World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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Lesson of World War II

The years during and following World War II witnessed a considerable improvement in the social status of America's minorities. Their contributions to the war effort, through military service and war-related work on the home front, proved invaluable. More than 2.5 million black men served in the military. Approximately 500,000 Mexican American troops also participated and earned medals (DeLeon 116). Other minorities served as well, while females from these diverse groups actively volunteered at home. Consequently, support for the civil rights ofAmerican minorities grew. In the war's aftermath, knowledge of the extent of Hitler's genocidal campaign intensified positive interest in the rights of minorities. This was quite a reversal of prior attitudes. Mexicans, for example, were believed to be a vastly inferior ethnic group. During congressional hearings on Mexican immigration in 1930, one eugenicist claimed that most Mexicans were promiscuous, lazy, hungry dogs who wallowed in human...

American Films About Children Before World War Ii

As Kathy Merlock Jackson pointed out in her pioneering study of children in film, movies have tended to present two divergent images of children the wild ones who need to be tamed, and the innocents who need to be protected. In Hollywood movies before World War II, and especially before the 1930s, the prevalent image of children tended toward the innocents. However, child actors did not receive star billing before Jackie Coogan appeared in The Kid in 1921, and thus films were rarely centered around child characters, except those featuring adults in children's roles. With the rise of Coogan's career, a few other child stars emerged, and the studios began making films that gave a more persistent image of children they were precious and precocious, eager to fix problems in the small world around them, and wise beyond their years. Such qualities were on display in the films of Baby Peggy (The Darling of New York, 1923 Captain January, 1924), Virginia Grey (1917-2004) (Uncle Tom's Cabin,...

Films about the German navy during the First World

During the Weimar period, there were at least seven navy films that dealt with the First World War.2 With the exception of 1928 and 1931, one film was released every year featuring the illustrious adventures of the German high seas fleet Die versunkene Flotte (1926), Unsere Emden (1926), U9 Weddigen (1927), Drei Tage auf Leben und Tod (1929), Scapa Flow (1930), Kreuzer Emden (1932) and Morgenrot (1933). In addition to German navy films, a number of foreign navy films were also released in Germany - the best known are U-boot in Gefahr (1926), Mare Nostrum (US 1926 27), Die Seeschlachten bei Coronel und den Falklandinseln (GB 1928), Submarine (US 1929) and Blockade und U-bootkrieg (GB 1930).

German film industry during the First World

The outbreak of the First World War gave a new impulse to the development of a national film industry. Germany closed its borders to its enemies, gradually putting most of its competitors in the film industry out of business,22 after a brief initial period when all kinds of exceptions crossed the border.23 The Kinematograph reported on the new situation as follows

World War Ii And Aftermath

World War II brought the War Information Office, a collaboration between the US government and Hollywood that produced not only newsreels that functioned as propaganda for the Allied effort, but also a variety of fiction and nonfiction films that portrayed the Axis powers as monstrous while overlooking entirely the economic origins of the war. War films such as Bataan (1943) were allowed a surprising amount of sanctioned and savage violence because they demonized the evil Jap. Postwar films such as The Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) portrayed violence as rather bloodless and painless as they lionized sacrificial violence and heroism at the time, this was Hollywood's standard approach to the subject. The war years saw changes within other genres too, such as the crime film. Raoul Walsh's High Sierra (1941) took on the PCA by portraying the gangster as a hero of the people who sympathized with victims of the Great Depression. The gun violence of the alienated gangster in High Sierra was...

The World War Ii Combat Film

As mentioned above, the most frequently depicted war in Hollywood films is World War II, and the most popular form of the World War II war movie has been the combat film. This subgenre became so popular that it in turn influenced ways of telling stories in westerns, science fiction, and other generic wars. Important titles include Ford's They Were Expendable (1945), with John Wayne Wyler's Battleground (1949) The Longest Day, an epic recreation of D-Day Fuller's The Big Red One and Spielberg's Saving Private Ryan, a movie that inspired a new spate of World War II movies. Many World War II combat films contain the story elements found in Bataan a group that is a democratic ethnic and religious mixture a hero who is part of the group, but who is forced to separate himself in order to be a good leader a specific objective to be met a specific enemy and recognized military equipment and costume. The basic narrative conventions of hero, group, and objective of the World War II combat genre...

Postworld War I

The most salient feature of post-World War I France for future film scholars was the coalescence of the film culture around France's first cine philes and first avant-garde. Inspired by the influx of Hollywood films, a generation of young intellectuals took an interest in the cinema. An avant-garde sensibility emerged, championed by the journalist turned director, Louis Delluc (1890-1924), that had a profound influence on the development of cinema as a national art form, most notably on the New Wave in the post-World War II era. Although Delluc died in 1924, he gave his name to a prestigious prize for best film, and his writing influences French thought and film scholarship to this day. By the end of the 1920s, French cinema had recovered from the effects of World War I. Though the battle with Hollywood at the international box office had been lost, French cinema had acquired the position of a national art form that was distinct from the entertainments produced for the masses....

World War Ii

World War II began in 1939 and lasted until 1945. Dividing the world between the Axis Powers Germany, Italy and Japan and the Allies, led by the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, it was fought over numerous theaters in Western and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Africa and the Middle East, and the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. The war ended in Europe with the surrender of Germany on 8 May 1945 and in Asia when Japan surrendered on 15 August of the same year. More than fifty million people died during World War II as the consequence of geno-cidal acts such as the Holocaust, the US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the war's many military confrontations the bloodiest taking place on the Pacific and European fronts. The new technologies of war atomic weaponry, jet aircraft, radar contributed to World War II's effects on both military and civilian populations. Film technologies and film cultures likewise played significant roles. Although films were made during...

Anarchists and adventurers

Insisting that America was once again 'standing tall', Ronald Reagan crushed Walter Mondale at the presidential elections in November 1984, winning every state in the nation except Minnesota and the District of Columbia. One left-wing British filmmaker who was then a rising star in Hollywood, Alex Cox, chose to avoid the Republican celebrations by heading south to visit Nicaragua during its first democratic elections. Since 1981, Reagan's efforts to overthrow the left-wing Sandinista government had made Nicaragua the focus of his campaign to 'roll back communism' in Central America. The CIA and private American bodies had spent millions of dollars training and supplying the opposition militia, the Contras. Beginning in 1983, the National Security Council's Office of Public Diplomacy had conducted a multi-million-dollar propaganda initiative inside the United States, projecting an image of the Contras as democratic freedom fighters in the mould of America's Founding Fathers and the...

The Critical Scene Today And Tomorrow

Environment to terrorism and the ever-present threat of nuclear war. The Hollywood product reflects a culture beset by endless noise, the commodification of sex, and the constant distractions of junk culture. In such a scenario, the modest and marginalized discipline of film criticism might yet again play an active role.

Film Genre Society And History

The early part of the twentieth century had seen social upheavals in Germany with continuing industrialization, high unemployment, an authoritarian government and defeat in the First World War. These issues were reflected in this film with its portrayal of an unjust, divided class society and a ruthless dictatorship. Distrust of authority and its misuse are key themes throughout Metropolis. The huge technological advances being made at the time created uncertainty for many and did not augur well for the future, and a fear of the future was the result of these rapid changes. This film reflects those fears about the potential of technology, especially when it is in the hands of an authoritarian government. This is a film which dealt with contemporary issues and fears. Science and technology had made awesome advances in the study and use of the atom, with the resultant threats of nuclear war and exposure to radiation. These fears were given added urgency as the 'Cold War' was well under...

Postwar Transformations And Beyond

Post-World War II cinema focused on more contemporary biographical subjects and on the audience as consumers of popular culture and displayed a more overt reflexivity about its identity as historical spectacle. One direction for the biopic dealt with the lives of entertainers, particularly musicians, and sports figures, as The Babe Ruth Story (1948), The Great Caruso (1950), With a Song in My Heart (1952), The Glenn Miller Story (1953), and The Man of a Thousand Faces (1957), about the actor Lon Chaney (1883-1930). The Great Caruso followed a chronological trajectory to underscore Caruso's natural genius, portraying his gradual rise to fame as a vindication of his talent in the face of social class distinctions and economic obstacles. The identification of the aspiring

Early Television and Commerce

Television as an industry began with the radio. At the end of World War I, General Electric joined forces with three powerful companies AT&T, Westinghouse, and United Fruit to form a company known as RCA. The purpose of the alliance was to manufacture and sell radio receiver sets. Although the original company eventually unraveled, RCA survived as an independent company, buying out all the assets of Marconi's company.

The Influence Of Bazin And Auteurism

Following World War II, a new generation of critics challenged the definition of film artistry posited by early theorists and historians, embracing cinematic realism and expanding the orthodox canon. Such writers as Andre Bazin (1918-1958) and Roger Leenhardt (1903-1985) located the essence of cinema in its capacity to record, preferring an aesthetic that respected the specificity, continuity, and ambiguity of the world in front of the camera rather than one that transformed it. Where earlier critics attempted to define cinema as a unique art form, Bazin described it as an impure art, acknowledging its links with theater and literature. Bazin celebrated the cinema of the 1930s and 1940s, elevated the reputation

Federico Fellini b Rimini Italy January d October

When World War II ended, Fellini wrote important neorealist screenplays, including Roberto Rossellini's Roma, citta aperta (Open City, 1945) work that earned him his first Academy Award nomination, Paisa (Paisan, 1946) and L'Amore (Ways of Love, 1948), which contains Il miracolo'' ( The Miracle'') Alberto Lattuada's Senzapieth (Without Pity, 1948) and Pietro Germi's LI Cammino della speranza (The Path of Hope, 1950). Subsequently, Fellini launched a series of major works dealing with Italian provincial life that won him international fame, including Lo Sceicco bianco (The White Sheik, 1952), La Strada (The Road, 1954), and Le Notti di Cabiria (The Nights of Cabiria, 1957). The last two films won Oscars for Best Foreign Language Film. Shortly thereafter, Fellini completed one of the most successful of all postwar European films, La Dolce Vita (The Sweet Life, 1959), his first collaboration with actor Marcello Mastroianni. The film's title became synonymous everywhere and in numerous...

Movies Arent The Only Influence

As the decades passed, the early pioneers gave way to the journeymen of the thirties, forties, and fifties, who themselves had been raised on watching movies. The fifties, sixties, and seventies had exposed post-World War II arrivals not only to moviemaking but also to the wonders of television. Finally, by the eighties and onward, the worlds of cable and the Internet became reality. American entertainment, mostly headquartered in

The Films of Robert Altman

20, 1925, in Kansas City, Missouri, to B. C. and Helen Altman. He entered a Catholic school at age six and spent a short time at a Catholic high school before moving on to Rockhurst High School. He attended Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri, through junior college, before enlisting in the Air Force in 1945, where he became a B-24 pilot in World War II. After his military discharge he did some writing mostly magazine stories, radio scripts, and some film treatments before landing in Kansas City making industrial films for the Calvin Company. After making his first feature film, The Delinquents, in 1957, he moved to California and began directing television series episodes such as Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Combat, and Bonanza. His big break came with the 1970 release of M*A*S*H. Although he had directed other films, he was not the producers first choice fifteen other directors had turned the project down before it was finally given to Altman. The film won over...

Busby Berkeley b William Berkeley Enos Los Angeles California November d March

Berkeley conducted drills for the army during World War I and trained as an aerial observer two experiences that clearly shaped his approach to dance on film, in which the chorines are deployed in symmetrical patterns and manipulate props rather than execute traditional dance steps. After the war Berkeley gained a reputation as a Broadway choreographer, which in1930 led to an invitation from Sam Goldwyn to direct the musical sequences of Whoopee , starring Eddie Cantor. In The Indian Dance'' sequence of the film, Berkeley shot the Goldwyn Girls from overhead, creating an abstract, kaleidoscopic effect a technique that would become his most famous trademark.

Televisions Golden Age the s

The 1950s has justifiably been called The Golden Age of Television. With the end of World War II, the economy had recovered and stabilized, and television had become so popular that magazines regularly featured articles on home decorating with the TV set as the centerpiece. The dining room table had been replaced by frozen dinners on a TV tray, and TV Guide, launched in 1953, was on the coffee table.

Cinema Under Fascism The Advent Of Sound And The Increase Of National Production

From 1922 to 1943, over 700 films were produced, most not really fascist films at all but primarily entertainment. Indeed, the fascist regime admired the Hollywood model, not the totalitarian cinemas controlled by dictators in Germany and Russia. When it desired pro-regime propaganda, Mussolini's government relied on radio and short filmed documentaries prepared by LUCE (the Union of Cinematographic Education) and screened with the feature films designed for entertainment. Even in wartime, Italy averaged some 72 films annually between 1939 and 1944, a figure that gives some idea of the large local market for film and its role as popular entertainment. When the Italian industry nearly collapsed after World War I, Italian movie theaters (numbering at one point some 3,000 theaters) were forced to show only foreign films, a situation that was intolerable Outside of Italy, little was known of Italian cinema during the fascist period, and this ignorance encouraged the erroneous idea abroad...

Historical Origins Of Italian Neorealism

With the fall of Mussolini's Fascist regime in 1943 and the end of World War II, international audiences were suddenly introduced to Italian films through a few noteworthy works by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977), Vittorio De Sica (1902-1974), and Luchino Visconti (1906-1976). Italian directors, newly freed from Fascist censorship, were able to merge a desire for cinematic realism (a tendency already present during the Fascist period) with social, political, and economic themes that would never have been tolerated by the regime. Neorealist films often took a highly critical view of Italian society and focused attention upon glaring social problems, such as the effects of the Resistance and the war, postwar poverty, and chronic unemployment. Continuing a trend toward realism that had already been initiated during the Fascist period by prewar directors such as Alessandro Blasetti (1900-1987), Augusto Genina (1892-1957), and Francesco De Robertis (1902-1959), these new postwar faces...

Decline And Reinvention

Romantic comedy declined in popularity and quality during World War II. The screwball cycle ended in the early 1940s, though several directors kept working at it. The most successful of these was Preston Sturges, whose films pushed the farcical side of screwball to the limit. The Lady Eve features a protagonist (Henry Fonda) so blinded by love that he marries the same woman (Barbara Stanwyck) three times without knowing it. The Miracle of Morgan's Creek (1944) took madcap comedy to a level beyond screwball and managed to become a box-office hit despite dealing with the sensitive subject of wartime promiscuity. The screwball cycle was clearly over by the time of Unfaithfully Yours (1948), in which Sturges depicts adultery not as an adventure but as a spur to fantasies of murder and revenge. Five romantic comedies featuring Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy (1900-1967) Woman of the Year (1942), State of the Union (1948), Adam's Rib (1949), Pat and Mike (1952), and Desk Set (1957) took...

When Marilyn went off message

Before examining the USIA's race-related documentaries, we should first ask why the agency actually needed to produce such films at all why, that is, the government could not rely on Hollywood to do the job for it. After all, several historians have written of the symbiotic relationship that developed between the State Department and Hollywood during the Cold War. This relationship was built on links dating back to the 1920s, and saw the two bodies working together as natural allies to capture foreign film markets for political and commercial gain. In the years following the Second World War, Hollywood began to depend increasingly heavily on overseas audiences to help offset the decline in domestic cinema attendance, caused by the arrival of television and other leisure activities. The State Department's help in navigating tariff and tax barriers was therefore vital. Indeed, without Washington's muscle, in the 1950s, when roughly half of their annual revenue came from exports, many...

The Cold War Comes To Hollywood

Strangelove, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), begins here. Mann's camera ogles the lines and curves of the B-47 that Stewart (a real-life bomber pilot) gets to fly (with the new family of nuclear weapons, a B-47 with a crew of three carries the destructive power of the entire B-29 forces used in World War II). Dutch's eventual commitment to the Strategic Air Command seems to suggest that his plane is sexier than the starched, maternal Allyson. At first, Hollywood reacted to the Cold War much like Dutch, when he was asked to stop playing ball and start practicing bomb runs. After years of turning out war propaganda, a policy the movies embraced before the government (e.g., Confessions of a Nazi Spy, Anatole Litvak, 1939), the studios felt they had done their share and believed that audiences wanted Technicolor musical escapism or film noir romantic agonies rather than more gray, grim, depressing privation-leads-to-victory stories. If anything,...

Mowus Plot Synopsis And Themes

The film begins in Florida, shortly after World War II. Alicia (Ingrid Bergman) is the daughter of a Nazi agent who has just been imprisoned for his treasonous activities. Disillusioned by her father, Alicia has become notorious in her own right for her sexual promiscuity. She is recruited by Devlin (Cary Grant), a U.S. intelligence agent who knows that she strongly disapproved of her father's activities, to undertake a secret mission in Brazil to uncover the activities of a Nazi cell whose members are still plotting world domination. Devlin and Alicia (the spy couple)

Speaking of Bumps in the Road

The situation is a perfect hideout for fugitive Cameron (Steve Railsback, generally known as a TV actor), who is both aided and endangered by a maniacal director portrayed nastily enough by Peter O'Toole. The term sudden death takes on a new meaning as this new stuntman endures the perilous feats he is asked to perform on the World War I epic being shot. The life of a stuntman is revealed as he earns his living and eventually falls in love with the leading lady. The Stunt Man is an early example of a meta-movie, a movie that mocks the making of movies and it does it very well. This film itself took nine years to shoot in part because the director, Richard Rush, suffered a heart attack during production.

Glorifying the Collective

Both Tag Gallagher and Slotkin make a connection between Ford's post-World War II Westerns and British Empire films. Gallagher calls Wee Willie Winkie one of Ford's most important prewar films in part because like virtually every postwar picture it studies militarist ethos (141). While Slotkin draws attention to formulaic similarities between The Charge of the Light Brigade and Fort Apache the border outpost, the regiment fighting a savage foe, the dance scene, the massacre, and the fatal charge he primarily compares Fort Apache to platoon movies because both feature initiation stories with new recruits, and both portray a melting pot ideal of American society by having different ethnicities within the ranks (GunfighterNation 336-37). He comments on the significant role of women in Fort Apache as another creative possibility made

News Talk As Entertainment And Politics McLaughlin and King

In the early 1990s a number of television talk-show hosts rose to national prominence by combining news, public affairs, and entertainment in new or recycled talk-show formats. These hosts continued the pattern, begun in the 1980s, of narrowing the distance between news and entertainment, sometimes blurring the distinction entirely. Two of the most prominent of the news entertainment talk-show hosts during this period were John McLaughlin and Larry King, and 1992 proved to be a significant year for each. This was the year that talk shows became one of the principal forums for all three candidates in the national Presidential elections Republican incumbent George Bush, Democratic challenger Bill Clinton, and third-party Presidential candidate Ross Perot. Presidential candidates appeared regularly in entertainment talk as well as on news shows. Bush, Perot, Clinton, and Democratic Vice Presidential candidate Al Gore appeared on the David Letterman, Arsenio Hall, and Jay Leno shows. Bill...

Depression And The War Years

Grierson understood the potential of documentary cinema to affect the political views of the nation and its people, a view shared by other film-producing nations such as Germany and post-Revolutionary Russia. During World War II many governments relied on the propaganda value of documentary film. Already by the late 1930s, filmmaking in both Japan and Germany had come under government control. In Great Britain, where Grierson's Film Unit had evolved into the Crown Film Unit, documentaries helped boost morale on the home front, particularly with the poetic approach of Humphrey Jennings (1907-1950) in such films as Fires Were Started (1943) and A Diary for Timothy (1945), which presented rich humanist tapestries of the British people during wartime.

Postwar Sexuality On Film

World War II helped shift attitudes toward and portrayals of sexuality in the United States and western Europe. Cheesecake photography of women helped remind GIs of what they were fighting for.'' Members of the armed forces were given explicit education (including films) about sexually transmitted diseases. Roles for women in the workforce expanded to include what had been traditionally considered masculine jobs. Wartime demands for personnel even led military and civilian leaders to tacitly overlook the existence of homosexuality in the ranks or in the workforce. With the end of the war, though, there was a concerted effort to bring society back to pre-war notions of sexuality. Social pressures were placed on women to return to the role of homemaker, for example, and homosexuality was once again deemed a mental illness and a criminal act. Yet the 1950s saw increasing challenges to these attempts. While a baby boom'' erupted in the United States after the war, divorce rates also grew...

James Whale b Dudley Worcestershire England July d

Whale started as a newspaper cartoonist in England before joining the service during World War I, and began acting in a German prisoner-of-war camp. He continued his stage career after the war, moving into set design and eventually directing. A hit play brought him to the United States in the late 1920s, and the talkie revolution brought him to Hollywood. Whale signed with Universal in 1931 to direct an adaptation of the stage play Waterloo Bridge, and he followed that project with Frankenstein. Whale himself cast the lead roles, selecting Colin Clive to play Dr. Frankenstein and a little-used Universal contract player, Boris Karloff, for the monster. The casting of Karloff was truly inspired, as the lanky, low-key British actor brought both menace and pathos to the role, thus creating a screen icon and a crucial genre convention the monster as both sympathetic outcast and as rampaging beast. Karloff became one of Universal's contract stars and, along with Bela Lugosi, defined the...

Hollywood And The Left

World War II caused Hollywood to take complex political turns. Because the Soviet Union was allied with the United States in fighting Nazism, the film industry, working with the Office of War Information, made films that burnished Stalin's image and even helped justify his purges of many of the original supporters of the October Revolution. The most famous and rather bizarre example is Mission to Moscow (Michael Curtiz, 1943), about the globetrotting of Ambassador Joseph Davies that becomes a paean to Stalin as ally. After World War II, the Hollywood studios would renounce such films while helping the government condemn various directors, screenwriters, and producers as part of an international communist plot. In the climate of the Cold War, members of the film community were called before the House Un-American Activities Committee, which aimed to root out suspected communists but also to roll back the pro-union, pro-socialist activity of the Great Depression as well as delegitimate...

American Conquest Australian Resistance To

During World War I, the first American film exchanges in Australia opened, and they consolidated their control throughout the 1920s. With the exception of Hercules McIntyre at Universal, who financed a number of films directed by Charles Chauvel (1897-1959), including In the Wake of the Bounty (1933), Forty Thousand Horsemen (1940), and Sons of Matthew (1949), the American companies showed little interest in Australian films and production was sporadic. Consequently, many Australians, such as Louise Carbasse (1895-1980), who achieved stardom as Louise Lovely, the swimmer Annette Kellerman (18871975), John Gavin, Snub Pollard (1889-1962), Billy Bevan (1887-1957), Arthur Shirley (1887-1967), and Clyde Cook (1891-1984) enjoyed success in Hollywood. Although strong patriotic feelings during World War I encouraged the production of propaganda films such as The Hero of the Dardanelles (1915), Within Our Gates, or Deeds That Won Gallipoli (1915), and The Martyrdom of Nurse Cavell (1916), the...

Sam Peckinpah b Fresno California February d December

Ride the High Country (1962), only his second western, is a melancholy meditation on the fading of the American West's heroes and villains, a topic that was a Peckinpah obsession. Major Dundee (1965) was Peckinpah's first attempt to bring to the screen, in the form of a gritty postCivil War western, his hard-bitten sense of the violent world of men. The film made him a Hollywood pariah for several years. He returned with The Wild Bunch (1969), his most famous film and his bloodiest. About a gang of aging outlaws fighting a last stand on the Texas-Mexico border at the outbreak of World War I, The Wild Bunch made full use of Peckinpah's interest in a realistic portrayal of screen violence. Peckinpah photographed battle scenes with multiple cameras at various speeds in the final edit, the film's violent scenes clearly owe a debt to Sergei Eisenstein. Yet Peckinpah's emphasis on the explosive squib to simulate a bullet's impact on the body was fairly unprecedented, as was his sense of the...

Preface to the English edition

Why is the Second World War taken as a break The fact is that, in Europe, the post-war period has greatly increased the situations which we no longer know how to react to, in spaces which we no longer know how to describe. These were 'any spaces whatever', deserted but inhabited, disused warehouses, waste ground, cities in the course of demolition or reconstruction. And in these any-spaces-whatever a new race of characters was stirring, kind of mutant they saw rather than acted, they were seers. Hence Rossellini's great trilogy, Europe 57, Stromboli, Germany YearO a child in the destroyed city, a foreign woman on the island, a bourgeoise woman who starts to 'see' what is around her. Situations could be extremes, or, on the contrary, those of everyday banality, or both at once what tends to collapse, or at least to lose its position, is the sensory-motor schema which constituted the action-image of the old cinema. And thanks to this loosening of the sensory-motor linkage, it is time,...

Assimilation and Separatism in Anthony Manns Devils Doorway

Devil's Doorway functions as a drama of reintegration and subsequent disintegration, in which a returning war veteran disrupts the already uneasy balance of power in his home community, and deeply gendered representations of home become destabilized by racially motivated violence. The film has been discussed as an allegory for early civil rights that avoided offending conservative audiences or drawing the attention of the Hays Office and the House Committee on Un-American Activities, but it also resonates with the problems facing returning Native American veterans after World War II, including references to poor reservation conditions, chronic local prejudice, racist and outmoded government supervision, land use crises, and, most important, a federal assault on tribal lands, sovereignty, and treaty rights.1 Although ideas about social tolerance and the United States as a liberating force in World War II deeply affected literary and media representations of Native Americans, tropes of...

Jack Paar and Tonight

Working out of WGAR in Cleveland, he was the youngest announcer on the CBS network.36 It was as a monologist and stand-up comedian that he first began to make a national name for himself. He became more widely known when his stand-up comedy act for troops in the specialservices entertainment division during World War II received a glowing review in Esquire. He had a series of acting roles in Hollywood after that and a television guest appearance in the early 1950s that got good reviews. CBS signed him as host of its morning show to compete with Dave Garroway's Today. Paar started the morning show with a salary of 200,000 a year, an enormous sum at that time and an indication of his perceived worth to the network.

Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting

Yet it was Asian martial arts that really caused a stir upon their introduction into American films in the postwar era. American GIs returning from Asia and the increased Asian presence in the US following the liberalization of the Immigration Act of 1965 began the spread of martial arts across the country. Films like White Heat (1949) and The Crimson Kimono (1959) drew the connection between the GIs' encounter with Asia and the importation of martial arts into the US. But it was Bad Day at Black Rock (1955) that clearly established both the Asian connection with martial arts and the image of a one-armed man easily dispatching opponents bigger and stronger than he. One might argue that this World War II veteran, so memorably portrayed by Spencer Tracy, in turn influenced the famous disabled warriors of the Japanese and Chinese martial arts cinema. Later, Bruce Lee, teaching Hollywood celebrities his evolving kung fu style in the 1960s, memorably introduced the Chinese martial arts...

Hollywood and the Cold War militaryindustrial complex

Ever since the 1920s, the US armed services had shown themselves to be more than willing to offer logistical help with film productions that portrayed their activities positively. This suited both parties movie producers got access to military bases and equipment, while the military benefited from free adver-tising.9 During the 1930s, some of the biggest names behind and on screen owed their fame at least in part to movies made with the cooperation of the armed services. The director Frank Capra, for example, collaborated on a trilogy of films with the US Navy and Marines Submarine (1928), Flight (1929) and Dirigible (1931). The actors Jimmy Cagney and Pat O'Brien established their popular screen partnership with the help of the same services in Lloyd Bacon's Here Comes the Navy (1934) and Devil Dogs of the Air (1935).10 'I have never found such a group of wholehearted, willing, patriotic people trying to do something for the government,' Colonel K. B. Lawton, chief of the Army...

Sentinel Production

Damaged Goods was made into a film in 1914 and the next four years saw a huge rise in simila movies about the same subject. Meanwhile, public awareness of the scourge of venereal disease was also increasing. Towards the end of the First World War, a series of documentary filnr dealing with syphilis, originally made for the US Army, were released to the general public. These created a massive backlash and caused a sea change in the opinion of critics and censors. The problem was not so much that the films were overtly graphic, but that they stressed that everyone, irrespective of nationality, class or creed, was at risk of contracting the disease. The implication that the ruling classes were as likely as the lower orders to put themselves at risk by engaging in illicit sexual activity was considered outrageous and the censors reacted by indiscriminately banning all films related to venereal disease. Before long, a small group of men saw the business potential of screening sucl movies...

Historical Imaginary or Rebranding the Nation

Put in more particular terms, the cinema in Europe can be a case for testing contemporary articulations of the nation. First, because among modern imaging technologies, the cinema has had the longest track record. Films have, at least since World War I, been variously credited with or blamed for providing a powerful instrument of persuasion and propaganda, usually on behalf of reaffirming a sense of national identity, by furnishing suitably hateful images of the enemy, or by projecting an ideology of one's own nation under siege and of the home front threatened from without and within. The cinema as propaganda machine and self-advertising tool reached its climax during World War II, among all the warring nations. Its propaganda function has since become attenuated, but as a promotional tool, it has become more powerful, but also more diffuse and opaque. If for the United States, trade (still) follows the movies, for Europe it is tourism and the heritage business that follow the film....

Scripting Modern American History

In that same sequence, Sabra also remembers that the last time she had any news of her husband was when a soldier reported seeing him fighting at Chateau-Thierry, his hair dyed black to disguise his age. Has America's involvement in the First World War (1917-1918) become an extension of the frontier in the American mythic consciousness The border skirmishes, repossession of territory, bloody conflict, and racialized propaganda are a bitter genealogy for a mere escapist frontier myth. In 1926, Lewis Mumford drew a deliberate connection between the sterile myths of the West and the devastating realization of the new frontiers in France and Flanders. Because of the pervasiveness of the frontier idea, One finds that the myth of the Pioneer Conquest had taken possession of even the finer and more sensitive minds they accepted the ugliness and brutalities of pioneering, even as many of our contemporaries accepted the bestialities of war.60 Historian David Kennedy would later connect the...

Visuals and Archive Material

One dilemma is that the footage that is visually most interesting may also be historically irrelevant. Thus, while tank battles of World War I may be fascinating to watch, they may provide little insight into the deeper meaning of events. Another difficulty is the misuse and misquotation of archive film. This happens, for example, when stock footage of the 1930s is carelessly used to provide background to a film about the 1920s. Yet another problem, and possibly the most serious, is the frequent failure of filmmakers to understand the biases and implications of stock footage. One example will suffice. During World War II, the Nazis shot a great deal of footage of their captured populations. Much of this footage is now used as an objective news record, without acknowledging that the footage was shot to provide a negative and degrading picture of those slave populations.

Beyond Constructivism Commemorating a Common Past

Railway bombing on 11 March is now widely reported in Europe's media, and 10 May has been mooted as a European day for commemorating slavery. But looming large in this enterprise is the period of fascism and the Second World War, a deeply troubling legacy for Germany, but out of which, it would seem, the whole of Europe is gradually fashioning a common past, in order to project through it an identity and historical destiny-as-legacy. The moral and perhaps even emotional center of this common past as common identity program is the Holocaust. While thirty years ago, Auschwitz and the persecution of Jews was still very much a catastrophe that the Germans had to show themselves repentant and accountable for in the eyes of the world, the anniversaries of the so-called Kristallnacht, or the (belated) resistance to Hitler by some of his officers and generals, as well as the liberation of the camps or the end of the war have since become European days for joint acts of reflection and solemn...

Noir Themes in Secret Agent

Ministry of Fear and The Third Man illustrate the difficulties that confront secular heroes who try to overcome the world's moral indifference through reliance on traditional values and institutions. In both of these tales the protagonists seem to be abandoned by corrupt societies no longer capable of resolving the moral ambiguities that increasingly characterize life during and after the Second World War. In the end each is able to overcome nihilistic adversaries only by becoming complicit in that nihilism through the betrayal and destruction of those for whom they should care most. Many episodes of Secret Agent explore similar issues. In That's Two of Us Sorry, it appears that a Soviet spy who mysteriously vanished during World War II is responsible for the theft of plans from the briefcase of a scientist named Braithwaite, who works at a Scottish atomic-research lab. Falsely convinced that the villagers are shielding the Soviet spy, Drake brutally reveals all their secrets...

Film Exhibition After Television

The World War II years, with a fully employed workforce, marked a high point in the film exhibition business in the United States. Weekly attendance topped 80 million annually from 1943 to 1946. Exhibitors not only sold a record number of tickets, but reinforced their civic role through public service gestures selling government war bonds and staging drives to collect rubber, scrap metal, and other material needed for the war effort. Yet between 1946 and 1953, ticket sales in the United States dropped by almost 50 percent. By 1960, weekly attendance at the movies was only 30 million, dipping further, to 18 million, by 1970.

Indian Cinema After Independence

Amid the deprivations of World War II (including shortages of raw film stock), increased colonial censorship, a devastating famine in Bengal, and the traumatic partition of India and Pakistan upon independence in 1947, the studio system in India came to an end. But the optimism of the era embodied by the first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru (who served from 1947 to 1964), also led to a revitalized Hindi cinema under the impact of new independent production companies established by key directors like Mehboob Khan (1907-1964) and Bimal Roy (1909-1966). In addition, actor-directors like Raj Kapoor (1924-1988) and Guru Dutt (1925-1964) became brand names in the industry Kapoor created R. K. Films Sippy and Rajshree Films became the banner for several generations of the Sippy and Barjatya families, respectively and brothers B. R. (b. 1914) and

Vietnam the semiinvisible war

Only Joseph Mankiewicz's The Quiet American (1958) and George Englund's The Ugjy American (1962) hinted at the ambiguities of America's role in a politically complex region. Both sanitised best-selling books, the former by the British spy author Graham Greene, who had been banned from the United States in 1952 for Communist party connections, the latter by the American political novelists William Lederer and Eugene Burdick. Greene's novel centred on Alden Pyle, a CIA agent in Southeast Asia whose anti-communist counter-terrorism kills and maims innocent civilians. In the film, Pyle (played by Second World War hero Audie Murphy) works for a private US aid mission, and the ending reverses Greene's critique of American foreign policy into an anti-communist statement by attributing civilian deaths to the Viet Minh, the independence league led by Ho Chi Minh. This rewrite can partly be linked to pre-production contacts between director Joseph Mankiewicz and one of the CIA's legendary Cold...

Image not available

The visual style offilm noir photography, which could be termed 'urban gothic', was initiated due to budgetary constraints and economies enforced by the Second World War. In fact many of these films noirs were B-movies, with low budgets and sparse sets the dark shadowy corners swallowed the periphery of the screen, hiding the fact that often the sets had little or no furniture. These dimly lit interiors, with their layered curtains of light, graded in shades of grey, fade into black. Elsewhere, a deserted railway marshalling yard is wreathed in fog, continuing the claustrophobic environment. If, as the Doc mentions, 'Crime is only a left-handed form of human endeavour', then the crooks assembled for the Belletier's job are over-achievers. One of the most distinctive and influential aspects of Burnett's plotting was the disparate group assembled for a special crime. In later films this 'job' often became a mission (as in The Dirty Dozen - 1967). The identification between a character...

The Second Period Early s

The second period of low-end independent production during the studio era is characterised by three significant factors that contributed to the persistence of the low-budget market. These factors were (a) the continuation of the double bill scheme in the 1940s, despite the end of the Depression which had provided the rationale for its introduction in 1930 (b) the impact of the consent decree of 1940, which affected the low-end independents in a different way than their top-rank counterparts and the studios and (c) the effects of World War II, which were beneficial for the film industry as a whole. The 1940s became a 'golden era' for the established Poverty Row studios like Monogram and Republic, while new production-distribution companies like Producers Releasing Corporation (PRC 1939) and Screen Guild (1945) entered the market to exploit these conditions.

Nature As A Television Genre

Even as Walt Disney returned nature films to movie theaters, the wider film industry began facing competition from the new medium of television in the post-World War II era. In 1945, the Lincoln Park Zoo's director, Marlin Perkins (1905-1986), began taking animals to a Chicago TV station for occasional live broadcasts. By 1949, Perkins had convinced the local NBC affiliate, WNBQ, to help transform the staid show-and-tell format by shooting at the zoo itself, under the title Zoo Parade. By the time the show was cancelled in 1957, a few episodes had also been filmed in African conservation parks. Perkins and other nature filmmaking pioneers, such as Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1910-1997), who began contributing oceanographic segments to CBS's Omnibus series in 1954, and David Attenborough (b. 1926), in his first of many series for the BBC, Zoo Quest (1954-1964), moved out of the studio and zoo and into the field with film crews in tow. The technological, aesthetic, and narrative features of...

Australian Film And Australian Culture

Australia is now a multicultural country and no one film, or cycle, can fully capture the country's diversity. This was not always the case, as prior to World War II there was a degree of cultural uniformity in Australia due to its predominantly British heritage. Hence, for much of the last half of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, Australia was a culture trying to establish and articulate its distinctive characteristics. The bush and the outback provided the iconography and values for this, and the bush-city dichotomy in the pre-1941 rural comedies and rural melodramas reinforced a mythology based on the virtues of mateship, sport, physical labor, and egalitarianism. Longford's The Woman Suffers (1918) and Franklyn Barrett's The Breaking of the Drought (1920) express this mythology as clearly as Peter Weir's Gallipoli (1981). Even Australia's most celebrated silent

Missionaries martyrs and fighter pilots

Holy men (and women, occasionally) featured in a plethora of cinematic settings, affirming the church's protective role either in the Cold War specifically or in Western society more generally. Recanting American subversives would often turn to priests for help, especially if they were doubly guilty of rejecting the church in favour of the communists, like Mollie O'Flaherty (Barbra Fuller) in Republic's The Red Menace (1949).24 In Elia Kazan's On the Waterfront (1954), the moral support given by Karl Malden's quintessential liberal Catholic priest, Father Barry, to the trade-union informant Terry Malloy (Marlon Brando) had the effect, according to one historian, of converting a Judas figure into a symbol of Christ.25 The butch William Holden starred as an unlikely priest in Leo McCarey's Satan Never Sleeps (1961), a tale of missionary heroism during the Chinese Civil War. Meanwhile, Second World War adventure movies like John Huston's Heaven Knows Mr Allison Nuclear weapons...

The various narratives

Films about the events preceding the war offered the public a simplified synthesis and a romanticised understanding of the documents that were supposed to prove that Germany was not guilty of the outbreak of the First World War. The complex of factors surrounding the origins of the war was reduced to a drama of nobility, a spy story or a narrative of diplomacy. Using these perspectives, history was personified, while 'abstract' causes were literally kept off the screen. Especially in 1914. Die letzten Tage vor dem Weltbrand, the whole narrative focused on the weak personality of one man, the Russian czar. If the blame could be put on a former enemy, Germany had at the very least waged a justified war, because it had been defending itself. If there was consensus about this, and if other countries might also be persuaded to look at things from this perspective, Germany could possibly attain its goal of putting this part of the past behind it. In reality, however, there hardly was any...

FOCUS Genre the War Film Cinema Spectacular

When Apocalypse Now was shown at Cannes, the risk was taken to screen it as a near complete work-in-progress a film print with soundtrack that had not been properly married, with the danger of problems in picture sound synchronisation. The gamble worked Apocalypse Now shared the coveted Golden Palm award with The Tin Drum (Schlondorff, France Yugoslavia Polland West Germany, 1979). Hollywood was approaching the close of a period of much bigger risk-taking, where young, talented directors from the LA and New York film schools, such as Coppola, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg (the 'movie brats'), were handed great opportunity and large budgets early in their careers. Like Martin Scorsese and Brian De Palma, they arrived from nowhere and rose rapidly on the strength of real promise shown in early works, plus an exploding enthusiasm for the medium, and the legacy of their ancestors, both American and European. Stakes were raised with the promise of huge returns such as those generated...

International Film Festivals

The annual international film festival is a very European institution. It was invented in Europe just before the Second World War, but it came to cultural fruition, economic stature, and political maturity in the 1940s and 1950s. Since then, the names of Venice, Cannes, Berlin, Rotterdam, Locarno, Karlovy Vary, Oberhausen and San Sebastian have spelled the roll call of regular watering holes for the world's film lovers, critics and journalists, as well as being the marketplaces for producers, directors, distributors, television acquisition heads, and studio bosses.

Escaping History and Shame in Looking for Alibrandi Head On and Beneath Clouds

Australian film critics often claim that one new film or another marks the coming of age of the Australian film industry. In the 1980s, Gallipoli (Peter Weir, 1981) achieved this by telling the story of the Allies' World War I invasion of Turkey from an Australian perspective. In the 1990s, the term was no longer applied to nationalist narratives but to 'outward-looking' genre films, such as the thriller Lantana (Ray Lawrence, 2001) and the musical Moulin Rouge (Baz Luhrmann, 2001), as discussed in Chapter 2. In addition, each era of the Australian cinema has its share of coming-of-age narratives. In a reappraisal of the genre, Raffaele Caputo argues that the coming-of-age film serves as a 'mirror' of the nation's development.1 Stories of personal maturity are often set against the background of a major turning point in a nation's past the Vietnam War in American Graffiti (George Lucas, 1973), World War II in Summer of 42 (Robert Mulligan, 1971) and Racingthe Moon (Richard Benjamin,...

The Case of Steinbecks East of Eden

Charles has achieved material success, but in terms of personal happiness he remains unfulfilled. Adam takes his wife with him to California, but she deserts him and their twin infant sons. He raises them on a farm and becomes more interested in religious than material values. His sons, Cal and Aron, are opposites. Cal is pragmatic, and Aron, the father's favorite, is idealistic, trying to echo his father's values. Cal discovers that his mother is not dead but lives in Salinas, just over the mountain ridge. She is the leading madam in the town. In an attempt to hurt his brother, Cal introduces their mother to his saintly brother. The story ends with the disillusioned Aron being killed in Europe during World War I and Cal taking care of his father, now felled by a 77 stroke. The goal of this three-generation family narrative was to capture the post-Civil War eagerness for material recovery as well as the deep conflict between material and spiritual...

Analysis SZ and The Fifth Element

(3) The camera begins in space, complete with a shooting star (probably the alien spacecraft entering earth's atmosphere). The camera then pans rapidly down from space to earth, stopping on a very long shot of the desert with a large tomb in the background. A boy on a donkey walks into the image from screen right and moves towards the centre. Discordant strings are added over the rumbling electronic music, and tension is created through semitone notes. Ethnic Arabic reed music is also added, once the camera reaches the desert. A title is superimposed over the image 'Egypt 1914'. *ACT. 'Journey' 2 to enter earth's atmosphere. 'Trek' 1 to travel through the desert. **REF. Egypt World War 1 ('1914'). ***SEM. Menace (electronic music). Ethnicity (reed music). ****SYM. Antithesis 1 A space. B earth. This antithesis is mediated by the alien spacecraft entering earth's atmosphere. Antithesis 2 A futuristic mode of travel (spacecraft). B ancient mode of travel (donkey). Both the spacecraft...

Wartime And Postwar Cinema

Immediately after World War II ended the Great China Film Company, which had existed before the war, resumed filmmaking in both Cantonese and Mandarin. One year later, a new company, Yung Wah (Yonghua), was formed by a rich, well-educated film enthusiast, Lee Tsu Wing from Shanghai. Yung Wah made Mandarin films that were lavishly supported by money, stars, and directors from Shanghai. Among them were the excellent actresses Li Li-Wah and Lin Dai, and directors Li Han Hsiang (Li Hanxiang 1926-1996) and Chiang Nam. All of these talents stayed in Hong Kong after the collapse of the company in the early 1950s and became the core group of filmmakers for the later, dominant Shaw Brothers company. Yung Wah's first film, Guo bun (Soul of China, 1948), was a box-office success. It was directed by Shanghai's Po Man Chun, who later would become one of the most important directors in Chinese film history. In contrast, Cantonese films were made with much less money by smaller companies, and the...

Andrzej Wajda b Suwalki Poland March

Andrzej Wajda remains first among equals in a remarkable pantheon of Polish directors working since World War II, contributing more than any other director to Polish national cinema. Director of more than forty-five films and forty theater productions in Poland and worldwide, he received an Oscar for lifetime achievement in 2000, characteristically and modestly accepting it as a tribute to all of Polish cinema. Until 1989, Wajda had to negotiate the propagandistic demands of the state censorship and funding system even as his Polish audience looked to him for information about its latest imprisonment, having lost its independence for many of the previous two hundred years. He accomplished this through a stylistic hybridity that at the time was seen by some as eclectic and baroque. For instance, in the film Lotna (1959), aesthetics overshadowed the film's meaning. This honest film about the brutality of the first day of World War II in Poland turned into a stunning portrayal of Polish...

Guy Maddin b Winnipeg Manitoba Canada February

Winnipeg Guy Maddin

Aesthetically, Maddin betrays a fondness for black-and-white cinematography and a silent-film look lit from a single source. But color footage often intrudes at unlikely places, accompanied by intentionally discordant music and ambient sounds. Errors in continuity or film equipment in the shot are par for the course in Maddin movies, which have been filmed in abandoned warehouses, a grain elevator, a foundry turned garbage depot, or in his mother's beauty salon. Capturing the essence of a Maddin film is difficult. Archangel (1990), for example, takes place in the Russian city of the title during World War I and involves several cases of mistaken identity. The plot is conveyed with visual references to F. W. Murnau and Josef von Sternberg, aged film stock, crackling soundtrack, and strange breaks in the action. All suggest a film that appears to be a relic from the 1920s, but with 1990s irony. The Saddest Music in the World (2003) is a fable set in 1933 Winnipeg a brewing magnate with...

George Stevens Jr and the golden age of USIA documentary

Murrow fully appreciated film's role as America's chief image-maker, and, as a former presenter and co-producer of the television documentary series See It Now and CBS Reports, grasped the importance of non-fiction films. He believed that neither the ideologically charged USIA output of the 1950s, nor Hollywood sensationalism, served the best interests of US foreign policy overseas, and took steps to change things. 'Movies are doing a lot of harm to America', Murrow warned Hollywood's leading managers in November 1961. 'They convey the notion that America is a country of millionaires and crooks.'37 Two months later, Murrow plucked George Stevens, Jr., from Hollywood to be the MPS's new director. Stevens was young and ambitious, had worked as a television producer, and could tap into Hollywood's talent pool via his father, one of the most respected directors in the business and a veteran of Second World War military documentary units.38

B Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe Bielefeld Germany December d March

After World War I, he became an apprentice to the theater director Max Reinhardt in Berlin. He directed his first film, Der Knabe in Blau (The Boy in Blue), in 1919 and had his first success with the romantic melodrama Der Gang in die Nacht (The Dark Road) in 1921. With the screenwriter Henrik Galeen, he made one of the signal films of German expressionism, Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu the Vampire, 1922), the forerunner of the vampire genre and a cult film today. Murnau worked in a variety of styles but is best known for his expressionist films Herr Tartiiff (Tartuffe, 1926), from the seventeenth-century French comedy by Moliere, and Faust (1926), from the celebrated play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Defining Italian Neorealism

While neorealism cannot be pinned down or defined according to one style or even in terms of the themes or kinds of stories told, scholars agree on its origins and some of its basic traits.1 Neorealism emerged in Italy in the aftermath of World War II, the product of filmmakers who were trained in Mussolini's state-subsidized film school (the Centro Speri-mentale) and who learned to make films in the lavishly well-equipped studios that Mussolini fostered (in a complex called the Cinecitta), but many of whom were politically on the left and in revolt against the kind of cinema produced under Mussolini's fascist regime. So, in some respects, Although we can agree that no film movement has a pipeline to the real, neorealist films broke with the conventions and practices of Mussolini's cinema of distraction in a number of ways that made their films seem more real, especially in comparison to the films that came before them. The most obvious way neorealist films differed from their...

Literary context war literature

The wave of literature about the war is often said to have been caused by the success of Erich Maria Remarque's Im Westen nichts Neues. At the end of 1928, Remarques's book was serialised in the Vossische Zeitung. Encouraged by the many positive reactions, the author and his publisher decided to publish the work as a novel. The book was finally released on 31 January 1929.7 In the wake of Im Westen nichts Neues, the genre experienced a huge upsurge of popularity. Between 1928 and 1933, more than 200 novels appeared in Germany that dealt with the First World War.8 The first decade of the Republic saw the publication of no more than 100 books about the war, most of them memoires and diaries by senior officers. Since in later years most attention was paid to antiwar literature - with the notable exception of the work of Ernst J nger9 - the impression may have been created that in the final period of the Weimar Republic, most war novels published had an anti-war tendency. The best known...

Miklos Jancso b Vacs Hungary September

Jancso grew up in the Hungarian countryside and developed there an interest in folk art that exercised a strong influence on his films. He studied law and ethnography at the University of Kolozsvar and, after a period as a Soviet prisoner-of-war toward the end of World War II, he graduated from the Academy of Theater and Film Art in 1950. His earliest films were documentaries that conformed to the official requirements of the period, and this was also largely true of his first two features. With Szegenylegenyek (The Round-Up) in 1965, however, he abandoned almost completely the dogmas of socialist realism both in theme and style. Set in the aftermath of the Hungarian War of Independence in 1848, it adopts the Aesopian tactics favored by directors of the time of using a period setting to comment obliquely on current political and social trends. This was followed by Csillagosok, katonak (The Red and the White, 1967), set in postrevolutionary Russia in 1918, as small groups of pro- and...

The Myth of Classical Cinema

Although the films discussed here all fall within the critical boundaries of the period known to academe as classical Hollywood (roughly 1920 to 1960), the term classical Hollywood cinema and its critical heritage have seriously constricted previous historical scholarship on pre-World War II Hollywood filmmaking. The term originally signified French film critic Andr Bazin's praise for a beautifully balanced stage of American film narratives, a moment in the late 1930s when the visual structures and seamless continuity of Hollywood film production were blended with an overpowering narrative unity.28 Over the next thirty years, professional film historians and theorists recast Bazin's appreciation for prewar aesthetic balance and narrative resolution with an overdose of economic determinism. According to this view, aided by totalizing structuralist and post-structuralist discourses on film language and ahistorical psychoanalytic theories about the ideological function of the film...

Independents In The Age Of Oligopoly

An industry-wide shift to this type of filmmaking. A cluster of factors that included the growing demand for prestige-level films (especially during the World War II years), the increasing power and leverage of a relatively large number of above-the-line studio employees (actors, directors and, more rarely, writers) and the effects of changes in the taxation system for the duration of World War II encouraged a much larger number of film producers than in the previous period to go independent. Thus, by the end of World War II in 1945 there were fifty independent producers, while two years later the number had risen to ninety.23 Apart from the change in volume, what differentiates this phase of independent production from the earlier one was that the studios became active players in fostering this type of filmmaking. Starting with RKO, which had already signed Walt Disney from United Artists in 1938 and had become a major competitor for UA by 1940, all the major studios (with the...

Notes to Introduction

Combat and identity in World War I (Cambridge, etc. 1981, orig. 1979) x. 2 Please note, the object of study is films that were made after the First World War. For German films made during the First World War, see, among others Karel Dibbets & Bert Hogenkamp (ed.), Film and the First World War (Amsterdam 1995) Hans Barkhausen, Filmpropaganda f r Deutschland im Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg (Hildesheim, Z rich, New York 1982) however, this is mainly an institutional history and analysis. 7 ' behavioral expectations such as courage or manliness resulted simply in getting maimed or killed to no military effect.' Leonard V. Smith, 'Masculinity, memory, and the French First World War Novel. Henri Barbusse and Roland Dorgeles', in Franz Coetzee & Maralin Shevin-Coetzee (ed.), Authority, identity, and the social history of the Great War (Providence, Oxford 1995) 251-52. 8 Walter Flex, Der Wanderer zwischen beiden Welten. Ein Kriegserlebnis (Munich 1916). Ernst...

John Grierson And The Documentary Movement

Marketing Board was dismantled and the film unit was moved to the General Post Office. Following the outbreak of World War II, the unit was taken over by the Ministry of Information and became the Crown Film Unit. By 1940 Grierson was in Canada, where he helped found the National Film Board.

Jack Bauer Existential Hero

While the threat in the first season was limited to a presidential candidate, subsequent seasons have terrorists seizing control of hundreds of people and gaining control of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons capable of annihilating millions. Indeed, while Jack is officially charged with protecting the national interest, because of the scale of the threats he combats, he has in fact become a guardian of global security. The extreme scale of the threats shown in recent seasons allows them to function as representatives of absurdity. Because of their scope, namely the breadth and magnitude of the dangers presented, threats like the release of weapons-grade nerve gas in multiple major metropolitan areas in the United States (season 5) symbolize the absurd. Though none of the terrorist plots on 24 have ever achieved its desired end, if it did, not only would millions of lives be lost, life as we know it would be lost as well. To the extent that the success of any of these...

B William Harrison Hays Sullivan Indiana November d March

Finally, by nurturing local political alliances developed during the Coolidge administration, Hays helped prevent successful antitrust legislation from taking effect for almost twenty years after his appointment to the MPPDA. Indeed, the studios' efforts toward vertical integration were actually sanctioned under President Franklin Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and spared from the Justice Department's investigation throughout World War II. Above all, Hays aimed to ensure that the international market remained open to Hollywood product. In 1926 he successfully lobbied Congress to allow the Departments of State and Commerce to financially support Hollywood exports overseas via a Motion Pictures Division. Through such efforts, American domination of international distribution channels is maintained to this day.

Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger Michael Powell b Bekesbourne Kent England September d February Emeric Pressburger

A pair of propaganda films, 49th Parallel (1941) and One of Our Aircraft Is Missing (1942), early in World War II won them admiration. In 1943 they established their own production company called the Archers, for which they made a succession of popular and significant films. The first was another propaganda film, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943), but as it was critical of the British military leadership, it was frowned upon by the War Office as well as by Winston Churchill.

Howard Hawks b Goshen Indiana May d December

As well as racing cars and planes, the young Howard Hawks also worked vacations in the property department of Hollywood's Famous Players-Lasky studios. After serving as an army pilot in World War I and working in the aircraft industry, Hawks returned to Hollywood in the early 1920s as a cutter, assistant director, story editor, and casting director before writing screenplays and selling the story The Road to Glory (1926) to Fox on condition that he also direct. Thereafter, Hawks worked for over forty years in Hollywood as director, producer, and writer, one of the few filmmakers whose careers spanned the silent period, the heyday of the studio system, and the poststudio period, making over forty major features.

Chapter Expressionism And Realism In Film Form

Like Griffith and Eisenstein, Murnau worked in the theater before he came to the cinema. He began as an actor in Max Reinhardt's theater school, but eventually became more interested in directing. After serving as a flyer in World War I, he came to Berlin and founded a film company. For detailed background on Murnau's early life, theatrical career, and the films he made prior to The Last Laugh, see Lotte Eisner's Murnau (Berkeley University of California Press, 1973).

Remaking as industrial category

Focusing on the example of Steven Spielberg's Always (1990) - an 'acknowledged, transformed' remake of the Second World War fantasy A Guy Named Joe (Victor Fleming, 1943) - Greenberg finds in 'the intensely rivalrous spirit inhabiting Spielberg's homage an unconscious Oedipally driven competitiveness which constitutes the dark side of Spielberg's intense admiration for the original film and its director and father surrogate, Victor Fleming '.63 Greenberg's 'symptomatic reading'64 of film remaking is itself an (acknowledged) elaboration of Harold Bloom's theory of influence (and the Freudian analogies that structure it),65 and a like attempt to shift the relationship between a text (remake) and its particular precursor (original) to that between an author and his major predeces-sor(s).66 In the case of Always, Spielberg, at once worshipful and envious of his predecessor (Fleming, and also Spielberg senior, a Second World War veteran), returns to his preferred Second World War locale...

The transnationalpostcolonialglobalization theme

The other level of self-reference relates to the film's extensive deployment of the signifiers of nation national identity and international business, against the backdrop of transnational history since the Second World War. If we can assume that the plot does indeed engage with the anxieties of America's working class about the future of its jobs and, more generally, the US economy's competitive position vis- -vis Japan and Europe (in the days before the 'new economy' had taken off, which in the 1990s put America again in the lead), then the choice of nationalities and foreign nationals in the film is very knowing indeed Ebert's review, once again, mimetically tries to render the film's flavour, faithfully reproducing the national clich s in circulation, down to the 'clockwork precision' still inevitably evoking (Nazi-) Germany. Thus we could, without much difficulty, devise for the national transnational axis another semiotic square. The villains are Germans, the bosses Japanese...

Nationalization Of The Film Industry

Since the end of the war, with time they acquired the attributes of a commercial genre. They began to emulate American Westerns in their emphasis on action and clearly defined forces of good Yugoslav partisans and evil Nazi soldiers. The portrayal of major battles of Yugoslavia's World War II served as excuses for making such films, including Veljko Bulajic's (b. 1928) Kozara (1962) and Bitka na Neretvi (Battle of the River Neretva, 1969). Predictable endings and stylistic simplicity made partisan films very popular with audiences, and some of them, such as Otpisani (Written Off, Aleksandar Djordjevic, 1974), turned into television series. Tito's death in 1980 brought an end to this subgenre.

Suspense the extreme long shot

In Foreign Correspondent (1940), Johnnie Jones (Joel McCrea) has discovered that the Germans have kidnapped a European diplomat days before the beginning of World War II. The rest of the world believes that the diplomat was assassinated in Holland, but it was actually a double who was killed. Only Jones knows the truth. Back in London, he attempts to expose the story and unwittingly confides in a British politician (Herbert Marshall) who secretly works for the Nazis. Now Jones's own life is threatened. The politician assigns him a guardian, Roley, whose actual assignment is to kill him. Roley leads him to the top of a church (a favorite Hitchcock location), where he plans to push Jones to his death.

International Advances

That is not to say that foreign films had not been influential before World War II. The contributions of Eisenstein, Pudovkin, and Vertov from the Soviet Union, F. W. Murnau and Fritz Lang of Germany, and Abel Gance and Jean Renoir of France were important to the evolution of the art of film. However, the primacy of Hollywood and of the various national cinemas was such that only fresh subject matter treated in a new and interesting style would challenge the status quo. These challenges, when they came, were of such a provocative and innovative character that they have profoundly broadened the editing of films. The challenges were broadly based new ideas about what constitutes narrative continuity, new ideas about dramatic time, and a new definition of real time and its relationship to film time. All this came principally from those international advances that can be dated from 1950.

Lighting Technology And Film Style

Around 1947 a new lighting aesthetic was introduced that had arisen in response to the techniques used for shooting newsreels during World War II. Shooting combat footage did not allow filmmakers any opportunities to create complicated lighting setups instead, they had to rely on daylight, or else on a handful of powerful lights that provided a general illumination. The photo-floods first introduced in 1940 were ideal for this purpose. Some fictional films began to emulate this rough and ready aesthetic. A wave of documentary-like thrillers ensued, which eschewed such complicated schemes as the eight-point lighting system in the service of greater realism. Many of these, such as Boomerang (1947) and Call Northside 777 (1948), were based on real events and filmed on location.

Hollywood Hot Rods and Choppers

Customizing, that is altering standard motor vehicles to improve performance and looks, had begun in America in 1920. Modifications were made to the Ford Model T through the availability of custom-made body shells and performance engine parts. The customizing of standard cars escalated in the 1930s, when the hot rod style was created for racing. 'Hot' signified modification, and 'rod' was an abbreviation of 'roadster', as in the Model T roadster. The hot rods were constructed for speed and appearance, with a lowered centre of gravity produced by cutting down the roof pillars (hence the term 'chopped'), souping-up engines, and stripping off all unnecessary decoration or bolt-on parts, so that wings, bonnets and bumpers would be discarded. The impetus for the early hot rod style was street and track racing, with similar trends taking place in motorcycle customizing before the Second World War. During the post-war era in America the customized Harley-Davidson became the mount of the...

The Life of Al Capone

While Zanuck was in the process of organizing The Public Enemy, Howard Hughes was developing his own idea for a modern biopic. A multimillionaire and son of a Texas industrialist, Hughes began investing in motion pictures in the mid-1920s. In 1928 he produced his first gangster picture. The Racket began in 1927 as a Broadway hit by former Chicago crime reporter Bartlett Cormack and featured Edward G. Robinson in his only stage gangster role.62 The character of Nick Scarsi was loosely based on Al Capone, but Cormack refrained from depicting real events in Chicago history or Capone's life, marginalizing Scarsi's role in favor of an incorruptible cop, McQuigg. The film script, directed by Lewis Milestone, also avoided condemnation by focusing on the tribulations of the honest cop and killing the magnetic Scarsi in the final scenes. It was successful, but Hughes wanted to produce something more daring-something with more basis in history. In his first sound film, Hell's Angels (1930), he...

B Denis Abramovich Kaufman Bialystok Poland January d February

Entuziazm Simfoniya Donbassa 1931 Film

At the outbreak of World War I, the Kaufmans, an educated Jewish family, moved to Moscow. In 1916 Vertov enrolled in the Petrograd Psychoneurological Institute, where he studied human perception, particularly sound, editing bits of recorded sound in novel ways in his Laboratory of Hearing.'' These experiments would influence Vertov's experiments with sound film over a decade later in Entuziazm Simfoniya Donbassa (Enthusiasm The Donbass Symphony, 1931) and Tripesni o Lenine (Three Songs of Lenin, 1934). Changing his name to Dziga Vertov, which loosely translates as spinning top,'' he began editing newsreel footage after the revolution, exploring the possibilities of montage in the context of documentary film.

Brief History of European Film Festivals

In those days, the Venice festival and its awards were as much about the national prestige of the participating countries as it was about the films. As World War II edged closer, the awards began to noticeably favor the countries of the fascist alliance, particularly Germany and Italy. In 1939, France was tipped to win the festival's top prize with Jean Renoir's La Grande Illusion. However, the Golden Lion (known back then as the Coppa Mussolini) ended up being jointly awarded to a German film called Olympia (produced in association with Joseph Goebbels' Ministry of Propaganda), and Italy's Luciano Serra, Pilota, made by Mussolini's own son. The French were of course outraged and withdrew from the competition in protest. Both the British and American jury members also resigned to voice their displeasure at the destruction of artistic appreciation by the hand of politics and ideology.12

Existentialism Crisis and Revolt

Their status as novelists and playwrights as well as members of the Resistance against the German occupation of France during World War II gave Sartre and Camus undeniable cachet. Both men were concerned with questions of what to do and how to live in an absurd world. The most philosophically significant aspect of the human condition and the one to which both Sartre and Camus give pride of place is our experience of freedom. Accordingly, they place great emphasis on spontaneity, chance, and contingency, as well as the more somber experiences of absurdity and revolt. For both thinkers, the existential recognition of the contingency and absurdity of life by no means involves a passive acceptance of its limits, accompanied by disillusion and defeat. On the contrary, it calls for engagement (Sartre) and defiance (Camus), thereby illustrating how various styles of existentialism contrast with the typical passivity of the classic noir protagonist. Camus, however, emphasizes the centrality...

Research into war films film historians

The place of the war in literature, painting, monumental architecture, photography and postcard pictures has often been the subject of research.21 It is therefore all the more remarkable that the German war films from the Weimar period have largely been ignored. The period itself has been studied more often than nearly any other period in German history before the Second World War.22 More than thirty war films were made between 1925 and 1933. While this fact has been observed, it has never been the subject of serious study.23 If war films were studied, the impression was given that only one film represented the German war experience, All quiet on the Western Front (Lewis Milestone, 1930). The German-dubbed version of this American film created such an uproar that interest in other (German) war films was shifted to the background. The film was based on Eric Maria Remarque's bestselling novel Im Westen nichts Neues (1929). A survey of the reactions that All quiet on the Western Front...

The Influence of Graham Greene

Throughout the work, Greene contrasts Neale's current situation with that of the serene and beautiful past of his childhood memories. To Neale, that golden time (England before the onslaught of World War I), represents a period in which life had both order and meaning. Right and wrong were clearly differentiated, and happiness and love were still possible. In the new world, life has lost all meaning and the strongest emotion available is pity, an emotion described in Greene's initial title for the novel as The Worst Passion of All. 6 Remembering his trial for the euthanasia of his terminally ill wife, Neale saw reflected in the crowded court the awful expression of pity. . . . He wanted to warn them don't pity me. Pity is cruel. Pity destroys. Love isn't safe when pity's prowling around. 7 Based on an original screenplay written by Greene and directed by Carol Reed, The Third Man begins with a voice-over narration describing life in Vienna during the four-power occupation following...

Louis de Rochement and the art of docudrama

Beginning his film career in newsreels in the 1920s, de Rochement had an ambition to develop a comprehensive style of recounting 'real-life' events on screen that led him to launch The March of Time in 1935. In this monthly magazine, sponsored by the Time-Life Company, de Rochement combined authentic footage with dramatisations to produce an innovative and 'in-depth' style of screen journalism. The March of Time quickly achieved international fame, prompting de Rochement to experiment with feature-length versions of this format during the Second World War, including his Oscar-winning The Fighting Lady, made in association with the navy in 1944. De Rochement then took his fusion of fact and fiction one step further, into the domain of the Hollywood entertainment film. A series of fictionalised true-life dramas shot on location followed, starting in 1945 with The House on 92nd Street, a re-enactment of the FBI's capture of Nazi nuclear spies during the...

Cultural historians Eksteins Winter and Mosse

Now that we have looked at the attention film historians have given to the First World War films, the question arises whether cultural historians have actually offered a valid contribution, especially since they are slowly losing their diffidence with respect to (audio-)visual sources and have begun to engage in the study of historical representations. Three major cultural historians who have studied the war experience and the process of coming to terms with the First World War, and who have in addition given relatively much attention to post-war Germany, are Modris Eksteins (1989), George Mosse (1990) and Jay Winter (1995).51 The works of these authors have been a major inspiration for the present study, especially because of their use of non-traditional sources. Even though these authors approach their subjects from different angles, they share an interest in phenomena connected to mass culture, representations that were aimed at mass audiences, the people who had no access to the...

At Home with Modernity

There is a considerable blurring of distinction between the modern and the moderne when it comes to house design. Whereas in Britain the strictures of the pure International Style found little popularity for public buildings or hotels, for private dwellings, particularly weekend retreats, it did have some resonance among the liberal middle classes. For the purposes of this account, moderne houses are defined as those featuring curved corner windows, flat roofs and decorative elements on the exterior, particularly the use of bright colours. Such windows were so ubiquitous because of their availability by means of mass fabrication and supply by distributors such as the Crittall Metal Window Company or Williams and Williams. Jeremy Gould has produced an invaluable Gazetteer of Modern Houses in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland (1996) that includes all private houses built in Britain between the wars with flat roofs hence his survey includes modern and moderne. Gould's main...

Conclusion Historicizing Moreau And Deneuve

Thus far, we have interpreted Moreau and Deneuve in terms of well-established western archetypes of women, but can we historicize their star images more precisely In other words, was there anything specific about the period in which they became stars that facilitated imagery of the Red and the white, the dirty and the clean, in female stars The answer lies in Fast Cars, Clean Bodies, Kristin Ross's excellent analysis of French culture in the fifties and sixties. Ross reveals in great detail the extent to which post-war France was obsessed with the discourse of cleanliness. The origins of this 'deep psychological need to be clean'54 can be located in a resolve to purify and modernise France after the trauma of the Second World War (the German Occupation, collaboration by the Vichy state, civil war of a kind). In the months and years following the Liberation, efforts were made to cleanse France of various 'stains', including purges of collaborators (l' puration), and a campaign for...

B Li Xiaolong San Francisco California November d July

Lee's family moved to Hong Kong from San Francisco after World War II, and Bruce became a child star in the low-budget Cantonese cinema. Legend has it that he lost street brawls constantly, which inspired him to study Wing Chun kung fu from one of the local masters. Philosophy studies at the University of Washington helped Lee refine the connections between his martial arts and his way of life. His US show-business break came with the role of Kato in the 1966 television series The Green Hornet. Legend also has it that Lee's martial arts moves were too fast both for his co-stars to react to and for the broadcast image to reproduce. Lee also began to teach celebrity clients his evolving martial arts style. Hollywood, however, was not yet ready for him.

Film Industries And Cultures Of The Allies Great Britain France And The Ussr

Although the initial response to the outbreak of war in Britain in 1939 was to close all cinemas, they soon reopened and film attendance grew steadily throughout the war years. In spite of shortages, the reduction of studio space available for feature film production, and increased taxation and the consequent increases in ticket prices, World War II was a prosperous time for British cinema.

Propaganda by numbers

Batjac's The Green Berets is unashamedly old-fashioned, blood-and-guts patriotic propaganda. A Second World War film in tone and structure, it focuses on the brave endeavours of a small group of elite soldiers, thus playing down the highly bureaucratic nature of America's war in Vietnam. Characters often deliver long speeches, thinly disguised as dialogue. The enemy are presented as racially barbaric terrorists driven by the monolithic communist desire for expansion. The clients, the South Vietnamese, are portrayed as a childlike people who need American guidance. The Americans share democratic and civilised principles, are the underdogs, and fight only to defend. Politics is reduced to personal soul-searching or tragedy. The movie is filled with

The British Studio System

The dominance of American cinema in Britain has steadily grown since the First World War, despite intermittent attempts to hold back the power of American production, distribution and exhibition. The British government passed the Quota Act in 1927, decreeing that exhibitors had to ensure that at least 5 per cent of films screened were British and that this figure should rise to 20 per cent by 1936 (Murphy, in Barr, 1986, p. 52). In fact, the quota percentages were often exceeded, but many of the British films shown were of poor quality and were cheap, rushed productions (known as 'quota quickies') whose sole purpose was to meet the quota target. These films were often made by British companies financed by Hollywood studios. However, many of the new companies that emerged as a result of the quota legislation went bankrupt with the ending of the silent era as they could not afford the sound technology required to keep pace with larger production companies.

Neid Leid Trnen das ist der Krieg

Only two out of the more than thirty First World War films have a title that explicitly refers to roles played by women in the war Das Deutsche Mutterherz and Deutsche Frauen - Deutsche Treue (hereafter referred to as DFDT). An advertisement introducing Das Deutsche Mutterherz as a 'typischer Frauenfilm' already indicated the audience targeted by the film.6 In the case of DFDT, this was mainly pointed out in the reviews. Besides the mother role, these films had several other elements in common, such as widowhood and the national connotations in the titles of the films. deutsche Mutterherz, which marked a new departure for the director, he used his experience as an officer in the First World War.8 Incidentally, the film also marked the debut of Heinz R hmann, who was later to become one of Germany's most successful actors. In this film, he played the role of Oskar, a criminal.9 The role of the mother was played by Margarethe Kupfer, who had, until then, only been known for her roles in...

Good Morning Babylon Said Mr Chaplin

Chapter 8 Production and Crew 147 Californian-Tuscan sun. Babies are born, and World War I was underway. Vincent Spano and Joaquim de Almeida are the lead characters, and Greta Scacchi and D sir e Nosbusch play their mates. Charles Dance portrays Griffith with magnificent grace.

Racist and immoral and a box office hit

Reaction to The Green Berets reflected this highly charged political atmosphere. As might be expected, opponents and supporters of US policy in Vietnam latched on to the movie for their own propaganda purposes. The film's premiere in New York City, for instance, was picketed by protestors sponsored by the Veterans and Reservists to End the War in Vietnam.86 Wayne had got used to the drubbing his films received from critics over the years, but in this instance many were so vitriolic as to be foaming at the mouth. Renata Adler, chief film critic at the New York Times, led the case for the prosecution, calling The Green Berets 'vile, insane' and 'dull'. In Glamour magazine, Michael Korda, influential publisher and son of the famous British film production designer, Vincent Korda, condemned the movie as a 'simple-minded tract in praise of killing, brutality and American superiority over Asians'. 'I do not know how it would be possible to produce a more revolting picture', he continued,...

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