriflex lenses from 7.2 mm to 100mm. Speed of system is f 3.9 to f 32. Prime lens is set wide open and aperture is...

Lighting Technology And Film Style

The lighting techniques used in the early cinema of the late 1890s and the first years of the twentieth century were astonishingly primitive in comparison with those used in still photography. Filmmakers of that era did not adopt the range of artificial lighting that was already standard equipment in photographic studios and widely used by photographers to enhance the aesthetic appearance of their work. Instead, filmmakers relied almost entirely on bright daylight. For this reason, when films were not shot on location they were filmed on rooftop sets, or else in studios built with either an open air design or a glass roof. Thomas Edison's famous Black Maria studio, built in 1892, was based on a rotating structure that allowed its glass roof to be maneuvered to follow the direct sunlight. A greenhouse-like studio built by the French filmmaker Georges Melies (1861-1938) in 1897 that featured both glazed roof and walls and a series of retractable blinds proved to be an influential model...

Stanley Kubrick b New York New York July d March

Bronx July 1976

With little patience for formal education, Kubrick spent most of his adolescence in the Bronx, New York, frequenting chess clubs and taking photographs for Look magazine. Using his savings from a Look photo-essay on boxing, Kubrick made his film debut, Day of the Fight (1951), a sixteen-minute documentary on boxer Walter Cartier. This early short demonstrates two of Kubrick's stylistic trademarks elaborately choreographed hand-held camera work and the use of available light. Kubrick's first independent features were Fear and Desire (1953), a psychosexual war thriller that he subsequently disowned, and the hard-boiled, occasionally surreal Killer's Kiss (1955).

The Contemporary Context

This sequence, which runs more than 10 minutes, was filmed in the streets of New York. Just as Frankenheimer chose to use cinema verite techniques, so too did Friedkin. The camera work throughout this sequence is rough and handheld the cutting is on handheld movement. Together with the violence of the pursuit and the overmodulated sound effects (to simulate unrefined sound, as in cinema verite), the effect of these techniques is violent and realistic. The roughness of the whole sequence contributes to an authenticity that is absent in the Bullitt sequence. Again, the goals are different. Both sequences are exciting, but the editing elements that come into play move in two different directions one toward a technological choreography, the other toward a believable human struggle in which technology is a means rather than an end.

Ethiopian Bride Yousef Karsh

The list of technical advances in photography continues to get longer and longer (see the photographic time line), and the ranks of great photographers has expanded steadily as well. Edward Steichen, Minor White, Sebastiao Salgado, Edward Weston, Ansel Adams, Diane Arbus, Ernst Haas, Eugene Richards the list is long and subject to fierce debate.

Stretching the Histogram

Learning how to minimize this effect is an important skill for digital photographers who are trying to optimize the quality of their work. I mentioned earlier that black-and-white JPEG 8 bit digital images allow for pixels to be any of 256 different tones from black to white. But camera raw photographs can easily be converted into 16 bit images where each pixel can be any one of 65,536 levels of tone or color This means that you will have 256 times the number of pixel levels to work with and this makes avoiding banding much easier. See Appendix C for more on bit depth. Note I made no contrast adjustments during the conversion from the camera raw state of the image and performed a simple translation of the original color image to an 8 bit grayscale file so that the tonal values will be consistent with my rubber strip gradation example.

The Digital Photographic Process

Both film and digital photography share these steps and it's important to understand them. Experienced photographers take each of these steps very seriously and therefore get generally better results. Beginning or casual photographers don't understand the implications of these steps and either neglect or try to automate them, which is why they generally get inconsistent or mediocre images in the end. Step 3 - Processing Camera Raw Photographers new to the digital world are often confused about this step because the conversion actually happens twice and in different ways in the digital process. The first time the image is converted is instantly in a generalized way into the thumbnail you see on the camera's small screen. This preview is based on default settings built into the camera and are only a rough approximation of the second, more refined conversion you can do once the image has been downloaded to your computer. The differences between these two states is extremely important to...

Putting It All Together

Photographers may be divided into two or more sides on After all, landscape photographers can spend days taking a shot. Portrait photographers are helped along by their subjects. Photojournalists can count on automatic viewer interest. And advertising photographers have crowds of assistants and a small fortune in lighting equipment at their disposal. begin photographing. If the light is fairly consistent, then set your aperture for an average reading. Adjust it for a particular shot only if you have time. (More often than not, you'll be able to produce an acceptable print, even if the negative is darker or lighter than it should be.) If your subject is likely to be difficult for any reason (such as being shy or nervous), then try to focus your lens in advance as well. Simply guess at the distance and use the distance scale on the focusing ring or aim at something near the subject and focus on that. Using a small aperture will help ensure accuracy. Finally be sure to advance your film...

Expose for the Shadows and Develop for the Highlights

One of the misconceptions about the Zone System is that it will make photographic printing routine. The goal is not to make photography an exact science but rather to allow photographers to concentrate on the parts of the process that require intuition and imagination.What you will find is that a little bit of understanding and control will go a long way toward solving your technical problems. Once the negative is made, the issue becomes how to best interpret it through creative printing. First, you may have trouble previsualizing the subject in terms of zones. Any new system takes a while to get used to, but before long you will find that it comes naturally. Keep in mind that for the purpose of determining the correct exposure, the only question you need to answer is Where is the area that I want to be Zone III Look for an area of the subject that would spoil your photograph if it were too dark in the finished print. Most likely this is the area you want to place on Zone III. Again,...

The Digital Linear Effect

The reason why all of this is important is because digital camera chips respond to light in a very simple and straightforward way that has important implications for digital photographers. When photographers shoot in the camera's raw format, the sensor is able to capture 12 bits of visual information. This translates into a total of 4,096 pixel levels. FIGURE 150 Camera Raw linear gradation. FIGURE 152 Pixel levels of a Camera Raw linear gradation.

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Water is key to the mystery, with many references throughout the film. The Albacore Club's symbol is a fish and 'Mar Vista' translates as 'Sea View'. Mulwray drowned in a freshwater reservoir, but had salt water in his lungs. The tide pool in Mulwray's garden is salt water and the pair of glasses Gittes finds reflecting in the bottom of the pool are bifocal Mulwray wore normal lenses, but Cross's match. Cross remembers that Mulwray used to say of tide pools 'That's where life begins' for Mulwray it also ends there.

Special Techniques Aerial Cinematography

The Astrovision system permits the use of a relay lens unit through either the top or bottom of a Lear jet. Zoom lenses cannot be used with this system. The maximum lens opening is f 6.3 T-7.2. The Vectorvision unit, another relay lens system, will zoom as well as roll the horizon 360 with a maximum lens opening of f 2.8 T-3. Helicopters are highly favored for aerial photography they permit a large range of movability and air speeds. Tyler Camera Systems is a major manufacturer of helicopter mounts a listing of these and other makes are found on page 256. The door side mounts allow for free movement of the camera in all axes as well as control of camera and zoom lens functions while using the mount. Tyler has two size mounts Middlemount for video, Arri 16mm, Arri IIC, Arri 35 III and the Majormount, for Arri IIC, Arri 35 III, Mitchell Mark II (with special horizontal magazine adapter), as well as Imax, Vista Vision, 65mm and other heavier camera packages. Continental Camera also has...

Q Will digital photography make the Zone System obsolete

Digital imaging techniques have changed our approaches to photography in ways that we are just beginning to comprehend. For many years it has been possible to digitally manipulate images designed for reproduction with methods so convincing that our notions of photographic realism no longer have conventional meanings. As profound as these changes have been, they have had relatively little effect on photographers committed to the aesthetics of the classic fine print. The dream of many photo-artists has been that computers would provide an easy alternative to the labor-intensive multiple printing techniques perfected by Jerry Uelsmann, among others. But until recently there has been no way to use digital technology to produce manipulated continuous-toned photographic prints. As of this edition of this book, all of this has changed. Both ink-jet printers and digital cameras have improved to the point that it is now possible to produce exquisite photographic...

The Film Camera Package

A camera kit consists of everything that a camera needs to do its job, and that's a lot of pieces. Don't expect to pick up the camera in your two-seater sports car. It is not unusual for an entire truck to be devoted solely to camera equipment, and even a small, independent film can rent a camera package that will completely fill the largest SUV. A camera package consists of the following pieces There are two categories of lenses prime lenses, which have a fixed focal length, and zoom lenses, which can smoothly change from one focal length to another. As a general rule, a 50mm lens renders people and objects about the same size as your eye does. Smaller numbers will take in more width, while larger focal lengths focus in on smaller areas. Very short lenses, say, anything less than 25mm are called wide-angle lenses. These lenses tend to produce a bit of a fish-eye effect, making things in the center of the frame appear larger than those on the side. Straight lines will appear to bow...

The Procrustean Bed of Modern Photographic Papers

Historic photographic papers could generously accommodate a wide range of negative contrasts, but modern papers are distinctly procrustean, because photographers now have to either expand or compress the contrast of their negatives so that they print well on the paper of their choice. Every beginning photographer has experienced attempting to make a beautiful print from a negative that has more or less than average contrast. Typically you find yourself wasting many sheets of paper as you switch to higher contrast papers or filters to compensate for negatives that print too gray or lower grades for negatives that are too contrasty. Either way the results are usually disappointing. Some photographers even assume that this is what paper grades are essentially designed for. A better procedure would be to understand the tonal separation qualities of each grade of paper and choose one that best suits the aesthetic qualities of your work. For example, some photographers like the softer tonal...

Q How can I override my cameras automatic metering system

Aperture-priority meters allow you to choose the aperture you prefer and the meter will adjust the shutter speed. Memory Lock. This function allows you to take a meter reading of a given area of the scene, lock that recommended exposure into the meter, step back, and use this exposure for the whole picture. Because the meter's recommended exposure is Zone V, this means finding a part of the subject that you previsualize as middle gray in the final print and locking in the recommended exposure for that area. Some photographers carry a Neutral Gray Card with them to use in situations like this. A variation on this procedure would be to meter an area you previsualize as Zone III and stop down two stops from the meter's recommended exposure.

Uncontrolled Documentary

Location-based reality programs have an entirely different look from their studio counterparts. The physical nature of many reality programs motivates more dynamic uses of the visual components. Most reality shows replace the flat space of studio production with deep space. The wide-angle lenses used in reality television include more depth cues. e. Wide angle or telephoto lenses

Zone System Testing Method

The ever-increasing dominance of digital photography isn't the only unsettling development that photographers have had to cope with in recent years. Until not very long ago film photographers could count on the stability and consistent quality of products from three of the West's most venerable names Kodak, Ilford, and Agfa. Note There has been a lot of confusion about the extent to which Kodak's films are different from their predecessors. They of course have new names but Kodak's official word is that all they have done is relocate their manufacturing facilities and changed the way their emulsions are applied to the film bases. Also, there are web sites that claim to demonstrate that the classic standards of quality for films like Tri-X and Plus-X have not changed in meaningful ways. On th other hand, many photographers have reported that Kodak's films are simply not the way they used to be. My film-testing collaborator Iris Davis (owner of Davis Black and White, a high-quality...

Richard Leacock b London England S July

Leacock served in the US Army as a combat camera operator during World War II, and later did freelance camera work for various government agencies and for a number of directors, including the pioneer documentary filmmaker Robert Flaherty on Louisiana Story (1948). He was continually frustrated by the way the cumbersome cameras and sound equipment made it nearly impossible to capture events spontaneously. Although he found some creative ways around this problem, such as shooting with a handheld camera and later adding non-synchronized sound over the image, he found these solutions to be ultimately unsatisfactory.

How did you get into filmmaking and how did you get into history

And had already, by the time I was eighteen years old, read every book of film criticism, had seen thousands of movies, and kept reviews. But I chose to go to Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts, where there was a complete lack of interest in the feature film, the fiction realm. They were mostly social documentarians, still photographers who did some documentary film work, and they exposed me to the great drama that is in what is and what was. My own interest in history is completely untrained and untutored, but it's sort of like an artist who chooses to work in still lifes as opposed to landscapes, or chooses to work with oil paint instead of watercolors. Something happened towards the end of my college experience I had an opportunity to practice filmmaking on a historical subject, and all the bells and whistles went off. It was love at first sight. And it became clear that I could take this very generous and specialized training by still photographers who really emphasized...

Style for its own sake

A good example of a film with a feeble narrative, but a remarkable style, is Orson Welles's Touch of Evil (1958), one of Welles's great works. The story of a murder and its investigation in a Texas border town is simply too trite for description. But beginning the film with a three-minute tracking shot of a bomb being planted in a car on the Mexican side of the border and ending with its explosion on the American side, the shot is simply a tour de force. In the course of the shot, Welles also introduces the main character, the Mexican investigator, Vargas (Charlton Heston). The murder of a Mexican drug lord (Akim Tamiroff) by the sheriff (Welles), the assault on Vargas's wife, the final recording of the guilty sheriff and his death, each of these sequences is a remarkable exercises in style. Using excessively the wide-angle lens, low camera placements, and a crowding of the foreground of the frame, Welles has created a style more appropriate to film noir than to a police story. It is...

Digital and Film Photography Similarities and Differences

The basic photographic principles relating to apertures, depth of field, shutter speeds, and metering, etc., are essentially the same as film-based photography when you're working with professional digital SLR cameras. This means that photographers beginning to make the transition to digital imaging don't have to relearn what they already know about basic photography and that's reassuring. But, as we will see, the fact that these basic photographic principles are being applied to digital media has real consequences when it comes to effective exposure and contrast control techniques.

Panavision mm T Slant Focus Lens

Due to the tilting nature of this lens, it cannot be used with a Panaflex follow-focus. For the initial focus and any change in focus, eye focusing is necessary. This lens accepts a 1.4X Primo extender with negligible change in performance and no change in operation. The focal length becomes 63mm with a maximum aperture of T4.0. If filters are used with this lens they should (whenever possible) be glass filters in front of the lens. If needed, the lens does accept a 40.5mm rear filter.

Q How does the Zone System apply to the use of electronic flash

In a photographic lighting studio where you are essentially starting with a blank canvas, the art of previsualizing becomes an extremely important part of the overall creative process. Ordinarily studio photographers use powerful electronic strobe units with power packs to light their subjects. The lighting composition is done with built-in modeling lights that are much less bright than the flash itself. Because the bursts of light from the flash heads are extremely short, special flash meters are required to measure the incident light and provide an exposure. Since the shutter speed is fixed and synchronized with strobe, flash meters provide their readings as an aperture number. The brighter the light the smaller the aperture. It is very common for studio photographers to use Polaroid film to help them previsualize their lighting and to help calculate the exposure.

Color Managing Your System

For the majority of digital photographers this is a very simple decision In practice the difference tends to be that only experts use ProPhoto RGB because its extremely wide gamut requires some skills to manage. Adobe RGB 1998 is generally the safer choice for most photographers. White Balance. This determines the color of white that your eye uses as a point of reference for judging all other colors. I use 6500 k (Medium White) as my standard but this is purely a personal choice. The crucial thing to remember is that, if both Photoshop and the Print Driver try to color manage your image the conflict will result in a terrible print. This is the most common mistake that beginning digital photographers make.

Depth of Field Lenses Effects on Space

Even though wide angle lenses have a greater depth of field, all lenses have the same depth of field when the image size of the subject is kept the same. This is an overhead view or ground plan of a wall, an actor (indicated by the dot) and a camera. The camera, with a 100 mm telephoto lens, is set up 14 feet from an actor in front of a wall, but the wall is out of focus and we want both the actor and the wall to be in focus. Without moving the camera we switch to an 18 mm wide angle lens that we think has a much greater depth of field. Now the actor and wall are both in focus, but they're too small in the frame, so we move the camera closer to get the same image size on the actor that we had with the 100 mm telephoto lens. When the camera is feet in front of the actor we have duplicated the image size we had with the 100 mm lens, but the wall will be out of focus again. We'll see more of the wall because the 18 mm lens's angle of view is so wide, but the wall will be as out of focus...

Technique vs Creative Expression

Like any form of art or craft, photography employs technical skills to facilitate creative expression. Because it requires the use of a sophisticated machine (rather than brushes and paint or other simple tools), the technical aspect of photography is especially important. However, once the basic mechanics have been mastered, photographers are exceptionally free to explore the creative potential of their craft, because the camera does much of the work that painters, for example, must continually strive to refine.

The West Westerns and American Character

There is no more characteristic American art form than the Western film. Even when it is produced in Italy, Finland, East Germany, Hungary, Australia, or Japan, there is no mistaking the American institutions that are being represented or the distinctively American character types portrayed. Scholars have been interested in the wide variety of Western stories and representations of the West for generations. Consider The West of the Imagination, a 1986 PBS television series focusing on nineteenth-century painters and photographers of the frontier who like the writers and storytellers became America's primary mythmakers (Goetzmann x). For the eras prior to cinema, painting, works of sculpture, and literary representations conveyed the myths of the West. But in our media age, by far the most influential forces in shaping images of the American West have been entertainment films and television programs. In these visual narratives, Hollywood has interpreted America to itself.

Ufa Universum Film Aktiengesellschaft

(plus 1.3 million reichsmarks in Ufa stock), and the Projektions Union A.G., Germany's second largest producer and owner of fifty-six cinemas, for 1.11 million reichsmarks, as well as several other smaller companies that owned laboratories, manufactured camera equipment, or provided related services. Thus with one fell swoop Ufa became Germany's first vertically and horizontally integrated film conglomerate, controlling exhibition, distribution, and production, which followed similar structural developments among the Hollywood majors. The merger had been organized by Emil Georg von Stauss, director of the Deutsche Bank, who, in association with high-placed individuals in the banking and electrical industry, had convinced the German military High Command under General Erich Ludendorff that such an enterprise was in the national interest Ufa was to produce war propaganda and pro-German propaganda for neutral countries. Ludendorff had sent a memo on 4 July 1917 outlining the general...

Working With The Camera

More often than not, you'll be auditioning in front of a locked-down video camera. Locked-down means that the camera sits on a tripod and doesn't physically move around. (Tracking or handheld camera work at auditions is pretty rare.) For the sake of keeping things simple, the camera generally sits in the same place, shooting from the same angle all day. Often the camera operator will zoom in or zoom out to simulate camera work that may happen during actual filming, but that's about it for tricky camera moves. Note that even though you may gather from the storyboard that they'll be shooting from many angles when the commercial is finally filmed, don't worry about that here.

Different Ways Of Seeing

With a wide angle lens, the lines of perspective will be exaggerated, so a building will seem taller or longer as it recedes from you. The lens does not actually change those lines. It only seems to because of the wide angle of view. What effect do you get if you shoot the same building, from the same position, with both a wide angle and a telephoto lens The wide angle shot will seem to distort the image to emphasize depth, so objects will seem farther away. The telephoto will seem to distort it in the other direction, so objects seem flatter and closer than they actually are. The important word here is seem. If you crop out of the wide-angle photograph the portion of the entire scene that fit into the telephoto shot, you would have two virtually identical photographs. But what about the way a wide-angle lens bends people's faces at the edges of the frame This is also just an apparent distortion. The lens is accurately recording an image from a certain perspective. The best way to...

Choosing a Photographic Paper

Although paper grade or variable contrast filter 2 is standard for Normal contrast negatives, experienced photographers know that every brand and grade of paper has unique characteristics. One of the objects of Zone System testing is to match the contrast of your negatives to your favorite type and grade of printing paper. Having standardized your normal printing, you can use the higher and lower paper grades when extreme Expansions or Contractions are required to compensate for very low or high contrast subjects.

Nothing to Mourn

In the aftermath of September 11, however, US networks especially (but also others in the West) responded to the crisis of nothing to mourn by undertaking a different kind of memory work, namely the work of memorialisation. This is of course the work Simonides undertook when he employed his good memory of spatial arrangement to make the dead recognisable. The West is familiar with scenes of 'the missing' in reports of the aftermath of war and terrorist acts in places such as Central and South America and the Middle East. Such faces, mostly black or non-white faces, are, as I suggested in chapter four seen through a different lens than that applied to the white face. This difference is accentuated in the television network coverage of the aftermath of September 11. Here, we see how Americans employed a number of different modes of cultural memory to fill the space of oblivion, the spatial and temporal void known as Ground Zero. Within hours of the event families and friends of the...

Paid By The Tear

The background is perhaps overly dominant and is arguably ovcrlit, probably with a single spot. Most photographers today would aim for a little tonal differentiation between the fur and the background, though its absence may be the result of this being a second- or third-generation copy.

Shirley Temple b

No vane modern photographer would even consider photographing small children with an 8 x 10 in. camera, but then, few modern children are the consummate professionals that Ms Temple was. Depth of field is very shallow, indicating a wide aperture, and there is lots of diffusion, whether achieved with a soft focus lens or with gau c in front of the lens. The eyes, with their enormous irises, are interesting an older model probably could not look as good when looking so far to one side.

In Like Flynn

We chose this portrait, rather than one of the more obvious costume shots, partly because it illustrates an interesting technique and partly because costume shots on set are of limited use to the photographer who wants to re-create a portrait with another subject. If the set costs thousands to reproduce, this will render the lighting of academic interest to most portrait photographers. Note how the pipe i seriously out of focus if it were in the plane or focus, it would cast an extremely awkward shadow. Anyone trying to re-create thi* picture with roll film or V5 mm would have to decide for themselves whether to use a very wide aperture and leave the pipe out of focus, or to keep it in focus, li would also be possible to make a case for using a weak backlight to provide more roundness in the pipe.

Cyd Charisse b

The lighting in both pictures appears to be identical, despite the very different poses and the fact that Ms Charisse is facing in opposite directions. This is an excellent illustration of the point that what creates apparent variations in lighting is as often the pose of the model as changes in the actual lighting. It also explains how so many provincial photographers could get away with 'brass-stud* photography, with the positions of their two or three stock lighting set-ups marked in the floors of their studios with brass-headed tacks.

Zooming Shots

Back in the 1960s, when zoom lenses came into wide usage, the sudden zooming shot (known as a crash zoom) was often used to show a character's shock, or surprise, or realization. Nowadays, the effect is considered dated, especially when it is used to parody the earlier style, as in the Austin Powers movies.

Image Stabilization

Actually, it's a much more complicated process than that description implies, but let's just leave it at this A good image stabilizer will smooth out the motion of the camera, making you look like the professional photographer you (or I) may never be.

Marketing Overview

As I write, Survival and Big Brother are all the rage, and reality programming are the magic words that bring a ray of light to a TV programmer's eye. So do you rush out to film a group of fifteen-year-old boys surviving without McDonald's or Starbucks Or do you turn your lens toward yet another group of crazies eating, sleeping, fornicating, and pontificating in sealed rooms I doubt it. By the time this book comes out, those fads will probably have bitten the dust.

Space Odyssey

Photographers seldom make the best directors. 2001 has little writing or acting to speak of, and makes little sense. The first section of the film begins where Planet of the Apes left off at the Dawn of Man. Kubrick and science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke employ a bunch of monkey masks and monkey suits to present a very debatable theory of human evolution in terms of force and acquisitiveness. We then suddenly leap into a routine moon voyage described in great brandname-plug detail (Bell, Pan-Am, Howard Johnson's, Hilton) with Poverty Row players like William Sylvester and Robert Beatty. A big, black slab figures in each section of the film, but we never find out exactly what it is or what it signifies. The third section, by far the most interesting, features Keir Dullea and Gary Lockwood as two automaton astronauts pitted against a computer that speaks in insidiously wheedling tones. Ironically, the computer seems to have more feelings than the humans do, a curiously pessimistic...

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