Ray Harryhausen b Los Angeles California June

An American model animation and special effects expert, Ray Harryhausen provided the visual effects for many science fiction and fantasy films. Harryhausen's work was characterized by a combination of anatomical authenticity and creative fantasy, whether he was animating actual animals (the dinosaurs of One Million Years B.C., 1966) or imaginary beasts (the Venusian Ymir of 20 Million Miles to Earth, 1957). As a young man Harryhausen was interested in sculpture and palaeontology, both of which...

Multiple Media System

Stardom in the cinema has always relied on relationships with various other forms of popular mass media. Historically, relationships between film stardom and other media have operated in two main ways the flows of performing talent between other media and film, and the use of other media as channels to promote film stars. As already discussed, theater originally fed the film star system in the earliest decades of cinema. With the birth of radio broadcasting in the late 1920s, a new popular...

ABBOTT and Costello William A Bud Abbott b Asbury Park New Jersey October d April Louis Francis Lou Costello b

Bud Abbott and Lou Costello were Universal's top stars of the 1940s, eclipsed only by Paramount's comedy duo of Bob Hope and Bing Crosby, and they continued to costar in Universal comedies until the mid-1950s. The duo proved eminently adaptable, shifting from service comedies (comedies about life in the military) to genre parodies to comedy-horror hybrids, although the essence of their onscreen appeal remained the comic banter and classic shtick (like their Who's on First '' routine) first...

Aesthetic Debates

It was by no means a foregone conclusion that sound would be used unobtrusively. When it became obvious that talkies were the sound wave of the future, filmmakers and theorists alike worried that their art form would lose its expressive potential. They worried films would become canned theater,'' in the words of the French director Ren Clair (1898-1981), that the camera's enslavement to the microphone would necessarily stifle the eloquent camera movement, lighting, and montage that many...

After Walt The Sixties Through The Disney Decade

By the 1960s, the company had developed a diversified foundation, with the Disney brand firmly established in a wide range of film products (live action and animation), as well as television, theme parks, and merchandise. The Disney firm also benefited from a policy of re-releasing its popular (already amortized) feature films every few years, reaping additional profits with minimal additional expenditures. For instance, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was re-released in 1952, 1958, and 1967,...

Aftermath

With the 1920s came the jazz age, providing distractions from events that for many were far from resolved. In Germany the social and psychological trauma caused by the war inspired the Expressionist movement. Contemporary anxieties were played out in the distorted, fantastical settings of films such as Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Robert Wiene, 1920) and Nosferatu (F. W. Murnau, 1922). Although this style gave German films a distinctive national aesthetic,...

Alexander Dovzhenko b Sosnitsa Russia now Ukraine September d November

Alexander Dovzhenko is regarded as Ukraine's premier filmmaker and the nation's most revered artist of the twentieth century. In nine fiction films and three documentaries, as well as a number of literary works and drawings, Dovzhenko gave creative form to Ukraine's difficult historical progress toward modernity during the Soviet era. His film work takes up themes of the social and economic modernization program sustained by the Soviet regime, while also invoking traditional motifs from...

Alfred Hitchcock b London England August d April

The most famous of all film directors, and the one most closely identified with the thriller, Alfred Hitchcock completed his first film in 1925. However, he did not cement his association with the thriller until the mid-1930s, when he directed five major spy films (TheMan Who Knew Too Much, 1934 The 39 Steps, 1935 Secret Agent, 1936 Sabotage, 1936 and The Lady Vanishes, 1938). In this period, he developed such Hitchcockian trademarks as the double chase (in which a falsely suspected hero such...

American Cinema And The Challenge Of Vietnam

In contrast to the central role played by Hollywood in World War II, representations of the Vietnam War were rare in mainstream American cinema while US troops occupied Southeast Asia. Although a variety of fiction films referenced or showed the influence of the war, few combat films were made about Vietnam during the period of actual combat. Instead, the primary media representation of combat was television news coverage. Because Vietnam was the first ''television war,'' some critics have...

Andrei Tarkovsky b Zavrazhe Ivanono Russia April d December

Andrei Tarkovsky remains the most esteemed Soviet filmmaker of the post-World War II era despite having a relatively small body of work. An uncompromising artist and visionary who refused to bend either to Soviet governmental authorities or to commercial considerations, he completed only seven features and one short. His films were years in the making and often faced distribution delays or limited release. Each answered to his personal vision and gave form to the central concern of his own...

At The Movies

As much as the star scandals of the early 1920s may have outraged sectors of the American populace, the negative publicity did little to dampen the general enthusiasm for motion pictures. During the mature silent period, movies acquired the status of a mass commercial entertainment, with audience levels climbing throughout the 1920s, especially in the latter part of the decade. Weekly paid admissions in the United States jumped from 40 million in 1922 to 65 million in 1928. In fact, it was...

B Archibald Alexander Leach Bristol England January d November

Cary Grant put his stamp on screwball comedy like no other performer. In the genre's heyday he seemed to appear in every other watershed film. These classics include The Awful Truth and Topper (both 1937), Holiday and Bringing Up Baby (both 1938), His Girl Friday (1939), and My Favorite Wife (1940). Moreover, in the post-World War II era, when screwball comedy was less frequently produced, he starred in two excellent revisionist examples of the genre directed by one of the major directors of...

B Jack Arnold Waks New Haven Connecticut October d March

Jack Arnold began as a Broadway stage actor and broke into the film industry as a director of short subjects before moving on to feature films in 1953. In science fiction films of the 1950s, alien attacks were often thinly veiled metaphors for Communist invasion. Jack Arnold's films deviated from the formula by combining aesthetic subtlety with ambitious ideas about humanity's place in the universe. It Came from Outer Space (1953) tells the story of alien replacement of human bodies. The film...

B John Martin Feeney Cape Elizabeth Maine February d August

Although most of his more than two hundred films (four of which garnered him Academy Awards as best director) were not westerns, John Ford is widely recognized as the greatest director of the quintessential American film genre. While Ford himself dismissed the critical evaluation of his work that began late in his life, he is acclaimed as not only one of the genre's key storytellers but also its intuitive poet, a creator of evocative cultural images as meaningful as his films' stories. After...

B King Wallis Vidor Galveston Texas February d November

In a film career whose durability was unrivalled by almost any other director, by the early 1920s King Vidor had developed a reputation as a morally earnest director of meaningful, atmospheric pictures about ordinary people in extraordinary and often hostile environments. Vidor's early years were steeped in the movies. As a teenager he filmed footage for the Mutual Weekly newsreels of US troops sent to the border during the Mexican civil war. He continued to sell material on a piecemeal basis...

B Lansing Michigan February

The strikingly humorous and often affecting films that John Hughes made in just the few years between 1984 and 1987 became classics of the teen film genre. Hughes was a teenager himself when his family moved from Michigan to the suburbs of Chicago, a move that would resonate in many of his teenage characters who deal with displacement and alienation, and often do so in the Chicago area. After attending the University of Arizona for a few years and marrying his high school sweetheart, Hughes...

B Lillian Diana de Guiche Springfield Ohio October d February

Lillian Gish was one of the first female stars of American cinema, best known for her performances in silent films but the recipient of an honorary Academy Award in 1970 for superlative artistry and for distinguished contribution to the progress of motion pictures'' during an exceptionally long career. After working as child stage actors, Lillian and her younger sister Dorothy joined the Biograph Company in 1912. There they worked with the director D. W. Griffith, making their screen debuts in...

B Marion Michael Morrison Winterset Iowa May d June

John Wayne's long and successful movie career earned him legendary status. He became an internationally recognized American icon, representing the strong, silent hero who lived by the virtues of bravery, commitment to traditions, respect for women and children, and a deep patriotism. Wayne was most commonly associated with the western genre, beginning with The Big Trail (1930), his first starring role, to his final movie, The Shootist (1976). More than any other film star, Wayne came to...

B Richard Leslie Taylor Cheshire England February

With Oscars for special makeup effects (2002, 2004), costume (2003, 2004) and visual effects (2002), the critical and popular success of The Lord of the Rings trilogy is to date the high point of Richard Taylor's career. Perhaps the first films planned from the start for DVD release, the trilogy privileged the detailed attention to props, sets, and makeup that characterizes Taylor's work as the cofounder and artistic director of Weta, the firm that coordinated the production effects for the...

B William Clark Gable Cadiz Ohio February d November

Although Clark Gable would obtain the title the King'' during his years in Hollywood, as a contracted performer at MGM, the dominance of the studio system would mean that Gable was always more ruled than ruling. After an unspectacular stage career, Gable secured a couple of supporting roles in film, with MGM then signing him to a two-year contract with six-month options at 350 per week. That year Gable made eight more films for MGM and two on loan to Warner Bros. as he became integrated into...

Background

Supporting roles were an essential element in the theater long before the movies were invented, and they served much the same function that they would come to serve in motion pictures. Supporting actors were unnecessary in the earliest movies short documentaries, called actualite s, featured images from real life and therefore did not use actors at all, and others were short, staged scenes that featured only a very small number of performers. By the early twentieth century, film narratives...

Beginnings

Since its inception, American cinema has been fascinated with violence. A breakthrough film in the development of narrative was Edwin S. Porter's The Great Train Robbery (1903). Filmed in New Jersey, this proto-western suggests the appealing, deeply embedded nature of violence in the frontier experience and the American civilizing process, and the rather spontaneous way that the attendant violence appears in the earliest developments of cinema. The film's final image, of a mustachioed gunman...

Betty Grable b Ruth Elizabeth Grable St Louis Missouri December d July

Betty Grable sang and danced her way through Hollywood movies from the age of fourteen. After signing with RKO in 1932, her most memorable roles were as the perky co-ed in films like Collegiate (1936), Pigskin Parade (1936), Campus Confessions (1938), and College Swing (1938). Her career took off in the 1940s, when she signed with Twentieth Century Fox and starred in the Technicolor musical Down Argentine Way (1940). A series of colorful, light-hearted star vehicles followed, each the...

Beyond The Picture Palace

Coupled with the economic woes of the 1930s and the costs of wiring theaters for sound films, exhibitors also faced the increasingly widespread popularity of radio (with its free entertainment). In addition, a burgeoning nontheatrical market for moving pictures had emerged with the growing availability of 16mm sound projectors in the later 1930s. Exhibitors increased efforts to attract audiences to the theater by lowering ticket prices and relying on special promotions, contests, and...

Bosniaherzegovina

Bosnian feature film production began after World War II, and Sarajevo became a vital center of its film culture. Toma Janic (1922-1984) and Hajrudin Krvavac (19261992) were the most prolific directors throughout the 1950s and 1960s. In the late 1960s, former documentary filmmakers took the lead by contributing features in the novi film vein. Bata CengiCs (b. 1933) highly provocative, sarcastic look at Yugoslav society brought him to prominence but also earned official disapproval for his Uloga...

Breaking The New Proscenium

It is a mistake to regard this thirty-year period as primarily a series of misguided intentions and artistic and commercial failures for both the theater and cinema establishments. Quite the contrary. Not only did thousands of plays and players reach a public to which they would otherwise have been unavailable, but the consequences of these collaborations resulted in a reassessment of each medium's artistic and commercial priorities and an exploration of alternative modes of expression. The...

Britain Prepared

In the United Kingdom the need to continue with everyday life resulted in a business-as-usual approach by cinema managers, echoing the practical patriotism of the United States. In British theaters during the winter of 1915, audiences of uniformed men laughed at the broad comedy of pantomime one moment and sang melancholy war anthems, such as ''Keep the Home Fires Burning,'' the next in similar fashion, cinema's blend of reality with escapism was readily accepted. Movie theaters accommodated...

Buster Keaton b Joseph Francis Keaton Jr Piqua Kansas October d February

One of the greatest of silent-era comedians, Buster Keaton fused the showmanship of his vaudeville training with an understanding of how to stage complicated gags uniquely able to exploit cinema's temporal and spatial parameters. In doing so he created film comedy that indulged a populist penchant for knockabout humor while also revealing a modernist sensibility attuned to reflexive jokes and an absurdist perspective. Part Keystone Kop, part surrealist manque, Keaton and his image-based comedy...

Catherine Breillat b Bressuire France July

Based in Paris, Catherine Breillat became famous as a writer and filmmaker confronting sexuality from a candid and unsentimental viewpoint she was even dubbed a porno auteuriste'' by some critics. Her start in film was a supporting role in Bertolucci's landmark exploration of sexual politics, Last Tango in Paris (1972). Her first film as writer and director, Une vraie jeune ftlle (A Real Young Girl, 1976), focuses on the sexual experiences and desires of a young woman, but eschews the...

Cinema After The Sexual Revolution

By the end of the 1970s, a general cultural backlash against the sexual revolution began to develop in many areas, partly fueled by growing fears of sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes and AIDS. The United States, the United Kingdom, and West Germany, for example, elected conservative politicians that promised to restore traditional values'' which generally meant reestablishing the patriarchal heterosexual family unit. British prime minister Margaret Thatcher promoted a heritage...

Classicalera Warner Bros

During the early 1930s, Zanuck orchestrated the development of the film narratives, genres, and production trends that would define Warner Bros. for the next two decades, featuring contemporary stories ''torn from today's headlines'' distinguished by a cynicism and hard-bitten realism in style, tone, and technique. Zanuck also cultivated stables of contract talent who were the key creators of the Warner's style, notably a new crop of stars like Edward G. Robinson (1893-1973), James Cagney...

Clint Eastwood b Clinton Eastwood Jr San Francisco California

In an acting career spanning more than five decades, Clint Eastwood achieved stardom by epitomizing tough masculine independence. This image was the product not only of the characters he played, but of a performance style that remained emotionally impassive and contained. Although Eastwood played a variety of roles, his stardom was defined by those he took in westerns directed by Sergio Leone and police thrillers directed by Don Siegel. Following a succession of minor film roles, Eastwood...

Color And Sound

Long before Technicolor revolutionized the look of movies, color appeared in movies through a number of different methods. One of the first narrative movie directors, Georges Melies (1861-1938), known for his early special effects and camera trickery, used color on occasion to accentuate spectacle, such as bursts of yellow flame and the like. In order to achieve this effect, he had individual frames hand-painted, a laborious and expensive practice. Tinting and toning were more popular, if only...

Croatia

Although best-known internationally for its animation and documentaries, Croatia was also an important center of feature film production. Branko Marijanovic (b. 1923) and Fedor Hanzekovic (1913-1997) were among the directors of the first Croatian films after World War II, most often war films or historical adaptations of literary classics. Beginning in the 1950s, Croatian film production came mostly from Jadran Film Studio in Zagreb. Branko Bauer (1921-2002), best known for his Ne okreci se...

Cut Scenes And Point Of View

The use of cinematic cut scenes in computer-based games is one of the more obvious connections between cinema and games. Cut scenes are short, pre-rendered sequences in which the game player performs a role closer to that of a detached observer than is the case in more active periods of gameplay. Cut scenes tend to employ camera movement, shot-selection, framing, and editing similar to that used in cinema. Many games use cut scenes to establish the initial setting, character and background...

D November

Stage and screen director Tony Richardson was a major shaping influence in British theater and film during the 1950s and 1960s. Born the only child of a pharmacist in the West Riding region of Yorkshire, he was educated at Ashville College, Harrogate, and Wadham College, Oxford. After earning a B.A. in English Literature in 1951, he enrolled in the Director Training Program at the British Broadcasting Corporation. During the next four years he not only directed several notable television...

Dadaist Roots

The roots of surrealism begin with the dada movement. Dada was founded in 1915 in Zurich, Switzerland, by an international group of pacifist intellectuals and artists who fled to the neutral country in protest of World War I. This group felt that humanity's megalomania and industrial capitalism were the principle causes of the war, so they considered dada to be a ''moral revolution.'' In the process of creating dada art, the artist held no special significance he or she was merely the vessel...

Darryl F Zanuck b Wahoo Nebraska September d December

Among Hollywood's pioneering producers and studio heads, Darryl Zanuck was unique for his longevity at the helm of the studio he co-founded, 20th Century Fox, as well as for his intense involvement in the filmmaking process. Along with Irving Thalberg and David Selznick, Zanuck was one of Hollywood's first-generation boy wonders, supervising production at a major studio (Warner Bros.) while still in his twenties. But Zanuck alone among top Hollywood executives rose through the creative ranks...

Defining The War Film

Coming up with a generic definition of the war film presents problems. Sometimes movies are labeled war films'' even when they are not set in combat. Since You Went Away (1944), the story of the American home front in 1944, is not about fighting battles with weapons but fighting the daily battle of morale for those whose lives are indirectly affected. Similarly, The Best Years of Our Lives is about the return to civilian life of three soldiers from different economic backgrounds and the...

Definition And History

In common with the Hollywood melodrama, the woman's picture's characteristic themes involve moral dilemmas and conflicts associated with sexuality, home, and family, commonly set in a middle-class milieu and played out in stories of the fates of individuals. However, the woman's picture departs from the melodrama in two key respects in the focus and trajectory of its narrative concerns and in its rhetoric. Within the setting of the family, issues that may be seen as of particular concern to...

Digital Animation

Some important developments in technologies, and the formal capacity they offer for rendering versions of new fictional worlds, are also shared between cinema and games, most obviously in the area of digital animation. The fact that new standards of realism in computergenerated graphics are offered as one selling point of games and animated films creates a point of crossover between the two media. This is especially the case in a film such as Final Fantasy The Spirits Within (2001), based on...

Do Your Bit For America

The United States entered the war on 5 April 1917. President Wilson called on everyone to ''Do Your Bit for America,'' and this included the film industry. At every level helping with recruitment and fund-raising, making training films as well as inspirational fiction features featuring charismatic movie stars cinema worked to align the nation to the political and social needs of the day. Producers, distributors, and exhibitors developed an approach of ''practical patriotism,'' finding that...

Driveins And Art Cinemas

Shrinking movie attendance from the late 1940s into the 1950s, coupled with the increasing suburbanization of America, led to a new round of theater closings as well as to certain technological innovations intended to underscore the superiority of the big-screen experience over the small, black-and-white image of home television. Preeminent were much-publicized wide-screen processes, which offered images wider and more horizontal than the standard academy ratio found on television. Although...

Dudley Nichols b Wapakoneta Ohio April d January

Dudley Nichols was one of the most variously talented and durable of Hollywood screenwriters throughout the 1930s and 1940s, winning an Oscar for John Ford's The Informer (1935, adapted from Liam O'Flaherty's novel and co-written with Ford). In a career spanning thirty years and over sixty feature films, he proved a master of genres from westerns to screwball and romantic comedies to historical dramas and swashbuckling adventure films. Coming to screenwriting from journalism, Nichols began as...

Dusan Makavejev b Belgrade Yugoslavia now Serbia October

Dusan Makavejev is one of the most controversial directors and screenwriters to emerge from the former Yugoslavia. Trained in both psychology and film, Makavejev began his career writing film criticism and directing shorts and documentaries. From the beginning, his films posed a challenge to the values of the socialist state. Openly provocative in his approach, Makavejev established himself as the most original member of the Yugoslav oppositional Black Wave.'' His first feature, Covek nije tica...

Early Film Westerns And The Coming Of Sound

The western, often viewed as an unusually stable form, did not in fact achieve definition as a film genre until around 1910, when it became one of early cinema's most familiar and successful products. Although Edwin S. Porter's (1870-1941) The Great Train Robbery (1903), produced for the Edison Company and based on an 1896 stage melodrama, is often identified as the first western, film historians have demonstrated that the generic category itself was not yet firmly in place, so Porter's film...

Early History

The history of the Walt Disney Company is bound up with the history of Walt Disney himself. Disney began cartooning in Kansas City with a series called Alice's Wonderland (1923), which included live action and animation. When he moved to California in 1923, he made arrangements with a New York company to distribute the Alice films. (The company considers this as its starting date.) Since Walt Disney (1901-1966) was a partner with his brother Roy (b. 1930), the company was originally called the...

Early Teen Films

The appearance of actual adolescents in movies was not common until the 1930s. By that point Hollywood studios had firmly established their grip on American culture, and even more so on their contract players. But they had difficulty in maintaining public interest in young stars, who inevitably grew out of their youthful charms. This was the case with one of the first teen stars, Deanna Durbin (b. 1921), whose success started at age fifteen in films such as Three Smart Girls (1936), One Hundred...

Ernst Lubitsch b Berlin Germany January d November

Ernst Lubitsch was the director most closely identified with the genre of romantic comedy during the studio era. He was known for the Lubitsch touch,'' the ineffable combination of gloss, sophistication, wit, irony, and, above all, lightness, that he brought to his material. Lubitsch began his career in Germany, where he made slapstick comedies and historical epics. He came to America in 1922, carrying the reputation as the greatest director in Europe.'' In his first romantic comedy, The...

Film On Network Television From

Diversifying into television may have seemed risky for a studio in the early 1950s, but within a decade television had become firmly entrenched in Hollywood, where the studios had come to depend for their very existence on the income provided by television. Networks and local stations leaned almost exclusively on Hollywood to satisfy their endless need for programming. By the end of the 1950s, 80 percent of network prime-time programming was produced in Hollywood it had become nearly impossible...

Film Stardom As A Cultural Institution

In his 1990 history of the formation of the star system in American cinema, Richard DeCordova argues that after an initial period when the names of film performers were not publicly circulated and films actors remained anonymous to the moviegoing public, the first move towards a star system came with the earliest advertising of performers' names from 1909 onward. Ever since, film stardom has worked through the circulation of performer names and it is through the distribution of those names that...

Film Theory And The Womans Picture

It was not until several decades after its heyday that the classic Hollywood woman's picture at last began to attract serious critical and scholarly attention in fact, this much-denigrated genre has inspired some of the most significant advances of the past twenty-five years in film history, theory, and criticism. In the 1970s and 1980s, film critics who were also feminists began to interest themselves in the place of women in cinema at first looking at women as characters in films and as...

Formation Of The Film Star System In America

When film and cinema technologies first appeared in Europe and the United States in the mid-1890s, film was sold to consumers on the technological effect of moving images rather than the content of what those images represented. Consequently, the first entrepreneurs who aimed to exploit the commercial potential of the new medium saw its value as an instrument of technological innovation rather than as a new performance medium. In this commercial context, film acting remained an amateur or...

From Cold War To New World Order

Just as the synthesis of glamour and disillusionment in Hitchcock's British espionage films increasingly tended toward a critique of the whole project of spying, the two poles were split for other filmmakers whose view of spying was formed by the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. Following a modest Redbaiting cycle that included I Was a Communist for the FBI (1951), Big Jim McLain (1952), and Pickup on South Street (1953), the glamour of spying returned full force in...

From Multiplex To Megaplex

Before 1960, a few theaters had been built in shopping centers. There were even rare attempts to create twin cinemas, so-called because they included two separate auditoria with a common foyer and box office. But the multiplex was very much a product of the 1960s, usually credited to Stanley H. Durwood (1920-1999), who built his first twin cinema in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1963. Housed in a suburban shopping center, Durwood's multiplex used the same projection facility and concession stand...

From The Zanuck Era To The New Hollywood

The year 1950 also marked the release of All About Eve, Fox's consummate postwar success. Produced by Zanuck, written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz (1909 1993), the film starred Bette Davis (1908-1989) as a veteran stage star struggling with advancing age and a declining career, and its many awards included Oscars for best picture, director, and screenplay. All About Eve also featured Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962) in a bit part one of several in the early 1950s that paved the way to leading...

Further Reading

London British Film Institute, 2002. Eyman, Scott. Ernst Lubitsch Laughter in Paradise. New York Simon & Schuster, 1993. Paul, William. Ernst Lubitsch's American Comedy. New York Columbia University Press, 1983. Poague, Leland A. The Cinema ofErnst Lubitsch. South Brunswick, NJ A. S. Barnes and London Thomas Yoseloff, 1978. Weinberg, Herman G. The and Lubitsch Touch A Critical Study. 3rd edition. New York Dover, 1977. film suggests, she must be humanized by...

Genesis And Rapid Growth

The genesis of the Warner movie empire actually began in Ohio and Pennsylvania, where the three older Warner brothers, Harry, Albert (Abe), and Sam, all still in their twenties, went into the nickelodeon business around 1903. (Jack, born in 1892, sang during intermissions and reel changes.) Like many early exhibitors, they soon moved into distribution to ensure a flow of product, only to tangle with the Motion Picture Patents Company. They persisted, however, and eventually reached a watershed...

George Cukor b New York New York July d January

The son of Hungarian-Jewish immigrants, George Cukor began his career directing plays on Broadway. In 1929 he moved to Hollywood, embarking on a fifty-year career in the course of which he directed more than fifty films, from his debut picture at Paramount, Grumpy (1930), to Rich and Famous (1981). Reflecting his background in the theater, many of Cukor's best-known films are adaptations of stage plays (such as The Philadelphia Story, 1940, and My Fair Lady, 1964) or are set in the world of...

Glamour And Disillusionment

Spying is nearly as old as recorded history. The biblical Book of Joshua tells how Joshua, son of Nun, sent two spies secretly into Canaan in order to ascertain whether the land was fruitful and readily susceptible to conquest. Three thousand years later, Cardinal Richelieu established an elaborate network of secret agents to protect both Louis XIII of France and his own personal interests, an episode fictionalized in numerous novels by Alexandre Dumas and such film adaptations as The Three...

Harold Pinter b London England October

Harold Pinter has said that his works begin with an image, rather than a theme, and that he is a visual writer. It is not surprising, then, that he has found success working in film. Although Pinter winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize for Literature is primarily known as a playwright, with many of his plays regarded as masterpieces of the English stage, he has also had a long and celebrated career writing for both film and television. Pinter's screenplays are all adaptations of other works his own...

Henry Fonda b Grand Island Nebraska May d August

Henry Fonda appeared in fewer than a dozen films for 20th Century Fox, but those early roles effectively shaped his enduring persona a common man of quiet decency, Midwestern stoicism, homespun virtue, and reluctant heroism. Fonda never forgave Darryl Zanuck for forcing him into a long-term contract to get the role of Tom Joad in The Grapes of Wrath (1940), but that transaction gave Fonda a career-defining role and brought 20th Century Fox precisely the kind of critical acclaim and industry...

Heyday Of The American Crime Thriller

After 1940, major developments in the movie thriller centered around various phases of the crime thriller, especially in the American cinema. This cycle began in the detective genre, particularly the hard-boiled detective story associated with such writers as Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) and Raymond Chandler (1888-1959) and adapted by such films as The Maltese Falcon (1941), Murder, My Sweet (1944), and The Big Sleep (1946). In contrast to the refined, detached sleuths of whod unit authors like...

History

As soon as cameras could take moving pictures of combat, war became a popular subject for narrative movies. Although no one can be certain of the exact first war movie, many historians feel it is probably a one-and-a-half-minute pro-war film, Tearing Down the Spanish Flag, made on a set in New York City immediately after the United States declared war on Spain in April 1898. The precedent was set. All the wars in American history have had stories told about them by Hollywood, although some wars...

Hollywood Goes To

Following World War I, Americans entered into a period of profound isolationism. The US government, despite the escalation of what Americans called the European War, would remain neutral until 1941. But with the founding of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League in 1936, the Hollywood community politicized itself in advance of the government, a stance strengthened by the nearly complete elimination of the German market for its films. Without the worry of losing overseas profits, Hollywood from 1939 to...

Info

King Vidor. everett collection. reproduced by permission. certain images to be censored early in 1915, some scenes of warfare were cut. After The Battle of the Somme, Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (1915) was the most significant film of the period for British audiences. The film was shown only in theaters and not cinemas, sparking debate among exhibitors, who felt they were being squeezed out because the theater showings attracted a middle-class clientele that did not normally frequent the...

International Postwar Struggles And The Ascendancy Of Hollywood

It was a specific technological development that ended the mature silent period, but it was an international event of epoch-defining magnitude that helped mark its beginning. By and large, World War I, which began in 1914, had a disastrous effect on most national cinemas in Europe, hastening a decline already apparent for some (England, France) while halting the momentum experienced by others (Denmark, Italy). Only two countries, Sweden and Germany, emerged from the war with their national...

James Dean b Marion Indiana February d September

James Dean's breakthrough came when, in his early twenties, he gave profound performances playing teenagers in East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). Before he could thoroughly enjoy the fame these films brought him, his life was tragically cut short in a car accident. His final film, Giant (1956), had not yet been released. Dean's untimely death seemed to assure him everlasting status as a cult figure for youth. Dean was born in Indiana but moved with his family to Los Angeles...

Lang Hitchcock Spies And Monsters

Fritz Lang (1890 1976), who rivals Alfred Hitchcock as the most important director in the evolution of the movie thriller, served his apprenticeship on German adventure series featuring exotic locales, Asian motifs, and Feuillade-influenced supercriminals. He transposed these exotic and adventurous concepts into the here and now of postwar German society in Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler (Dr. Mabuse, The Gambler, 1922), an epic crime thriller that paints a broad canvas of the chaos and decadence of...

Later Developments

Early sound film production encountered many challenges. Camera noise required each camera and operator to be placed in a soundproof booth or sweat box.'' The dependence of sound-on-disc upon a level surface, temperature control, and a dust-free environment for the wax record gave sound-on-film an edge. Fox took Movietone outdoors for its first all-talking picture, In Old Arizona (1928). In 1930 the camera booth gave way to the blimp, a wooden enclosure for the camera body, or to the barney, a...

Literary Roots

Mary Shelley's (1797-1851) Frankenstein (1818) is often cited as a crucial literary antecedent to sci-fi films. The novel is of particular interest because of its portrayal of creating life from non-living materials and, equally importantly, because of Shelley's investigation of the ethical ramifications of the human (specifically male) creation of life. Later science fiction narratives about robots, cyborgs, artificial intelligence, and cloning clearly owe a debt to Shelley, though few if any...

Louis Feuillade b Lunel France February d February

Between 1907 and 1925 Louis Feuillade directed over eight hundred films in almost every contemporary genre in France, but he is now best remembered as the producer, director, and writer of serials. His career in the cinema began when he was hired as a screenwriter by Gaumont in 1905, becoming Head of Production two years later. In 1910 he began making films in series. Fantomas, his first serial, went into production in 1913. Based on a series of novels by Marcel Allain and Pierre Silvestre,...

Luis Bunuel b Calanda Spain February d July

The best-known Spanish filmmaker before Pedro Almodovar, Luis Bunuel had a film career that spanned fifty years and involved work in three national cinemas, those of Spain, France, and Mexico. Ironically, of the thirty-one films he made, only four of them were shot in his native Spain. Along with persistent attacks on Christian dogma and church hypocrisy, Buiiuel's most characteristic theme is a contemptuous view of bourgeois morality and middle-class values. His Mexican period, beginning in...

Macedonia

Macedonian film production since World War II has been centered around Vardar Films in Skopje. Although most of its output has consisted of documentaries and shorts, the studio has managed to release some forty feature films since 1947. Frosina (Vojislav Nanovic, 1952) is considered to be the first Macedonian postwar feature. Many Macedonian films dealt with the nation's complex history. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Zika Mitrovic (1921-2005) and Trajce Popov (b. 1923) made a number of films...

Mack Sennett b Richmond Quebec Canada January d Woodland Hills California November

It seems appropriate that Mack Sennett, the father of slapstick comedy, made his first stage appearance as the rear end of a pantomime horse at the Bowery Burlesque in New York City. Responsible for inaugurating the conventions of both custard pie-throwing and the comic chase, Sennett's grasp of comedy was always physical rather than verbal. Born Michael Sinnott in Quebec, Sennett left Canada for New England in his youth. Although opera was his initial career goal, he pragmatically settled for...

Major Achievements

While the first few years of synchronized sound generated many painfully static films that were effectively filmed stage plays, the challenge and limitations of the new technology stimulated some directors to use sound in ways that remain benchmarks of creativity. In Great Britain, Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980) experimented with varieties of subjective sound in Blackmail (1929), Murder (1930), and Secret Agent (1936). In Germany, Fritz Lang (1890-1976) showed in M Eine Stadt sucht einen Morder...

Mary Pickford b Gladys Smith Toronto Canada April d

No major star within the silent era can match the career longevity of Mary Pickford. Starting at Biograph in 1909, she established herself as a leading performer with her first films and went on to become the industry's biggest female star for the next two decades. Compelling onscreen, Pickford was equally adept at controlling the aspects of stardom that extend beyond the screen. A consummate businesswoman, she capitalized on her popularity from early on, negotiating favorable terms of...

Maurice Schwartz b Sedikov Russia later Ukraine June d

Ulmer is today the best-known of the Yiddish filmmakers, he notoriously did not speak Yiddish and his approach to the Yiddish cinema, polished and insightful though it is, lacks the raw power that one sees in the true masterpieces of Yiddish cinema, including Maurice Schwartz's Tevye der Milkhiker (Tevye the Milkman, 1939). One of many adaptations of Sholem Aleichem's beloved novel of the bedraggled dairyman and his attempts to marry off his numerous daughters, Schwartz's version is...

Michael Curtiz b Mihaly Kertesz Budapest Hungary December d April

Warner Bros.' consummate house director during the classical era, Michael Curtiz was an expert technician who worked in a variety of genres and with a wide range of top studio stars, and like all of Warner's long-term contract directors, he was amazingly prolific. Curtiz directed nearly one hundred features over some twenty-seven years at Warner (1926-1953), including over fifty films during the manic 1930s. Most were routine studio fare, although he occasionally directed prestige productions...

Michael Mann b Chicago Illinois February

Michael Mann is roughly the same age as Martin Scorsese, Francis Coppola, George Lucas, and the other directors of the film-school generation who revived American filmmaking in the 1970s, but he is seldom thought of as a member of that generation, despite the fact he too attended film school in the 1960s. Like the romantic loners who inhabit his films, Mann followed his own route to the film industry. He attended film school in London, instead of New York or Los Angeles, and while his peers...

Modernization Revision And Revival

Whereas the classical period of the movie thriller (ca. 1930-1960) was characterized by the entrenchment of most of the central thriller-related genres (such as spy, horror, detective, film noir), the period beginning around 1960 was marked primarily by reconceptions of those genres. Key thriller categories underwent major overhauls, ranging from subversive debunking (the detective film) to neoclassical revival (neo-noir) to revitaliza-tion, both short-term (the spy film) and long-term (the...

Nazi Control

Just as Ufa's Dawn anticipated Nazi cinema, its board preempted official Nazi policy three days before the official Nazi boycott of German Jews was instituted, Ufa fired all of its Jewish employees (29 March 1933). While in the course of 1933 the Propaganda Ministry was established under Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) in order to create a precensorship office for the ideological control of all German film productions and the industry was aryanized by making it illegal for Jews to make films, Ufa...

Novi Film

A tendency rather than a film movement called novi film emerged in the wake of the political and economic liberalization of Yugoslavia in the 1960s and 70s. While lacking a program or coherent aesthetics, novi film sought to free Yugoslav cinema from bureaucratic dogmatism and promote free expression and experimentation. Inspired by Italian Neorealism and various new waves in European cinema, the filmmakers rejected the dominant style of socialist realism, with its officially sanctioned...

Opportunities For Supporting Actors

Actors who specialize in supporting roles sometimes describe their work as similar to performing in a stock theater company, for which actors fill multiple roles in a variety of plays over the course of a single season. Similarly, an actor who plays supporting roles will frequently be asked to perform a wide assortment of types. Versatility is a key element in the career of many supporting players. Frances McDormand, for example, played two very different supporting roles in the films Raising...

Original Films Versus Adaptations Remakes And Sequels

It should come as no surprise that in Hollywood more scripts are adaptations than original scripts from clearly original ideas. Because Hollywood has always been a business, the fact that a book or a play or even a television show has been popular certainly spurs on producers to say, Let's make the movie '' The year 2003 even saw the adaptation of an amusement park ride into a hit movie (Pirates of the Caribbean) and similarly with a video game (Resident Evil). In such a manner, Gone with the...

Origins

Cinema was introduced into Russia through the initiative of Europeans. One sign of foreign influence on Russian cinema is the number of cognates in Russia's film lexicon. One finds German (e.g., the Russian word for cinema, kino, derives from the German Kino) as well as many French traces in the language (e.g, the Russian montazh derives from montage). The Lumi re organization first ventured into the region in 1896, with successful public showings of programs in St. Petersburg and Moscow. The...

Origins Of The Movie Thriller

The thriller goes against the grain of mundane modern life while at the same time remaining immersed in it. This concept indicates that the thriller is an essentially modern form, whose rise coincides with the arrival of urban industrialism, mass society, middle-class lifestyle, and the twentieth century. In other words, the thriller is a response to a modern world that is perceived under normal circumstances to be fundamentally not thrilling. As Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980) observed in a 1936...

Origins Of The Western

Recognizable early sources of the popular western can be located in persistent manifestations of the Pocahontas legend, in Indian captivity narratives such as A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison (1824), and in travel memoirs such as Francis Parkman's (1823-1893) The Oregon Trail (1849). Fiction, especially James Fenimore Cooper's (1789-1851) five Leatherstocking novels (18231841) and Bret Harte's (1836-1902) frontier tales from the late 1860s also established influential patterns for...

Outside The Mainstream

Despite the popular appeal of Yesilcam, criticism that it was a commercial cinema that steered away from social problems and realities motivated two major movements outside the mainstream. Alongside the social and the political developments following the 27 May 1960 revolution and the liberal social atmosphere created by the new constitution, there appeared a group of films focusing on the social problems of cities and villages, including issues of class, migration, urbanization, unemployment,...

Paddy Chayefsky b Sidney Aaron Chayefsky New York New York January d August

Three-time Oscar -winning screenwriter Paddy Chayefsky was equally well known as a playwright, novelist, composer, and producer. He had a fine ear for dialogue and an ability to use all media from radio and television to the stage and cinema to explore social issues and to question political and cultural stereotypes. A graduate of the City College of New York, a semi-pro football player for the Kingsbridge Trojans in the Bronx, and a Purple Heart-winning soldier in World War II, Chayefsky began...

Peace Or Preparedness

In the period of early cinema, the United States was primarily concerned with its domestic market, but from 1909 the commercial advantage of exporting film overseas became clear. Although Hollywood had successfully exported before 1914, the dominance it achieved a few years later was made possible by the war. France had been the world leader in film export, with Italy and Denmark close behind indeed, France had been at the forefront of cinema's development, with pioneering filmmakers such as...

Pedro Almodovar b Calzada de la Calatrava Spain September

The most acclaimed contemporary Spanish director, Pedro Almodovar developed his skills as a filmmaker in underground shorts he made in the 1970s before turning to commercial feature-length films with Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del monton (Pepi, Luci, Bom, 1980). This raucous comedy, shot on a shoestring, eventually became a cult hit. It portrayed characters from Madrid's pop-culture movement of the late 1970s (Movida) in the flimsiest of plots. In a similar antibourgeois style, Laberinto...

Post Turkish Cinema

After a two-year military administration following the 1980 coup, Turkey entered a new stage of social change with the capitalistic policies of the new civil government. Among the major film trends in the 1980s were films dealing with the coup's psychological effects on individuals, especially intellectuals ''women's films'' paralleling the rise of feminism in Turkey and depicting female characters in search of their identities and liberty and films dealing with cinematic practice itself in...

Poststructuralism From System To Subversion

Beginning in the late 1960s a group of theorists led by Jacques Derrida began to challenge the very basic assumptions that had informed structuralist thought, starting with its cornerstone, Saussurean semiotics. These attacks followed once the initial enthusiasm for structuralism began to wane. Less a theory than an interpretive attitude, poststructuralism in its broadest sense refers to an attention towards those elements unexplained, excluded, or repressed by structuralism's tidy systems, as...

Problems And Debates

It is not difficult to find fault with a concept and the political investment placed in a corresponding mode of film practice introduced over three decades ago. Nevertheless, some constructive criticisms can be, and have been, made in relation to the implications of Solanas and Getino's argument on aesthetic, ethical, and ideological grounds. The first is the problem of an intellectual and artistic vanguard those who are familiar with the language of neocolonial cinema and thought, yet who, in...

Prominent Stage And Screen Artists

A century of theater-film interaction has seen many stage-trained directors, writers, and performers whose motion pictures bear the traces of their theatrical experience and sensibilities. In the silent period, David Wark Griffith quit the life of an itinerant player to score a spectacular success in the burgeoning film industry with smash hits The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Way Down East (1920) (both based on stage plays) in America. Mauritz Stiller (1883-1928) and Victor Sjostrom...

Propaganda

The United States, with a guaranteed freedom of the press, has provided its citizens access to information as a right of the democratic process. The idea of ''propaganda'' is linked to totalitarian governments, with an attendant suspicion of inaccurate, slanted information. Therefore, when the United States became involved in two world wars, it faced the issue of how to mobilize its populace, provide accurate information, and influence morale without violating the basic tenets of democracy. The...

Recent Directions

Another recent thriller movement marked by historical consciousness is neo-noir. Recycling and reconceiving film noir's dark themes, flamboyant stylization, and convoluted structures, the neo-noir revival was spurred in the 1980s by such films as Body Heat (1981), Blood Simple (1984), and Blue Velvet (1986), and it continued (with an extra dollop of self-consciousness akin to that of the Scream-led stalker revival) in Pulp Fiction (1994), Memento (2000), Mulholland Drive (2001), Femme Fatale...

Recent Trends

Familiar genres such as the romantic comedy and the detective or secret agent drama also flourished after the film reform. Drawing especially large crowds in the 1980s and 1990s were a series of comedies by Lasse Aberg (b. 1940) about charter trips to various destinations and six heist films featuring the bumbling Jonsson League thieves. In the 1970s television, no longer solely a competitor, began co-producing films in return for broadcast rights. Contemporary features frequently reach a far...

Recommended Viewing

Covek nije tica (Man Is Not a Bird, 1965), Ljubavni sluCaj ili tragedija sluzbenice PTT (Love Affair or the Case of the Missing Switchboard Operator, 1967), Nevinost bez zaCstite (Innocence Unprotected, 1968), W.R. Misterije organizma (W.R. Mysteries of the Organism, 1971), Sweet Movie (1974), Montenegro eller Paerlor och Svin (Montenegro, 1981), The Coca-Cola Kid (1985), Manifesto (1988), Gorila se kupa u podne (Gorilla Bathes at Noon, Germany, 1993), Rupa u dusi (A Hole in the Soul, 1994)