I think it's important to describe the difference between narrative and dramatic writing, since both styles are interwoven throughout most monologues.
In the narrative style, a narrator (sometimes in character) tells a story. There is a great deal of background material with very detailed descriptions. Character, setting, and plot are developed in these detailed descriptions. Generally speaking, autobiographical monologues use more of the narrative style than other types of monologues.
In the dramatic style, we're shown the story in strong dramatic actions, rather than told the story. Quite often the monologist has the character start out in the middle of an action. For instance, the character may start the monologue by ranting about some issue, or appealing to the audience for something. The story is happening right there in the moment, before our eyes. While in this case there is no need to go through the beginning, middle, and end of the narrative, the piece itself still needs to have an arc to it.
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