Video Production Made Easy
There are two basic styles of video editing, one of which is about to become extinct. Still, the dinosaurs hung on for a long time after the meteor hit, so these older systems will persist. Plus, a lot of the editing terminology and concepts that were created for the older system are still used in the newer one. First, the edit-a-saurus If music video editing was the chicken, nonlinear editing was the egg. As MTV stretched its wings in New York, a fledgling company on the opposite coast was creating something just as revolutionary the Avid editing system. The Avid did for video editing what word processors did for typists. Once the footage is digitized, or loaded into the computer, the editor can arrange the shots on a time line, shifting them around at will, quickly creating new sequences and trying out ideas. Changes are accomplished with a flick of a mouse and without disturbing the rest of the program. The Avid gave editors (and the directors leaning over their shoulders)...
Griffith is the acknowledged father of film editing in its modern sense. His influence on the Hollywood mainstream film and on the Russian revolutionary film was immediate. His contributions cover the full range of dramatic construction the variation of shots for impact, including the extreme long shot, the close-up, the cutaway, and the tracking shot parallel editing and variations in pace. All of these are ascribed to Griffith. Porter might have clarified film narrative in his work, but Griffith learned how to make the juxtaposition of shots have a far greater dramatic impact than his predecessor.
With a background in theatre and design, Eisenstein attempted to translate the lessons of Griffith and the lessons of Karl Marx into a singular audience experience. Beginning with Strike (1924), Eisenstein attempted to theorize about film editing as a clash of images and ideas. The principle of the dialectic was particularly suitable for subjects related to prerevolu-tionary and revolutionary issues and events. Strikes, the 1905 revolution, and the 1917 revolution were Eisenstein's earliest subjects.
To frame Bunuel's contribution to film editing in another way, consider classic narrative storytelling as a linear progression. The plot begins with the character's achievement or final failure of achieving that goal. The plot follows the progress of the character in a linear fashion.
NB Schools are a good thing but they have their limits. Learning how to cut a film is not the same as learning that 2 plus 2 equals 4. Sometimes, in film editing, 2 plus 2 equals 3. Do you know what I mean It has to do with your ability to be inventive. Being able to cut a film it is something you either have or not. There are certain things that cannot be taught at school.
The contributions of Porter, Griffith, and Vidor to the history and practice of film editing is that they created a series of editing choices that underpinned linear narratives the close-up to articulate clearly the goal of the main character, a cutaway to provide an analogy for what the character was thinking about, and pace to provide an emotional rhythm for the clash of the main character's goal with the barriers to that goal. All these choices,
Much that has evolved in editing is applicable to both film and video. A cut from long shot to close-up has a similar impact in both media. What differs is the technology employed to make the physical cut. Steenbecks and tape-splicers are different from the off-line video players and monitors deployed in an electronic edit. Because the aesthetic choices and impacts are similar, I assume that those choices transcend differing technologies. What can be said in this context about film can also be said about video. With the proviso that the technologies differ, I assume that what can be said about the craft and art of film editing can also be said about video editing.
A book on film and video editing can be written from a number of points of view. The most literal point of view is, of course, that of the film editor, but even this option isn't as straightforward as it appears. When the Shooting Stops-.-.-.-, by Ralph Rosenblum and Robert Karen, is perhaps the most comprehensive approach to the topic by a film editor. The book is part autobiography, part editing history, and part aesthetic statement. Other editing books by film editors are strictly technical they discuss cutting room procedure, the language of the cutting room, or the mechanics of off-line editing. With the growth of high-technology editing options, the variety of technical editing books will certainly grow. This book is intended to be practical in the sense that editing an action sequence requires an appreciation of which filmic elements are necessary to make that sequence effective. Also needed is a knowledge of the evolution of editing so that the editor can make the most...
Film editing has always been nonlinear, done with tape and scissors, and its pieces cut and pasted together by hand. Before nonlinear editing, video editing was linear electronically edited in an always moving forward direction. An editor could only start at the beginning and work toward the end because of the nature of electronic recording. The traditional way of editing video has been to edit in the chronological or lineal order that shots appeared in the piece.
When I prepared the first edition of this book, most video editing was still being done using a linear process. Each edit occupied a defined space, and editing was done sequentially. If you wanted to play around with a All your sound, music, effects, and narration can also be fed into the memory, and you are then ready for action. The system then becomes film editing plus. This is because the system allows you an incredible facility for playing around instantly with all sorts of combinations of picture and sound. If you are undecided about what to do, a variety of combinations can be stored for review. Once you have made your fine-cut edit, you produce an EDL and follow the on-line procedures described earlier.
Creatively, producers became more aware of television's potential to reach an audience through innovative programming enhanced by special effects. These effects could be created through more sophisticated video editing systems and included innovative uses of texts and fonts, moving logos, digitized backgrounds, page turns, multiple pictures on a screen, and layering pictures on top of one another. At first, the costs were high and time-consuming, but by the mid-1980s, these effects became easier to produce and less costly.
In the Hollywood studio era (1920-1950), different producers performed these various functions (creative, conceptual, financial, managerial, promotional) to a greater or lesser extent. At one of the major studios (Columbia, MGM, Paramount, RKO, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal, Warner Bros.), the executive in charge of production could be creatively involved in the details of all or most of his or her company's films. This was especially the case during the 1920s, and at some studios through the 1950s, under a central producer system of production. For example, Irving Thalberg (1899-1936), the head of production at MGM from 1924 through 1932, conferred with screenwriters on script drafts, with directors on revised scripts, on the rushes shot during principal photography, and on film editing. Darryl F. Zanuck (1902-1979), the head of production at Warner Bros. through 1933 (responsible for the studio's major hits in the gangster and social problem genres such as Little Caesar, 1931 and...
Other problems of film stability appeared with time. In the 1970s, it was discovered that newer acetate films decomposed through what was termed the ''vinegar syndrome.'' Rather than turning gooey, the films became brittle and buckled, making them unprojectable. Color film was also subject to decay. While the old Technicolor films have remained relatively stable, color film stocks from the 1950s (Eastmancolor) have been subject to extreme fading, leaving prints and negatives looking pink after only two decades or less. Finally, the advent of television and video brought with it more than three dozen television and video formats that appeared and disappeared over the last forty years, making it necessary to preserve not only the electronic moving images in these formats but also the equipment that played them. For example, many two-inch quad tapes (the first videotape format from the late 1950s) can no longer be accessed because the large and cumbersome machines used to play such tapes...
Although well received critically, the studio-doctored Blade Runner was not successful in America on its first-run release -despite Harrison Ford's association with the blockbuster Star Wars (Lucas, USA, 1977). Its reputation seems to have grown since, especially since the 'director's cut' was offered, justifying regular global re-release in domestic video formats. The film may have survived long enough to benefit from a renewed taste for darker, more violent sci-fi cinema, but its appeal has less to do with a fascination for outer space (which does not feature
Because a mistake can be costly down the line, professionals recommend that projects shot in 1080i and 24P projects be edited in the NTSC video format it's easier and cheaper at the moment. The standard downconversion formats are DVCam, DVCPro, and Digital Betacam. They all share similar high-quality images, digital audio, and TC capabilities. Other formats like MiniDV and DV aren't recommended because of the problems with embedding TC that exactly
Georgina Willis is a young writer director who built an international reputation in photography before moving into film. Georgina has an Arts degree and a Masters degree from the University of Sydney. Writer producer Kerry Rock has produced a range of films, including most recently her first feature film, Watermark. With degrees in arts and commerce, Kerry also has extensive experience in writing, film editing, and marketing. www.potoroofilms.com
In 1994 director Rob Hardy and producer William Packer created Rainforest Films on the eve of the success of their first film, Chocolate City. Rainforest Films grew into a full-service film and video production company that offers a wide range of quality services, concepts, and techniques, working within both the public and private sectors, entertainment and sporting events, music videos, corporate projects, and feature films. After Chocolate City, the partners produced their spellbinding film, Trois. Remarkably, the picture was funded, produced, and distributed entirely by African Americans. In its first weekend of theatrical release on twenty-two screens, Trois earned the highest per screen average of any film in the country. It went on to generate upwards of 1.3 million at the box office in just over ninety cities. Their company motto Makin' Moves Y'all is based on their strong belief in the necessity of continual motion. Anything not moving becomes stagnant. As the rainforest has...
Grad students, returning alumni, and faculty at MIT's Media LabTM work at developing cross-media user applications. Many are Web-based and designed for easy access, and interface with all workable video formats. Much of the data presented on the Web site www.media.mit.edu is inspired by how popular technology impacts our lifestyles. The Media Lab, through its blurring of the traditional boundaries between the disciplines, and by nurturing relationships between academia and industry, is at the forefront of the new technologies that will, sooner rather than later, be a part of our daily lives.2 Cell phones, in particular, are the focus of a great deal of attention the development of synergies between cell phone capability and other media is found in the existence of Cinemaware , Emonic environment, Movits , and Shareable Media . An example of Barbara Barry's contribution to the laboratory's Media Fabrics paradigm3 supports the notion of the symbiosis of man and the products of his...
I went off to do this Warner Bros. scholarship just on a lark because I ended up winning it and I thought I'd go and see what feature filmmaking and this Hollywood thing was about. When I got there, Warner Bros. had been shut down because they had just been bought out by another corporation. Jack Warner was actually leaving the lot the day I arrived. They were making one film Finian's Rainbow, which was being directed by Francis Coppola. And they said, Well, we'll stick you on this film because all the other departments are closed down. So, I got stuck watching this movie being made, which I wasn't that interested in. I think Francis was kind of offended that I didn't have a lot of interest in what he was doing, and I told him that I wasn't really interested in this kind of filmmaking. I was just trying to get over in the animation department because it was empty. I figured if I got some short ends of film, I could go over there while nobody was around, and I could start making...
New York Prentice Hall, 1992. Murch, Walter. In the Blink ofan Eye A Perspective on Film Editing. 2nd ed. Los Angeles Silman James Press, 2001. Pinteau, Pascal. Special Effects An Oral History, Interviews with 37Masters Spanning 100 Years. New York Harry N. Abrams, 2004.
Indeed, the Soviet Union after the October Revolution would produce the key films extolling the virtues of socialism and communism these films would also become landmark contributions to the development of the cinema. Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik revolution, saw cinema as ''the most important art,'' a phrase often repeated in histories of film. Lenin thought that cinema's ability to communicate through images had an innately democratizing aspect, one crucial to the Soviet Union's numerous ethnicities and languages. This idea was intuited by the pioneers of the Soviet cinema, including Lev Kuleshov (1899-1970), whose famous ''Kuleshov experiment'' emphasized the importance of film editing by demonstrating how the interrelationship of images affected the consciousness of the spectator. The Soviet cinema for the decade following the October Revolution was among the most avant-garde in the world and established a place in artistic modernism. The key figure of the Soviet cinema, and...
A new development in the area of music scoring marries the advantages of royalty-free music with the customization of a personal composer. A handful of emerging software packages create soundtracks that are customized to your movie.These programs work in conjunction with your computer video editing program. Some even analyze the duration of your video track and create a piece of music tailored to your film. Licensing is usually a one-time fee, but producers will need to make sure that they are paying for the commercial license if they plan on selling the film that contains the royalty-free music.
Thanks to modern technology, film editing is becoming a thing of the past. This isn't to say that film is fading away, but the actual cutting and splicing of little pieces of celluloid is rapidly becoming unnecessary and cost prohibitive. Film editing will always exist. There will always be students and independent filmmakers sitting in dark rooms, running film frame by frame through a flatbed or upright editor. There will continue to be bins filled with cut-up work prints hanging over them, numbered by scene and take numbers, ready to be assembled into a continuous story. What's replacing the standard Video. Video editing systems that in the mid-1980s were an interesting novelty are now being used with regularity and soon will take over and become the new standard. In today's electronic world, computers are becoming the cheap and easy path to a finished film. Software applications such as Final Cut Pro, Avid, and Premiere all allow professional-level editing to be done in a home...
The final excerpt is from Saving Private Ryan. Although the film begins with the grandfatherly Private Ryan visiting the Normandy Beach gravesite with his children and grandchildren, the bulk of the film takes place on June 6, 1944, and the few days following. The main character is Captain John Miller (Tom Hanks). The D-Day landing on the beach is the sequence we will focus on. Following this sequence, Captain Miller will be given the assignment to find Private Ryan, whose three brothers have died on the beach. General George Marshall has ordered Private Ryan be returned to his family as he is their only living son. The trouble is, he has parachuted behind enemy lines. To find him will jeopardize the members of Captain Miller's 251 platoon. Is it worth it This is the struggle for the main character, and in the end he will choose to sacrifice his life to save Private Ryan. The D-Day sequence is 24 minutes long and its intent is to put us, the viewer, on the beach and feel the danger,...
Academy Awards Winner - Honorary Award for William Cameron Menzies (for outstanding achievement in the use of colour for the enhancement of dramatic mood in the production of Gone with the Wind), Best Picture (David O. Selznick), Best Actress (Vivien Leigh), Best Art Direction (Lyle R. Wheeler), Best Colour Cinematography (Ernest Haller and Ray Rennahan), Best Director (Victor Fleming), Best Film Editing (Hal C. Kern and James E. Newcom), Best Supporting Actress (Hattie McDaniel), Best Writing, Screenplay (Sidney Howard) and a Technical Achievement Award (Don Musgrave) 'for pioneering in the use of coordinated equipment in the production' Nomination -Best Actor (Clark Gable)
Screen (begun in 1969), founded by the Society for Education in Film and Television, was noted by the mid-1970s for its important articles on realism, formalism and poststructuralism, theories of ideology, aesthetics, and approaches to semiotics and pyschoanalysis. The journal, which published the first English-language translations of key texts by important theorists including Christian Metz, Roland Barthes, and Bertolt Brecht, inspired publications such as The Australian Journal of Screen Theory (1976-1985) and indeed gave rise to the term ''screen theory.'' Cahiers du Cinema was the other major journal to have had a lasting impact on film studies. Established in 1951 by Andre Bazin, this French journal (available additionally in English for just twelve issues from 1966 to 1967), was responsible for publishing not just debates regarding the politique des auteurs, but crucial discussions on film editing and mise-en-scene. Its writers included Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard, and...
You may not want to commit to a formal internship, but you do want real-world experience. Most cities and towns have local video production companies and TV stations where you can volunteer your services in exchange for a chance to be part of the action and learn in the process. Often colleges and universities with TV and film departments have bulletin boards on which students can post notices about their up-coming projects that you might be able to work on for more experience. You can also post your own notice, offering your services.
Corporate donors want to be able to give to something for which they get a tax credit, Diana explains. In this case I approached a few nonprofit entities for their support in the project as a sponsor and really couldn't get anybody to understand what it was I was trying to do. West Virginia is not a hotbed of film and video production, so the whole concept of a fiscal sponsorship was foreign. I was turned down several times and then I went to Marshall University, which is the school from which I graduated, and talked to them about it. Coincidentally, Reverend Sullivan was coming in to speak during Black History Month, and the senior vice president and assistant to the president went to hear him speak. I told them we were taping the presentation because we wanted to get to the point where we could do a documentary about Reverend Sullivan's life. The senior vice president was so inspired by the reverend's message that day that after the event he came up to say, 'What can we do to help...
In most cases, it is sufficient to shoot using established practices for video production. It is valid to say that the quality of a film print will be indirectly proportional to the quality of the video source material. When shooting the video, use the full dynamic range available and avoid crushing the blacks or clipping white areas of the scene. Ensure that the camera clip levels for each color are set the same.
There are many different video formats available for recording video. These include the Vi consumer and 3A industrial formats, up to the 1 composite and D-l component professional formats. The former ( i, 3 ) ) are generally not suitable for transfer to film because they lack the necessary bandwidth and do not have the required
Most likely, the smaller films you encounter will first be shot on digital video format, then transferred to 35 mm film, or shot in DV and left in that format for distribution. In Indie terms, the former way is customary, and the latter seems to be the current trend. Why It is cheaper in the long run, and the quality is excellent. A working understanding of digital video format is another important aspect of an art director's learning curve. As a sculptor chooses a particular medium to optimally express an idea in 3D volume, a cinema artist must choose the proper digital medium to translate the tone of the screenplay. Truth in choosing a medium is just as important as how a story is told.
Not Know What It Is I Am Like 1986 , The Reflecting Pool 1977-1979 ). The special effects available to the video artist include electronic distortions of sound and image. Viola records sound simultaneously with the image, but he frequently slows both tracks down to create slightly distorted soundscapes. Sadie Benning (b. 1973) is one of many artists who uses a children's video format (Pixelvision) to capture low-definition images with a very shallow depth of field to create intimate, personal effects. In the 1970s the technology lent itself to a minimalist aesthetic, using real time to record performances, but as the technology evolved so did the range of subjects, styles, and effects. Because video is technologically so closely connected to the cultural institutions of broadcast television, many video artists engage not only with the formal properties of the medium, but also with its affinities with TV. The tapes made by the director Jean-Luc Godard (b. 1930) with Anne-Marie Mi ville...
When Jim Machin started R.duke Productions in 1988 as a director and videographer, he spent sixth months on an extensive marketing campaign that included eight-hour days of making phone calls to prospective clients and sending out hundreds of letters and postcards. One morning, he looked at his contact list and realized he had made every initial and follow-up call he could without having landed a single job.
Not many critics, in the 1970s or 1990s, appear to support James' reverence for the symbolic value of Willie Dynamite. And though a younger, contemporary audience has rediscovered the film on video format, the movie's popularity comes from the humor found in its outdated styles and attitudes, and not from any breakthrough insight into society's economic structure.
Since most storyboards are done in black and white, the artist should be well versed in pencil techniques as well as pen-and-ink and marker. The best storyboard artists may be paid up to 2,000 a week in town and more if they are asked to leave home for any period of time. But don't expect to jump right in to these highly coveted assignments. It all takes work and perseverance and more work. Your best bet to begin is by contacting commercial or video production facilities, as well as film houses, since all three use storyboard artists. Any credit is a good credit, and credits are what people look for.
Continuity editing is a system of joining shots together to create the illusion of a continuous and clear narrative action. When a scene is broken up into a sequence of shots for the purpose of achieving greater dramatic emphasis in mainstream narrative films, the shots are usually reconnected smoothly so that viewers do not notice the cut or lose their orientation in screen space. This is often achieved by using matches or match cuts. Some of the common kinds of match or continuity cuts are defined below. For a comprehensive discussion of the techniques of continuity editing, see chapter 14, Editing the Picture, in Karel Reisz and Gavin Millar, The Technique of Film Editing, from which I have drawn the following definitions.
Unlike most other filmmakers in this book, Les's production company is a part-time venture, not a full-time job. Thus, he doesn't have to worry about generating a substantial income from the company in order to make a living. This is certainly a viable way to start a company, especially if you have a lot of financial obligations. Like most other filmmakers in this book, he has branched into commercial and video production, which he offers under a subcompany to separate it from his creative work.
Since the 1990s video has become increasingly enmeshed with computer technologies, with a variety of repercussions on film practices. So-called digital cinema effectively combines techniques of film and video, further blurring their differences. Films can be shot on film or video and transferred to different formats for editing and distribution. Digital editing is now the dominant mode of film editing. Editing programs available for home computers have once again democratized the means of media production. Because digital information can be combined and manipulated seamlessly, digitization of music, sound effects, artwork, photography, and computer-generated special effects enables a convergence of media, and thus has become an important part of the postproduction stage of filmmaking.
It is quite a trick to hold a camera steady. It is still the mark of a practiced and professional videographer. However, the little gnomes who design electronic circuitry have given us some help over the years, by designing electronic image stabilizers into video cameras. The image stabilizer works by comparing each frame of video with the previous one. If the new one is slightly shifted to one side, indicating that the camera was jiggled a little, the computer corrects the image and shoves
Naturally, every video format has its own style of camcorder. If you are in a studio setup, you can use any kind of camera, and the format choice boils down to what kind of videotape recorder you want to record the footage on. These days, the consumer video market has settled (for the moment) on Digital Video shot on miniDV cassettes. The prosumer market has also gone digital, using miniDV or DVCam cassettes. Professional cameramen are mostly shooting BetaSP. The choice of format is primarily a financial one, with better formats costing more money, but it also depends on where you want to edit. If you are planning to upload the footage into your Mac, miniDV will be easier to deal with. If, however, you are taking your footage into a professional edit suite, they will be much happier if it shows up on BetaSP, because they will have the right deck to play your footage into their computer.
When not shooting, you can walk around with a cardboard cutout of the aspect ratio you will be shooting in (television 16-mm video format, or 35-mm format), viewing the world through this restricted frame. I made one for Kazan and he used it during the filming of The Visitors (1972). Better still is a director's viewfinder, in which you can change the focal length. They are expensive, but if you can manage somehow to acquire one it is an invaluable tool for visualization. It is comforting to have a director of photography who has a great eye, but the DP's main function is to light, a huge job in itself. Choosing the frame comes under the director's job description, and it goes to the heart of what a film director is so start seeing.
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How To Create Your Own Video Product
Now YOU Can Finally Learn All the ins and outs of Creating Your Own Video awhile about creating your own video products.