Notes

1. Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward, Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference to the American Style, rev. and exp. ed. (1979; Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 1988), 3.

2. Steve Neale, Genre and Hollywood (London: Routledge, 2000), 173-74.

3. Silver and Ward suggest that even certain comedies, for instance several made by Preston Sturges during the war years, are part of the noir cycle. See their discussion in Film Noir, 331-33.

4. For example, films that feature noir themes and style might involve a mystery but no detective, as can be seen in various noir crime films, such as Double Indemnity, where detectives might be present but are not central to the narrative. A more recent example is Dark City (Alex Proyas, 1997), a noir sci-fi mystery where the detective figure (played by William Hurt) is peripheral to the solution of the mystery. We discuss noir influence in science fiction in "What is it to Be Human? Blade Runner and Dark City," The Philosophy of Science Fiction Film, ed. Steven M. Sanders (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007).

5. For additional discussions of whether noir is a genre, style, cycle, or something else, see the essays in Mark T. Conard, ed., The Philosophy of Film Noir (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006).

6. Steven M. Sanders discusses the noir protagonist as ironist, with Bogart and Mitchum as examples, in "Film Noir and the Meaning of Life," in Conard, The Philosophy of Film Noir, 100-101.

7. It must be acknowledged that the process of scientific investigation is tremendously compressed in CSI. In the series, a team of four or five does work that would require many more people and doubtless much more time. What the series is trying to do, of course, is to sustain the narrative thread without bogging down in too many subplots. That said, we recognize that CSI does not serve as an accurate model of forensic science as it is actually practiced.

8. Another poorly socialized, brilliant, obsessive, gruff protagonist, this time a doctor, is played by Hugh Laurie in House—though it is fair to say that the figure of a doctor with no bedside manner is a staple of television programs based on the practice of medicine, with such characters appearing in drama (St. Elsewhere, ER) and comedy alike (M*A*S*H, Becker).

9. The obvious exception to this general point is the character of Lady Heather, to whom we will return.

10. For more on reason versus passion in The Maltese Falcon, see Deborah Knight, "On Reason and Passion in The Maltese Falcon" in Conard, The Philosophy of Film Noir, 207-21. See also Aeon J. Skoble, "Moral Clarity and Practical Reason in Film Noir" in the same volume, 41-48.

11. As Aeon J. Skoble had pointed out, there seems here to be an ironic reference to Richard Kimble's nemesis, Lieutenant Philip Gerard, in the television program The Fugitive. The figure of Philip Gerard in CSI does not care about the law qua institution as The Fugitive's Gerard does and lacks precisely the sort of integrity Lieutenant Gerard represents.

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