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Early Cinemas Incarnations Jonathan auerbach

University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and institutions. For more information, visit

Recent Developments In Film Theory

There Neale called fundamental debates around the notion of genre into question by arguing that film scholars should return to industry-based genere definitions and categorization. While the issues that Neale raised are of considerable importance for the development of film scholarship, their implications seem to be opposed to equally important scholarship. This point was made by Rick Altman, who questions Neale's approach to genre and suggests that his reliance on industrial classification limits the ways in which films can be read and understood. Altman notes that Neale's research is based on a study of the trade press and not of the film industry itself, which Neale seems to regard as interchangeable. Rejecting Neale's idea of relying on industrial classification as the way to identify genre, Altman argues that film scholarship should open up cinema to interpretations that are not limited by industrial factors. For Altman, melodrama is one of the best

Copyrights On The

Fair use is a defense to copyright infringement. It allows the taking of some part of a copyrighted work without need to secure the author's permission. Examples of fair use include news reporting, criticism, comment, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), parody, scholarship, or research.

Authorship attribution

Authorship attribution is a long-standing, traditional subject in New Testament scholarship, study of the classics, and literary scholarship as well as in the legal context (for inferring whether the defendant wrote his or her confession, or whether it was 'co-authored' with the police, for example). Statistical style analysis has contributed its computerized statistical methods to these areas with controversial results.

Latinos And Hollywood Film

Historically, Latinos have seldom been the protagonists of Hollywood film stories, and their characters typically have been marginal and underdeveloped when they do appear. The use of stereotypes has been a major facet of Latino film representation, particularly in the era of classical Hollywood. In past decades, Latino characters often were presented as especially sexual, childlike, or aggressive. Although some films exhibited more positive or complex imagery of Latinos, the overall history is not fully known because scholarship in this area is relatively new. Prominent scholars of Latino film representation include Chon Noriega, Charles Ramirez Berg, Ana M. Lopez, Clara Rodriguez, and Rosa Linda Fregoso.

Vincente Minnelli b Lester Anthony Minnelli Chicago Illinois February d July

Examples of a category largely constructed through film scholarship that has enabled critics to discuss a range of otherwise disparate films. Altman also usefully argues that while film theorists may have formulated the notion of the family melodrama, this idea is not antithetical to the more traditional notion of melodrama based on high drama and action that Neale notes was the industry-based classification. Altman's arguments about melo

An Invitation to Feel

Chapters 5 through 9 provide more full case studies of how my conception of the emotion system can provide insights into texts. Each case study is designed to test a different capability of the critical approach. Can it explain how one text successfully shifts from one emotional appeal Can it explain how a film might exhaust the audience's emotion system Can the mood-cue approach explain how a film's emotional appeal fails Can it provide a more insightful explanation than previous critics have done of the timeless appeal of a film like Casablanca Can it mine new insights into a film that has been exhaustively studied by psychoanalytic film scholars (Stella Dallas) Chapter 10 then provides a brief conclusion, suggesting future avenues of research open to scholarship. For those interested in such matters, an appendix follows that examines the Freudian assumptions about the nature of emotion that are the underpinnings of psychoanalytic film theory I

Stan Brakhage b Kansas City Missouri January d March

Stan Brakhage

Brakhage briefly attended Dartmouth College on a scholarship, but he found academia so uncongenial that he had a nervous breakdown, left school, and spent four years traveling and living in San Francisco and New York. During this period Brakhage made his earliest films, including psychodramas such as Interim (1952) and Desistfilm (1954).

The Myth of Classical Cinema

Although the films discussed here all fall within the critical boundaries of the period known to academe as classical Hollywood (roughly 1920 to 1960), the term classical Hollywood cinema and its critical heritage have seriously constricted previous historical scholarship on pre-World War II Hollywood filmmaking. The term originally signified French film critic Andr Bazin's praise for a beautifully balanced stage of American film narratives, a moment in the late 1930s when the visual structures and seamless continuity of Hollywood film production were blended with an overpowering narrative unity.28 Over the next thirty years, professional film historians and theorists recast Bazin's appreciation for prewar aesthetic balance and narrative resolution with an overdose of economic determinism. According to this view, aided by totalizing structuralist and post-structuralist discourses on film language and ahistorical psychoanalytic theories about the ideological function of the film...

Contemporary Challenges To The Canon

By the end of the 1960s, some theorists and academics began questioning the tendency of auteur critics to consider the aesthetic value of films outside of any economic, historical, or ideological context. The adoption within film scholarship of theories drawn from structuralism, semiotics, Marxism, and psychoanalysis made problematic notions of authorship and conventional critical assessments. The rise of a modernist European art cinema and a vibrant American avant-garde encouraged some scholars and critics to embrace alternative filmmaking practices. At the same time in academia, feminism, race and ethnic studies, and queer studies led to a re-evaluation of orthodox canons in literature, art, and film. same time, growing scholarly interest in commercial, cult, and previously marginalized cinemas has expanded the criteria applied to canon selection. These shifts have enlarged the fringes of the canon, such that Tokyo nagaremono (Tokyo Drifter, Seijun Suzuki, 1966), a campy, pop art...

Theorists of Instincts and Drives

Articulated by Mulvey into an element that can destabilize structures of power. Other scholars have argued that discussions of spectatorship cannot operate across a wide range of times but must be bound to a specific set of historical norms. Patrice Petro, Miriam Hansen, and others discuss narrational and ideological norms operating in a particular era to make historically specific arguments about the nature of desire and spectatorship in that era. Yet another body of work rejects Metz and Mulveys attempt to discuss the pleasures offered by the Hollywood cinematic apparatus as a whole, instead choosing to concentrate on spectatorship in one particular genre. The largest body of such scholarship investigates melodrama and the women's film (for example, Mary Ann Doane's The Desire to Desire and Christine Gledhill's Home Is Where the Heart Is) as alternative forms of narration presenting a distinctive vision of female desire. Scholars have also posited psychoanalytic mechanisms as...

The New American Film Historiography

The following pages not only recover a neglected film cycle crucial to classical Hollywood filmmaking but also call for a fundamental revision in the way scholarship considers classical Hollywood cinema and film history. In the past, film histories looked at Hollywood in isolation from the rest of the country one of the most deeply cherished beliefs in American film history is that Hollywood producers paid attention solely to box-office returns.79 However, where American historical filmmaking was concerned, producers actually paid attention to what the New York newspapers and other national publications said about their prestige films.80 At RKO, producer Kenneth Macgowan even tried to convince Selznick to hire critics Richard Watts and Gilbert Seldes as screenwriters for their new prestige productions.81 When preparing to write a script about American history, screenwriters compiled and consulted a bibliography, not just past film successes. Researchers traveled to national libraries...

Martha Coolidge director Rambling Rose Introducing Dorothy Dandridge I think women want to see women portrayed in a

The feminist study of popular culture often sticks at these issues of realism and progressive impact. In her review of 1970s feminist scholarship on sexism in the media, Suzanna Danuta Walters explains that those early studies described the persistence of sexist imagery and the relegation of women to home-and-family roles.24 Such work trains our attention on women's injury, oppression, or vilification as monsters. Feminist activists called our attention to the representation in the media of women's bodies as objectified and violated by the

The Coppola Connection

I went off to do this Warner Bros. scholarship just on a lark because I ended up winning it and I thought I'd go and see what feature filmmaking and this Hollywood thing was about. When I got there, Warner Bros. had been shut down because they had just been bought out by another corporation. Jack Warner was actually leaving the lot the day I arrived. They were making one film Finian's Rainbow, which was being directed by Francis Coppola. And they said, Well, we'll stick you on this film because all the other departments are closed down. So, I got stuck watching this movie being made, which I wasn't that interested in. I think Francis was kind of offended that I didn't have a lot of interest in what he was doing, and I told him that I wasn't really interested in this kind of filmmaking. I was just trying to get over in the animation department because it was empty. I figured if I got some short ends of film, I could go over there while nobody was around, and I could start making...

Stars and their audiences

Stacey's study remains among the few we have on audiences for stars. Stacey wrote as a 'friendly critic' from within feminist film scholarship, concerned to develop the critical trajectory that had moved feminist concerns with mainstream Hollywood from singular notions of a dominatory male gaze, to considering the ways in which women find spaces for participation and pleasure. What Stacey added to the debates was the richness which comes when the complex voices of real people are added to the melt. Stacey used archival materials, and letters from now-elderly women, to explore the meanings that their adoration of certain stars had had for their lives. This led Stacey to unpick certain concepts, notably 'identification', which textual approaches had made central to claims about stardom. She showed just how complicated and multiple are people's real relations with stars.

Categories of Fair

General categories of fair use include news reporting, criticism, comment, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research. The 1961 Report of the Register of Copyrights on the General Revision of the U.S. Copyright Law cites examples of activities courts have regarded as fair use

Changing Views Of Mediated Performance

Have set aside definitions of film acting that involve a strict opposition between stage and screen acting. Instead, gaining insights from video and performance art, television and performance studies, they now see connections between performance in film and other forms of mediated performance. Anthologies such as More Than a Method (Baron, Carson, and Tomasulo, 2004) feature scholarship that considers ways that performance elements contribute to films' meaning and emotional effects even though audiences encounter performances in relationship to other aspects of the film's visual, aural, and narrative design.

African American Cinema

Traditional film scholarship has often attributed the emergence of African American cinema to the need for a response to the racial stereotypes prevalent in mainstream films. Indeed, the early representations of African Americans, as in Chick Thieves (1905) and the Edison shorts The Gator and a Pickanninny (1903), in which a fake alligator devours a black child, and The Watermelon Contest (1908), relied on staid and pervasive stereotypes common in literature, vaudeville, minstrel shows, and the culture in general. Though cinema would progress, as an industry and as an art form, the stereotypes of African Americans, rooted in slavery and used to justify racist ideologies and acts of discrimination, remained, though often adapted to fit changing cultural contexts. The most common archetypal forms, as identified by Donald Bogle, include the mammy (a dark, large-bodied, asexual woman whose role is to provide maternal comfort for whites) the coon (a sexless comic figure, dull-witted, lazy,...

Dudley Nicholss History of the Old Southwest

When Dudley Nichols (a former New York World reporter) and John Ford began to edit the script of Stagecoach in October 1938, they were perhaps the most respected filmmaking partnership in Hollywood. Since Men without Women and The Seas Beneath (1931), they had developed a reputation for taut adventures and popular success. In 1935 the industry honored them with separate Academy Awards for their work on the critical success The Informer. In subsequent years they continued to work together, but with the merging of Twentieth Century and Fox, Ford became Zanuck's property, while Nichols remained at RKO. In spite of Ford's legendary status (even in 1930s Hollywood), ensuing film scholarship has emphasized Ford the auteur and ignored the inherently collaborative artistry behind his work.7 But from the early sound era until the early 1940s, Nichols and Ford shared equal reputations as filmmakers. Indeed, as president of the Screen Writers' Guild and his studio's preeminent prestige writer,...

From Archival Research To Cinepsychoanalysis

In tandem with ongoing scholarship in history and literature, women film scholars have long endeavored to identify forgotten filmmakers forgotten because most male film critics and scholars writing before the 1960s were not interested in women directors. Because their films were in distribution, Dorothy Arzner (1897-1979) and Ida Lupino (1914-1995) were the first women directors in the sound era to be studied. Foreign directors, like Mai Zetterling (1925-1994), also gained attention at this time. Later, feminists took a great deal of interest in women directors and producers from the silent era, like Lois Weber (1881-1939) and Mary Pickford (1892-1979). Since the 1990s, the Women Film Pioneers Project has been engaged in intensive international study of early women in cinema in their many roles.


Few artistic movements have provoked such strong emotions as has melodrama over the years. From sneers of derision to tears of empathy, melodrama has the peculiar facility to divide and polarize popular and critical opinion. The study of the origin and influence of melodrama in cinema has likewise generated more heated and contradictory debate than perhaps any other area of enquiry within film scholarship and criticism. Melodrama cannot be defined simply as a genre, as it frequently defies attempts at generic classification. Rather, the history of the term's use in film scholarship demonstrates many of the debates and limitations of genre theory.

Along Came Disney

I was very lucky to go to Cal Arts when I did. They had started this Disney Fellowship program to train animators. Because up until that point, the people who had worked on Snow White were the same people who had been there from the very beginning. They didn't really have, you know, new people come in. So that's why, I think, they started this program to train animators, taught by some of the Disney artists. I think since it was the beginning of that program, they were handing out scholarships a little more loosely and I was very lucky to get in. It was a fairly expensive school, and I don't think I could have gone if I hadn't gotten scholarships.

Film School

Then ended up winning a lot of awards all over the world. From that moment on, I realized I knew how to do this really well. It came naturally to me, and I really loved doing it. Then, after that, I made a series of student films. I think I made five or six of them, and about half of them won awards in all the film festivals. Eventually, I won a scholarship a sort of work-study scholarship at Warner Bros. to observe production over there. At that point, I really had no interest in theatrical filmmaking at all. That was not what I got into film for. My only experience with film was from going to the movies and chasing girls.

Two Woods

One, we infer from the book that accompanies the TV series In Search of Shakespeare spends many hours in libraries and consulting leading scholars.1 Although his book is not disfigured with conventional academic annotation (it is aimed at a middlebrow, not a highbrow readership), it records its extensive debts to scholarship and to solitary reflection. And it is scholarship that is com-mendably up to the minute. If there is nothing strictly new here, there are many details - for example, John Shakespeare's prosecution for illegal wool-dealing, the latest twists in his possible association with Hoghton Tower in Lancashire, the possible association of Cymbeline with the investiture of Prince Henry as Prince of Wales - that are not yet established in conventional biographies. And the whole emphasis on the first Elizabethan age less as a world of letters celebrating its Virgin Queen than as a religious police state, riddled with spying and insecurity, is very...

Editors Note

The selection of entries is once again based on the recommendations of the advisory board. It was not thought necessary to propose strict criteria for selection the book is intended to represent the wide range of interests within North American, British, and West European film scholarship and criticism. The variety in both the entries and the critical stances of the writers emphasizes the diversity within the field of cinematic studies.

Applying for grants

This award is offered yearly (depending on availability of funds) to African-American residents of Minnesota. The award is given to eight artists. It includes a 1,250 stipend, a scholarship to playwriting classes, ongoing assistance by a dramaturge, and public readings. Send SASE for guidelines. The deadline for application is July 1. You'll be notified by September 15.

Latinos And Cinema

The participation of Latinos in American film is increasingly important to film scholarship, as the Latino population in the United States continues to grow rapidly. Latinos currently are the largest nonwhite group in the United States, comprising an estimated 13.7 percent of the population in 2003, according to the US Census Bureau.

Alison platt

Parentage, the place from which one is made and named, is a concern in Anthony Asquith's The Winslow Boy (1948), adapted from the play by Terence Rattigan. Young Ronnie Winslow (Neil North), having won a scholarship to naval college, shows off his new uniform to his father, Arthur Ronald Winslow (Cedric Hardwicke), who says, 'he's no longer our master Ronnie. He's Cadet Ronald Winslow, Royal Navy'. 'R. Winslow' is highlighted several times on screen as Ronnie's trunk is forwarded and we see it

What Is At Stake

Much scholarship has been devoted to demonstrating the negative portrayals in American film of women, African-Americans, His-panics, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans. Most of these analyses have concentrated on the level of plot and characterization. What is often overlooked is how much the speech patterns of the stereotyped character contribute to the viewer's conception of his or her worth the ways in which dialect, mispronunciation, and inarticulateness have been used to ridicule and stigmatize characters has

Gilbert Moses

Roscoe Orman

A successful stage and television director who died too early at the age of fifty-two, Gilbert Moses etched his name in the collection of respected black directors who could carry a project successfully through to fruition. Born in 1943, Moses grew up in a Cleveland ghetto, but he began acting at the age of nine, which perhaps ignited his love for artistic expression. Winning a scholarship to Oberlin College,34 he studied German and French, though he saw himself as a sixties radical. He cofounded the Free Southern Theater, which toured the South in the 1960s for about nine years performing plays, such as In White America and Waiting for Godot. By the latter part of the decade, Moses was directing in New York, winning the Off-Broadway Obie Award for his 1969 production of Slave Ship by Amiri Baraka. He went on to direct Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death by Melvin Van Peebles and Taking of Miss Janie by Ed Bullins, with the latter winning the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for...

Falling On Deaf Ears

Since the late 1970s, when the field of cinema studies rediscovered the sound track, numerous productive studies have been published on sound technology, film music, sound effects, and sound theory. With notable exceptions,3 most of this scholarship has only minimally addressed the most important aspect of film sound namely, the dialogue. The neglect of film dialogue by more recent film scholarship actually reflects the field's long-standing antipathy to speech in film. This bias is blatant in the writings of early film theorists such as Rudolph Arnheim, Sergei Eisenstein, and Siegfried Kracauer, who are notori- Of course, recent scholarship particularly that linked to the work of Jacques Lacan has been devoted to pointing out a contrary cultural disposition that identifies the Word, logos, as masculine, as the Word of God or the Law of the Father. In this paradigm, women are clearly linked with visual images, with bodies beauty silence in short, with the lack of speech or logic or...

Fred inglis

The English historian Edward Thompson, professionally known as E.P. Thompson, had a brother, Frank. Frank was a big, handsome young man, born in 1920, who won scholarships to Winchester and Oxford as a result not only of his quite amazing facility for learning foreign languages at his death he spoke and read eleven - but of his luminous intelligence, his gifts as a poet, his striking high-mindedness and idealism, his strong sense of the comic. At Oxford in 1938, with Iris Murdoch as his sweetheart, he was, like all generous-hearted and public-spirited young men and women of his class, a communist because communism taught the righteousness of anger at all that capitalism, especially in fsascist uniform, did so cruelly to the wretched of the earth.

Broadening the Focus

As we see it, the next step in the development of law-film scholarship is to broaden the focus of such work beyond studies of how legal actors are portrayed in film, beyond the way films create subject positions, and beyond the analysis of genre. Specifically, there are three steps in this direction that can and should be taken, three steps that explain the content and organization of Law on the Screen. The first connects law and film as narrative forms the second studies film for its jurisprudential content, its ways of critiquing the present legal world and imagining an alternative one and the third expands studies of the representation of law in film to include questions of reception. The connection between the narrative conventions of film and law has been highlighted recently by David Black.37 Black calls our attention to what he sees as the narrative overdetermination of the film law relationship.38 The real courtroom was already an arena or theater of narrative construction and...

Ivan Dixon

Kay Graham Washington Post

Born in 1932, Dixon was raised in Harlem, and after his parents separated when he was a kid, he lived with his mother but worked as a delivery boy at his father's grocery store.8 He traveled south where he attended North Carolina College, earning a B.A. in political science and becoming involved in drama groups. He was awarded a Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship and went to Case Western Reserve in Cleveland to work on a master's in theater arts.9 However, he left the program and went to New York City, where he tried to break into Off-Broadway productions. His opportunity came when he got to be a stand-in for Sidney Poitier in the 1957 film Edge of the City.


Stead, P. (1981) 'Hollywood's Message for the World The British Response in the 1930s', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 1, pp. 18-32 Thumin, J. (1996) 'Film and Female Identity Questions of Method in Investigating Representations of Women in Popular Culture', in C. MacCabe and D. Petrie (eds), New Scholarship from BFI Research, London BFI

Studying Law in Film

Yet scholars have only recently begun to examine how law works in this new arena and to explore the consequences of the representation of law in the moving image.8 Over a decade ago, Stewart Macaulay urged that attention be paid to what he called images of law in everyday life. 9 Because people learn important lessons about law from a variety of sources, none more important than film (and) television, he called on legal scholars to become participant observers of . . . mass cultures. 10 Like any good practitioner of cultural studies, Macaulay drew attention to what some might dismiss as low or popular culture,11 and, in this way, Macaulay helped to decanonize the traditional subjects of legal scholarship. of cultural representations of law remains relatively marginal among legal scholars,28 and that cultural studies, despite its deep investment in the examination of social forms and social relations,29 has not been taken on in the same way that interdisciplinary legal scholars have...

Law and Film

This chapter's reading of a feature film demonstrates one type of work facilitated by the developing new field of law and film, which this edited collection purports to introduce. Law and film, an interdisciplinary, culturally oriented field in the making, can be viewed as a recent offshoot of the more established and familiar disciplines law and society and law and literature. Law and film scholarship cannot yet be defined scientifically or characterized by a distinct methodology or worldview. It does, however, reflect shared fundamental assumptions concerning the central role of law and film in society. The links, analogies, and similarities between the discourses of law and film and their sociocultural functions invite some of the unique insights that can be gained from integrated analysis of these two spheres. As the chapters in this volume demonstrate, writers exploring this new field emphasize different aspects and interpretations of this common ground.


Whether offering critique or an aesthetics of activism, the analyses of film presented in these pages chart our one small piece of a large terrain ripe for scholarly inquiry. Broadening the agenda of film scholarship to compare the narrative conventions of law and film and to explore a cinematic jurisprudence allows us to understand film as an arena of legal performance that both profanes the law and, at the same time, opens up new imaginings of legality. Examining both the representational strategies and the reception of films about law allows us to see how the performances of law in that domain play out in the social and cultural worlds in which law is made and remade. Today we can no longer adequately understand those worlds, or the law situated therein, unless we follow Stewart Macaulay's injunction and become participant observers of . . . mass cultures, attending as we do to the varied and complex connections between law on the books, in action, and on the screen.

Whom To Cast

One way to think about casting is to regard each individual who appears on screen, whether as a character you're following or as someone you interview (or both), as having a job to do in the overall film. Sometimes they stand in for a particular aspect of an argument sometimes they represent an element that you could not otherwise film. For example, you could get three people to talk in general about Title IX legislation in the United States, but it might be stronger to find a lawyer who'd fought for its enforcement, a female athlete who got a college scholarship because of it, and an athletic director who opposed it out of fear that it would limit resources for his school's football program. They may each know a little bit or even a lot about each other's areas of expertise, but it muddies the storytelling if they don't stick to the part of the story that they best serve.


It's important that the overall sequence advance the larger story you're telling. If, for example, you're doing a film about Frankie working doggedly to earn a college scholarship, you might not have as much use for a sequence about Frankie going to the prom as you would for one such as Frankie gets an internship or Frankie retakes her SATs. (The latter might begin with Frankie hiring a private tutor and continue with a montage of her studying late at night and on Saturdays, getting ready to take the test, entering the test room, and end with her nervously taking the envelope,


The emergence of the women's liberation movements in the late 1960s and early 1970s had a profound impact on scholarship as well as on society. Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963) set the stage for liberation movements by detailing middle-class women's isolation, even oppression, within the suburban household. Women's roles in the antinuclear movements, such as the Aldermaston marches in the United Kingdom or SANE (Students Against Nuclear Energy) in the United States, further served as catalysts in the mid-1960s within diverse social sectors. For example, women within the male-dominated Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) began to resist their relegation to food preparation and child care, and to argue for women's rights to be included in the SDS agenda. In NUC (the New University Community), a faculty wing of SDS, pressure increased in regard to addressing women's issues, such as discriminatory employment practices, unfair divorce laws, and attention to medical and...


National Asian American Telecommunications Association (NAATA). Offers a media fund, made possible with funds from Corporate Public Broadcasting (CPB), to increase visibility of Asian-American programs on public television and the way in which Asian Americans are perceived and understood. community index.html National Black Programming Consortium. Funds, commissions, acquires, and awards talented makers of quality African-American film and video projects. Selected programs reflect a variety of subjects and production styles. NBPC funds every phase of the production process. index.php National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). An independent grant-making agency of the U.S. government dedicated to supporting research, education, and public programs in the humanities. Projects must address significant figures, events, or developments in the humanities and draw their content from humanities scholarship. Native American Public Telecommunication,...

And Continuity

Much has been written suggesting that the art of film is editing,1 and numerous filmmakers from Eisenstein to Welles to Peckinpah have tried to prove this point. However, just as much has been written suggesting that the art of film is avoidance of editing,2 and filmmakers from Renoir to Ophuls to Kubrick have tried to prove that point. No one has managed to reconcile these theoretical opposites this fascinating, continuing debate has led to excellent scholarship,3 but not to a definitive resolution. Both factions, however, work with the same fundamental unit the shot. No matter how useful a theoretical position may be, it is the practical challenge of the director and the editor to work with some number of shots to create a continuity that does not draw unnecessary attention to itself. If it does, the filmmaker and the editor have failed to present the narrative in the most effective possible manner.